The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2012 | July-August | Volume 13 | Issue 4

EDITORIAL

Frances M Andreasen

Hands off and save Teeth!

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-13-4-i  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Shiny Benjamin, Roshni , Sabeena Susan Thomas, Mohan Thomas Nainan

Grape Seed Extract as a Potential Remineralizing Agent: A Comparative in vitro Study

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:425 - 430]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1162  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

Remineralization is an effective treatment that may stop or reverse early tooth decay. Grape seed extract (GSE) is the potential remineralizing agent under investigation.

Materials and methods

Sound human tooth sections were obtained from the cervical portion of the root and stored in demineralizing solution at 37°C for 96 hours to induce artificial root caries lesions. The sections were divided into four treatment groups including 6.5% grape seed extract, sodium monofluorophosphate (220 ppm) with 0.05% calcium glycerophosphate, 0.5% calcium glycerophosphate and control (no treatment). An in vitro pH cycling model was used to cycle the demineralized specimens through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. Subsequently, they were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscope. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (p < 0.05).

Results

GSE revealed less demineralization and more remineralization compared with other groups.

Conclusion

GSE promotes remineralization of artificial root caries lesions.

Clinical significance

The search for the perfect remineralizing agent continues to this day. GSE could be a welcome addition to the remineralization armamentarium.

Abbreviations and acronyms

GSE: Grape seed extract; ppm: Parts per million; CaGP: Calcium glycerophosphate; CLSM: Confocal laser scanning microscope; ANOVA: Analysis of variance; PA: Proanthocyanidin; CEJ: Cementoenamel junction; mM: Millimole; CaCl2.2H2O: Calcium chloride dihydrate; KH2PO4: Potassium dehydrate phosphate; K2HPO4: Dipotassium phosphate; dH2O: Deionized water; w/v: Weight by volume; ROD: Relative optical density; nm: Nanometer; SD: Standard deviation.

How to cite this article

Benjamin S, Roshni, Thomas SS, Nainan MT. Grape Seed Extract as a Potential Remineralizing Agent: A Comparative in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):425-430.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Zahraa Alwahab

Comparison of Antimicrobial Activities and Compressive Strength of Alginate Impression Materials following Disinfection Procedure

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:431 - 435]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1163  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study investigated the effectiveness of disinfecting solution when incorporated into alginate powder instead of water against some microorganisms and on compressive strength of alginate.

Materials and methods

For measuring antimicrobial activity of alginate, 60 alginate specimens were prepared and divided into two groups: One with water incorporated in the mix (control) and the other with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate incorporated in the mix instead of water. The tested microorganisms were: Gram +ve cocci, Gram –ve bacilli and yeast (each group 10 samples). For measuring compressive strength, 20 specimens of alginate were divided into two groups: One with water incorporated in the mix (control) and the other with chlorhexidine incorporated in the mix.

Results

The statistical analysis of antimicrobial efficacy of alginate was performed with Mann-Whitney U-test, which revealed very high significant difference when comparing among groups (p < 0.000). Student t-test analyzed the compressive strength data which revealed nonsignificant difference between groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusion

The incorporation of disinfecting agents into impression materials could serve an important role in dental laboratory infection control and it had no adverse effect on compressive strength of the hydrocolloid alginate.

Clinical significance

The risk of transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to dental laboratories via impression has been considered a topic of importance for a number of years.

How to cite this article

Alwahab Z. Comparison of Antimicrobial Activities and Compressive Strength of Alginate Impression Materials following Disinfection Procedure. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):431-435.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Hamid Jafarzadeh, Maryam Bidar, Sepideh Hooshiar, Mahboubeh Naderinasab, Mostafa Moazzami, Hossein Orafaee, Neda Naghavi

Comparative Study of the Antimicrobial Effect of Three Irrigant Solutions (Chlorhexidine, Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidinated MUMS)

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:436 - 439]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1164  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To compare the antimicrobial effect of 2% chlorhexidine, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and MUMS containing 2% chlorhexidine.

Materials and methods

All of the above irrigants were examined on Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus casei and E.coli. A total of 0.5 CC of each solution and 0.5 CC of McFarland solution bacterium were added to each examination tube. After 15, 30 and 45 minutes, colony count was performed for each tube. The difference in the number of bacteria indicated the effect taken by disinfectant material.

Results

MUMS containing chlorhexidine showed the antimicrobial properties just like chlorhexidine's effect against E.coli, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Lactobacillus casei in preventing these entire microorganisms to incubate. Sodium hypochlorite was not effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans incubated in 15, 30 and 45 minutes and Enterococcus faecalis in 15 minutes.

Conclusion

MUMS has antimicrobial properties similar to chlorhexidine.

Clinical significance

As MUMS containing chlorhexidine can transfer chlorhexidine through its own surfactant around apical area and it can open the dentinal tubules by its own chelator for more penetration of chlorhexidine, it may be a choice for canal irrigation.

How to cite this article

Bidar M, Hooshiar S, Naderinasab M, Moazzami M, Orafaee H, Naghavi N, Jafarzadeh H. Comparative Study of the Antimicrobial Effect of Three Irrigant Solutions (Chlorhexidine, Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidinated MUMS). J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4): 436-439.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

So Ran Kwon, Li Yiming, Udochukwu Oyoyo, Raydolfo M Aprecio

Dynamic Model of Hydrogen Peroxide Diffusion Kinetics into the Pulp Cavity

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:440 - 445]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1165  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To measure the time course hydrogen peroxide penetration into the pulp cavity and evaluate short-term tooth color changes after bleaching.

Materials and methods

Twenty extracted human canines were sectioned, pulp tissue removed and the cavity enlarged. Teeth were painted with nail varnish to leave a 6-mm diameter circle on the buccal surface. Baseline color was measured spectrophotometrically.

Teeth were randomized into a control group (n = 10) treated with 30 μl of glycerin base and a bleaching group (n = 10) exposed to 30 μl of 40% hydrogen peroxide for 1 hour. A linear low density polyethylene wrap was placed to prevent evaporation of the material. Acetate buffer was placed into the cavity and replenished every 10 minutes and placed into plastic tubes. Hydrogen peroxide amount was estimated spectrophotometrically using leukocrystal violet and horseradish peroxidase. Specimen color was remeasured immediately after bleaching, 1 hour, 1 day 1, 2 and 6 weeks postbleaching. Color change was measured per Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage methodology.

Mann-Whitney procedure was used to assess baseline color measurements and total hydrogen peroxide penetration amount. Friedman's test was used to assess within group differences for color change and hydrogen peroxide penetration.

Results

There was significantly greater hydrogen peroxide penetration in the bleaching group (p < 0.05). Hydrogen peroxide penetration levels were constant throughout the 1-hour evaluation period in the bleaching group. The groups showed no difference at baseline with respect to any of L*a*b color measurements (p > 0.05). The postbleaching color measurement showed an increase of change in overall color (ΔE) and lightness (ΔL) up to 1 week followed by a gradual stabilization up to 6 weeks.

Conclusion

This dynamic model provided information about the time course diffusion kinetics into the pulp cavity, demonstrating constant penetration of hydrogen peroxide into the pulp cavity during a 1-hour bleaching session.

Clinical significance

A prolonged application of 40% hydrogen peroxide bleaching material for 1 hour produces constant penetration of hydrogen peroxide into the pulp cavity in vitro.

How to cite this article

Kwon SR, Li Y, Oyoyo U, Aprecio RM. Dynamic Model of Hydrogen Peroxide Diffusion Kinetics into the Pulp Cavity. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):440-445.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sunkara Shree Ramalinga Prasad, Chitturi Radharani, Siddhartha Varma, SV Kiran Kumar, Soumya Sinha, Bijle Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed

Effects of Citric Acid and EDTA on Periodontally Involved Root Surfaces: A SEM Study

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:446 - 451]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1166  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Root debridement by scaling and root planing may not completely remove contaminated cementum particularly in more apical areas. The smear layer formed during root planing inhibits cell migration and attachment leading to impaired marginal periodontal healing. The present study was done to compare the morphological effects of root surface demineralization using citric acid and EDTA as root-conditioning agents.

Materials and methods

Thirty fragments of human dental roots previously exposed to periodontal disease were scaled and randomly divided into the following groups of treatment: Group I: Hand instrumentation and conditioning with normal saline for 5 minutes as control; group II: Hand instrumentation and conditioning with citric acid (pH 1) for 5 minutes and group III: Hand instrumentation and conditioning with EDTA (pH-7.4) for 5 minutes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to check for the presence of residual smear layer and for measuring the number and area of exposed dentin tubules.

Results

The mean efficacy of smear layer removal was compared between groups I and II, groups I and III and groups II and III, it was found to be statistically significant at 5%. When the mean diameter of the dentinal tubules and mean total surface area occupied by the dentinal tubule orifices was compared between groups II and III it was found to be statistically significant at 1% level of significance.

Conclusion

Citric acid causes greater degree of morphological alterations than EDTA and is considered to be a better rootconditioning agent. However, the use of EDTA cannot be ruled out.

Clinical significance

This study supports the hypothesis that demineralizing agents can be used as an adjunct to the periodontal treatment aiming at restoring the biocompatibility of roots and helps in choosing an appropriate agent for root conditioning.

How to cite this article

Prasad SSR, Radharani C, Varma S, Kumar SVK, Sinha S, Bijle MNA. Effects of Citric Acid and EDTA on Periodontally Involved Root Surfaces: A SEM study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):446-451.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Bhushan Arun Jawale, Neeraj Patil, Rahul Redasani, Lalit Chaudhari, JB Garde, Vivek Singh Chauhan

In vitro Caries-Preventive Effect of Fluoridated Orthodontic Resins against Cariogenic Challenge Stimulation

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:452 - 455]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1167  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro caries preventive effect of fluoridated orthodontic resins under pH cycling with two types of acid demineralizing saliva.

Materials and methods

Brackets were bonded to 120 extracted human premolars, using Rely-a-bond (n = 40), Tru- Bond (n = 40) and Ortho-one (n = 40) orthodontic bonding agents. Each group of resin was divided into 2 subgroups (n = 20): immersion in remineralizing artificial saliva for 14 days and acid saliva with pH 4.3. After 14 days of pH cycling the caries preventive effect on the development of white spot lesion was evaluated considering the presence of inhibition zones to white spot lesions using two scores: 0 = absence and 1 = presence. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests were used.

Results

Formation of white spot lesions was observed only under pH cycling using acid saliva with pH 4.3; with Rely-a-bond and Tru-Bond being significantly more effective in preventing the appearance of white spot lesions effect than Ortho-one.

Conclusion

The acidity of the demineralizing solution influenced the formation of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets under highly cariogenic conditions. Rely-a-bond and Tru-bond presented higher caries-preventive effect than Orthoone.

Clinical significance

The development of fluoride-containing materials cannot be regarded as a permanent means to control dental caries lesions, but a complement along with other preventive methods.

How to cite this article

Patil N, Jawale B, Redasani R, Chaudhari L, Garde JB, Chauhan VS. In vitro Caries-Preventive Effect of Fluoridated Orthodontic Resins against Cariogenic Challenge Stimulation. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):452-455.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Bhushan Arun Jawale, Rahul Redasani, Lalit Chaudhari, Narendra Chopde, Amol Pharande, Vardha Hiremath

Microbial Colonization and their Relation with Potential Cofactors in Patients with Denture Stomatitis

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:456 - 459]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1168  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To determine microbial prevalence in the mucous membrane and prosthesis of denture wearers with and without denture stomatitis and to study its relationship with potential clinical cofactors.

Materials and methods

Saliva was collected from 200 patients (100 female and 100 male) wearing dental prosthesis for measurement of pH. Oral samples of the mucous membrane and of dentures were taken with sterile swab for microbiological analysis. Medical and dietary history of the subjects was recorded. Chi-square test and analysis of varience were used for statistical analysis.

Results

Diabetes, hypertension and high carbohydrate ingestion was observed in majority of patients. The pH average in saliva was of 5.1. The presence of C. albicans, S. aureus and S. mutans in the mucous membrane was of 55.4, 56.4 and 63.6% respectively. C. albicans was isolated in 69.7% from the prosthesis, whereas S. aureus and S. mutans were isolated in 45.3%. The isolation of C.albicans was more frequent in patients with deture stomatitis.

Conclusion

C. albicans, S. aureus and S. mutans frequently colonize the oral mucous of denture wearers. This is more frequently observed in patients with denture stomatitis.

Clinical significance

Denture stomatitis is associated to Candida albicans, different bacteria and other cofactors, such as salivary pH, carbohydrate ingestion, systemic illnesses and medication.

How to cite this article

Chopde N, Jawale B, Pharande A, Chaudhari L, Hiremath V, Redasani R. Microbial Colonization and their Relation with Potential Cofactors in Patients with Denture Stomatitis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):456-459.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Arun Narayanan, Chaya Mendon

Comparing the Effect of Different Mouthrinses on de novo Plaque Formation

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:460 - 463]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1169  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Purpose

Several antiplaque agents are being available in the market in spite of vast development of modern medical science, satisfactory treatment of ‘oral diseases’ by newer drugs is not fully achieved, rather the chemical compounds has exposed the patients to it is different ill effects, therefore, there is interest to find out effective remedy of any disease by harmless herbal drugs thus the aim of this study was to compare plaque formation at 24 hours after the use of Triphala, Hi ora, Chlorhexidine and colgate plax mouth washes.

Methods

A controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial was designed. Thirty subjects underwent four consecutive experimental phases with four treatments: Triphala, Hi Ora, Chlorhexidine and colgate plax. On the day of study, the subjects discontinued all other oral hygiene habits and were randomly assigned for treatment with the experimental mouthwash. Each experimental phase was preceded by a 28- day washout period. Plaque formation was recorded after one undisturbed day.

Results

Triphala, Hi Ora and Chlorhexidine reduced de novo plaque formation to a greater extent than the colgate plax mouthwash (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Triphala and Hi Ora presents an anti-plaque efficacy similar to that of chlorhexdine, and was more effective at inhibiting plaque formation than the colgate plax mouth wash.

How to cite this article

Narayan A, Mendon C. Comparing the Effect of Different Mouthrinses on de novo Plaque Formation. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):460-463.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sergio Brossi Botta, Adriana Bona Matos, Bruna Uglik Garbui, Andre Figueiredo Reis

Comparison of Chemical Aging and Water Immersion Time on Durability of Resin-Dentin Interface produced by an Etch-and-Rinse Adhesive

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:464 - 471]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1170  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the influence of short-term NaOCl-storage and long-term water storage on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of etch-andrinse adhesive system to human dentin.

Materials and methods

Thirty-six third human molars were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 6) according to the aging protocol: G1 (water, 24 hours); G2 (water, 6 months); G3 (water, 12 months); G4 (10% sodium hypochlorite – NaOCl, 1 hour); G5 (10% NaOCl, 3 hours) and G6 (10% NaOCl, 5 hours). A two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2) was applied according to the manufacturers¡¦ instructions. A composite (Filtek Z250) was applied in four horizontal increments and was individually cured. Specimens were cut following the microtensile test technique, submitted to the different aging protocols, and tested in tension. The fracture pattern was observed in a stereomicroscope (40× magnification) and in a scanning electron microscope. The μTBS data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05).

Results

The effect of storage in 10% NaOCl for 1 or 3 hours was not significantly different from that of aging in distilled water (DW) for 6 or 12 months (p > 0.05). Beams immersed in DW for 24 hours and in 10% NaOCl for 5 hours showed the highest and lowest ìTBS values respectively.

Conclusion

The aging protocols negatively influenced dentin bond strength. Aging specimens in 10% NaOCl for 1 or 3 hours can be an alternative method for long-term water storage (6 or 12 months) bond strength studies.

Clinical significance

This aging protocol allows a quick achievement of longitudinal bond strength data, so that results are available to the professionals in this area while the materials are yet present at the dental market.

How to cite this article

Garbui BU, Botta SB, Reis AF, Matos AB. Comparison of Chemical Aging and Water Immersion Time on Durability of Resin-Dentin Interface produced by an Etchand- Rinse Adhesive. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):464-471.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Arash Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Morvarid Poorsattar Bejeh Mir

The Effect of Different Curing Time Regimens on Immediate Postpolymerization Color Changes of Resin Composites

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:472 - 475]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1171  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Light curing of resin composites may considerably change the color of resin composites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changing pattern of resin composite's color by different curing times.

Materials and methods

Fifteen, 1 mm-thick, samples of each A2 shade Clearfill and Filtek P60 composites were prepared. First five samples were cured for 10s (400 mW/cm2) in each pole of the rectangular samples (right upper, right lower, left lower, left upper plus central zone). Consecutive sets of samples, each consists of five, were irradiated by doubling and tripling the curing time to 20 and 30s. Color change were measured by means of CIE 1976 L*a*b system equation (ΔE) for each digitalized picture of the corresponding sample.

Results

Color of samples was clinically significant changed by increasing the curing time from 10 to 20s and from 20 to 30s for Clearfil (ΔE = 13.86 and 14.11 respectively,) and Filtek P60 (ΔE = 7.68 and 11.66 respectively). The ‘b’ component change was responsible for the most color alteration confirmed by the linear regression model (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

This study revealed the contrasting pattern of resin composite's color change with the different curing times. Our findings support that light curing is accompanied by a higher attained blue chroma and diminished yellowness of resin composites.

Clinical significance

A complete and proper curing of sample resin composites on buccal surface of particular tooth, as a common practice to ensure the maximize concordance composite and tooth color, is reassured according to the considerable differences of undercured and overcured in comparison to normocured composite.

How to cite this article

Poorsattar Bejeh Mir A, Poorsattar Bejeh Mir M. The Effect of Different Curing Time Regimens on Immediate Postpolymerization Color Changes of Resin Composites. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):472-475.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Johnson Campideli Fonseca, Aloísio Oro Spazzin, Lucas Zago Naves, Ana Rosa Costa, Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho, Guilhereme Elias Pessanha Henriques

Mechanical Properties of Cast Commercially Pure Titanium Simulating Ceramic Firing Cycles

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:476 - 480]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1172  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength, elongation and hardness) of the commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) as casting and after ceramic firing cycles.

Materials and methods

Dumbbell-shaped specimens were prepared for the tensile strength testing. Disk-shaped cast specimens were used for microhardness testing. The ceramic firing cycles were made simulating a low fusion ceramic application. Tensile testing was conducted in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. Ultimate tensile strength and elongation were recorded. The fracture mode was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Vickers hardness was measured in a hardness tester. The data from the tensile and hardness tests were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05).

Results

The mean values of tensile strength were not changed by the ceramic firing cycles. Lower hardness was observed for cp Ti as casting compared with Ti cast after the firing cycles.

Clinical significance

The ceramic firing cycles did not show any considerable prejudicial effects on the mechanical properties of the cp Ti.

How to cite this article

Fonseca JC, Spazzin AO, Naves LZ, Costa AR, Correr-Sobrinho L, Henriques GEP. Mechanical Properties of Cast Commercially Pure Titanium Simulating Ceramic Firing Cycles. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4): 476-480.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mandava Ramesh Babu, Vajapeyayajula RaviKiran, V Vinod, Devabhaktuni Saraswathi, Venugopal N Rao

Comparative Analysis for Selection of Resin Luting Cements Based on Filler Content: An in vitro Study

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:481 - 486]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1173  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Context

Resin luting of all-ceramic restorations results in increased performance; however, the strengthening mechanism and the role of the mechanical properties of the resin are not fully understood.

Objective

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of filler content on the flexural properties of resin luting agents and thereby selecting an appropriate resin luting cement.

Materials and methods

Three esthetic resin luting agents studied were Calibra (Dentsply); RelyX ARC and Panavia F. Ten beam-shaped specimen (L × W × H: 30 × 8 × 2 mm) were made for each of the material tests carried out. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C. The specimens were then tested for flexural strength (MPa) and flexural modulus (GPa) using the three-point bending method on a universal material testing machine at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA followed by post-hoc - Tukey's test with p < 0.05 for statistical significance.

Results

Increase in mean strength related to an associated increase in the elastic modulus which in turn was related to the filler loading of the resin luting cements.

Conclusion

Strength and performance of resin-cemented allceramic restoration can be enhanced by the use of a resin luting cement having increased filler content.

Clinical implications

Resin-composite cements may be most suitable for adhesively bonded restorations, where margins are placed on supragingival enamel, and where ultimate strength and energy absorption are paramount. The selection criteria for a resin cement depends on its flexural strength. To a great extent, the flexural strength is dependent on the filler loading of the resin luting cement.

Key message

Fracture of brittle all-ceramic restoration can be prevented by using resin luting cement with higher filler loading. In other words, any resin luting cement with higher filler content has an improved performance in terms of clinical function and durability.

How to cite this article

Babu MR, RaviKiran V, Vinod V, Saraswathi D, Rao VN. Comparative Analysis for Selection of Resin Luting Cements Based on Filler Content: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):481-486.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

PV Girish, Uma Dinesh, CS Ramachandra Bhat, Pradeep Chandra Shetty

Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Metal Brackets Bonded to Porcelain Surface using Different Surface Conditioning Methods: An in vitro Study

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:487 - 493]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1174  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of metal brackets bonded to ceramic surfaces using different conditioning methods and to assess the site of bond failure after debonding.

Materials and methods

A total of 70 ceramic surfaces were produced with uniform shape, size and composition. The samples were divided into 7 groups (each of 10 samples).

Group 1 was the control group (untreated surface); in group 2 the surface were roughened with a diamond bur; in group 3 the surface were etched with hydrofluoric acid; in group 4 the surfaces were sandblasted; in group 5 the surfaces roughened with bur and silane applied; in group 6 the surfaces were etched with hydrofluoric acid and silane applied and in group 7 the surfaces were sandblasted and silane applied.

To all the above groups, metal orthodontic brackets were bonded with light cure adhesive. The brackets were later stored in artificial saliva and incubated at 37°C (24 hours). The samples were then subjected to shear bond strength test using an Instron universal testing machine. The debonded porcelain surfaces were then studied under stereomicroscope to assess site of bond failure.

Results

Sandblasting the ceramic surface and silane application showed the highest bond strength. Stereomicroscope examination after debonding showed that the bond failure is at bracket-adhesive interface in four groups namely hydrofluoric acid, sandblasting, hydrofluoric acid with silane and sandblasting with silane.

Conclusion

Sandblasting with silane combination produced the highest shear bond strength, so it is a clinically suitable method for bonding orthodontic metal brackets onto ceramic surface.

Clinical relevance

Bonding orthodontic brackets to ceramic crowns of patients has been a tough task. In this study, different conditioning methods were used to treat the ceramic surfaces before bonding. The results showed that sandblasting the ceramic surface prior to application of silane produced the highest shear bond strength which is clinically suitable to reduce bond failures.

How to cite this article

Girish PV, Dinesh U, Bhat CSR, Shetty PC. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Metal Brackets Bonded to Porcelain Surface using Different Surface Conditioning Methods: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):487-493.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ashwin Deshpande, N Srinivas, K Kiran Kumar, Sagar Mapare

Comparison of Opal Self-Ligating Brackets with Manually Ligating Brackets

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:10] [Pages No:494 - 503]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1175  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Deshpande A, Srinivas N, Kumar KK, Mapare S. Comparison of Opal Self-Ligating Brackets with Manually Ligating Brackets. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012; 13(4):494-503.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ahmad Hasan Ahangari, Kianoosh Torabi, Sasan Rasaei Pour, Safoura Ghodsi

Evaluation of the Cadiax Compact® II Accuracy in Recording Preadjusted Condylar Inclinations on Fully Adjustable Articulator

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:504 - 508]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1176  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Mandibular movement analysis is a critical step in making the functional occlusal morphology and improving the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). Cadiax Compact® is an electronic condylograph that claims to record the horizontal condylar inclination (HCI), Bennett angle (BA) and relative shape of the articular eminence. This study aims at assessing the accuracy of Cadiax Compact® II in its claimed abilities.

Materials and methods

The electronic condylograph (Cadiax Compact®II) was fitted on the fully adjustable articulator (gamma dental reference- SL). After setting of HCI and BA on the arbitrary degrees, eccentric movements were produced manually on the articulator. The Cadiax recorded these preadjusted angles and the accuracy of its recordings was assessed by comparison of the results with the preadjusted HCI, BA and color inserts as references.

Results

The majority of the comparisons showed statistically significant differences between articulator settings and Cadiax recordings. However, the maximum difference was about 2.5° which seems acceptable for clinical practice.

Conclusion

The obtained results showed that Cadiax Compact is an accurate and reliable instrument for diagnostic purposes, yielding reproducible measurements. Despite this, Cadiax is a technically sensitive device that can preclude its routine usage.

How to cite this article

Ahangari AH, Torabi K, Pour SR, Ghodsi S. Evaluation of the Cadiax Compact® II Accuracy in Recording Preadjusted Condylar Inclinations on Fully Adjustable Articulator. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):504-508.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Santosh Hunasgi, Vandana Raghunath

A Clinicopathological Study of Ossifying Fibromas and Comparison between Central and Peripheral Ossifying Fibromas

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:509 - 514]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1177  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims and objectives

To study the clinical, histological features of peripheral and central ossifying fibromas and also to compare between them.

Materials and methods

The sample comprised a total 50 cases of ossifying fibromas [25 central ossifying fibromas (COF) and 25 peripheral ossifying fibromas (POF)] inclusive of cemento-ossifying fibromas.

Results

The mean age is 28.2 years in POF and 24.7 years in COF. The male: female ratio was 1:1.5 in POF and 1:1.8 in COF. The size of the lesions varied from 0.45 to 2.75 cm in cases of POF and in COF, it ranged from 1.25 to 13.5 cm. COF showed more duration (1-8 years) when compared with POF (1-3). Majority of cases of COF showed radiolucent, mixed radiolucent and radiopaque unilocular lesions. The predominant cell type in both POF and COF was a combination of both ovoid and spindle cells. Regarding vascularity it showed mild, moderate and intense vascularity. On comparison of all stromal changes between POF and COF showed no statistically significant difference.

Conclusion

The clinical parameters and radiographic changes of POF and COF in our study were similar to the previous studies. Histopathological features like type of cells, cellularity and vascularity in POF and COF were similar to previous studies. However, when clinical and histopathological features were compared between POF and COF showed no statistical significance except for site of the lesion. These features signify the behavior of two lesions. Further research on larger sample might give more insights into these lesions.

How to cite this article

Hunasgi S, Raghunath V. A Clinicopathological Study of Ossifying Fibromas and Comparison between Central and Peripheral Ossifying Fibromas. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):509-514.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Majid Akbari, Farzaneh Ahrari, Marzieh Jafari

A Comparative Evaluation of DIAGNOdent and Caries Detector Dye in Detection of Residual Caries in Prepared Cavities

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:515 - 520]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1178  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The objective of this study was to determine the association between DIAGNOdent laser and caries detector dye in detection of the remaining caries in restorative cavities.

Materials and methods

The sample consisted of 100 cavities prepared in patients referring to the Department of Restorative Dentistry of Mashhad Dental School. After confirming caries absence by tactile examination, the presence of any residual caries was determined by a laser fluorescence (LF) device (DIAGNOdent Pen) and then by caries detector dye. The data were analyzed through McNemar test.

Results

When the cut off value was considered as ≥13, both DIAGNOdent Pen and caries detector dye found 54 cavities as without caries and 12 cavities as carious. There were 32 teeth diagnosed as decayed only by the dye and two cases that were diagnosed as having residual caries only by the DIAGNOdent. The McNemar test revealed a significant difference in the diagnosis of residual caries between the two methods (p < 0.05), as well as significant differences between each method and tactile examination (p < 0.05). When the cut off value was set at ≥25, no significant difference was found between laser fluorescence and tactile examination in residual caries detection (p > 0.05).

Conclusion

Both DIAGNOdent Pen and caries detector dye can be considered as adjuncts for detecting residual caries in prepared cavities. However, the use of laser fluorescence device can provide results that are more consistent with tactile examination, while relying on caries detector dye may result in excessive removal of tooth tissue, and thus increase the risk of pulpal exposure.

Clinical significance

Incomparision with caries detector dye, Residual caries detection by DIAGNOdent Pen is more consistent with tactile examination.

How to cite this article

Akbari M, Ahrari F, Jafari M. A Comparative Evaluation of DIAGNOdent and Caries Detector Dye in Detection of Residual Caries in Prepared Cavities. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):515-520.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

R Balamurugan, Masroor Mohamed, Hari Krishna Rao Katikaneni, KR Ashok Kumar

Clinical and Histological Comparison of Polyglycolic Acid Suture with Black Silk Suture after Minor Oral Surgical Procedure

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:521 - 527]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1179  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Materials and methods

This study consisted of 50 patients requiring minor surgical procedure, who were referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Patients were selected randomly and sutures were placed in the oral cavity 7 days preoperatively. Polyglycolic acid was placed on one side and black silk suture material on the other. Seven days later, prior to surgical procedure the sutures will be assessed. After the surgical procedure the sutures will be placed postoperatively in the same way for 7 days, after which the sutures will be assessed clinically and histologically.

Results

The results of this study showed that all the sutures were retained in case of polyglycolic acid suture whereas four cases were not retained in case of black silk suture. As far as polyglycolic acid suture is concerned 25 cases were mild, 18 cases moderate and seven cases were severe. Black silk showed 20 mild cases, 21 moderate cases and six severe cases. The histological results showed that 33 cases showed mild, 14 cases moderate and three cases severe in case of polyglycolic acid suture. Whereas in case of black silk suture 41 cases were mild. Seven cases were moderate and two cases were severe. Black silk showed milder response than polyglycolic acid suture histologically.

Conclusion

The polyglycolic acid suture was more superior because in all 50 patients the suture was retained. It had less tissue reaction, better handling characteristics and knotting capacity.

How to cite this article

Balamurugan R, Mohamed M, Pandey V, Katikaneni HKR, Kumar KRA. Clinical and Histological Comparison of Polyglycolic Acid Suture with Black Silk Suture after Minor Oral Surgical Procedure. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):521-527.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

KS Girish, Malthesh B Savakkanavar, S Sridhar, D Dinesh, GC Ramesh

Association of Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction, Condylar Position and Dental Malocclusions in Davangere Population

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:528 - 533]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1180  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Methods

The subjects were divided into four groups for dental malocclusions viz. class I malocclusion with or without TM dysfunction, class II division 1 malocclusion with or without TM dysfunction, class II division 2 malocclusion with or without TM dysfunction and class III malocclusion with or without TM dysfunction. Once the patient fulfilled the criteria, the presence or absence of signs of TM dysfunction were elicited from the patient.

Results

It shows the association between TM dysfunction signs and left and right condylar positions. It shows the association between TM dysfunction symptom and left and right condylar positions. It shows the association between dental malocclusions and TM dysfunction signs and symptom. It shows the association between dental malocclusions and left and right condylar positions.

Conclusion

There was an association between TM dysfunction signs and left and right condylar positions. But, there was no association between TM dysfunction symptoms and left and right condylar positions. There was an association between dental malocclusions and TM dysfunction signs. But there was no association between dental malocclusions and TM dysfunction symptoms. There was an association between dental malocclusions and left condylar position, but there was no association between dental malocclusion and right condylar position.

Clinical significance

This study indicates that malocclusions and factors of condylar position should be seen as merely cofactors in the sense of one piece of the mosaic in the multifactorial problem of TM dysfunction. TM dysfunction factors that showed significant effects to various malocclusions through this study . This study shows clinical significance of association of various types of dental malocclusions to different conylar positions and TM dysfunction signs and symptoms. Before treating orthodontic patients, one should evaluate and treat the TM disorders for better prognosis.

How to cite this article

Malthesh B Savakkanavar, Sridhar S, Dinesh D, Girish KS, Ramesh GC. Association of Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction, Condylar Position and Dental Malocclusions in Davangere Population. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):528-533.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sridhar Premkumar, Haritha Pottipalli Sathyanarayana, WS Manjula

Assessment of Maximum Voluntary Bite Force in Adults with Normal Occlusion and Different Types of Malocclusions

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:534 - 538]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1181  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF) was assessed in adults with class I normal occlusion and compared with different malocclusions.

Materials and methods

One hundred and ten subjects in the age group of 17 to 25 years were classified into various groups. Thirty subjects with class I normal occlusion (Group A), 20 subjects with Angle's class I malocclusion (Group B), 20 subjects with skeletal class II malocclusion (Group C), 20 subjects with hypodivergent facial morphology (Group D) and 20 subjects with hyperdivergent facial morphology (Group E). MVBF was measured with a bite force meter at the first premolar and first molar region bilaterally. The values were recorded and statistically analyzed.

Results

Mean MVBF value in each of the groups in the molar and first premolar region were found to be 601.83N ± 60.80, 392N ± 31.43 (group A), 592.60N ± 37.66, 378.90N ± 23.00 (group B), 586.60N ± 49.26, 377N ± 29.38 (group C), 771.50N ± 27.24, 500.60N ± 18.25 (group D), 283.85N ± 26.41, 283.85N ± 26.41 (group E). Student paired t-test was done to analyze the difference between two groups and considered as significant at a p-value of < 0.05. Significant difference was found between group A and D and group A and E with a p-value of <0.0001. No significant difference was observed between group A and group B (p = 0.5481and 0.1148) and group A and group C (p = 0.3551 and 0.0949). ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference among groups A, D and E. No significant difference was found among groups A, B and C. Males had a higher value than females.

Conclusion

Sagittal morphology does not significantly affect the MVBF value whereas there is a significant correlation with vertical morphology.

Clinical significance

Assessment of maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF) is a chairside procedure to evaluate masticatory muscle activity based on which treatment planning and mechanics can be known.

How to cite this article

Sathyanarayana HP, Premkumar S, Manjula WS. Assessment of Maximum Voluntary Bite Force in Adults with Normal Occlusion and Different Types of Malocclusions. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):534-538.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Chanamallappa R Ganiger, KU Cariappa, AR Yusuf Ahammed

Maxillomandibular Plane Angle Bisector (MM) Adjunctive to Occlusal Plane to evaluate Anteroposterior Measurement of Dental Base

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:539 - 544]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1182  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study was undertaken to analyze the clinical usefulness of the maxillomandibular bisector, its reproducibility, its validity and its relationship to the functional occlusal plane, the bisecting occlusal plane and the nature of its cant.

Materials and methods

Thirty pretreatment lateral cephalograms, each of adolescents (above 18 years of age) and children (10- 12 years), seeking orthodontic treatment were randomly selected and the Wits technique of anteroposterior measurement was used to compare A-B values measured to the new plane with those measured to the functional occlusal plane (FOP) and to the traditional or bisecting occlusal plane (BOP).

Results

Present study showed that MM bisector plane is more reproducible and valid reference plane, than the FOP and BOP.

Conclusion

A new plane, geometrically derived from the dental base planes, has been tested as an occlusal plane substitute for the measurement of anteroposterior jaw relationships. It lies close to but at an angle and inferior to the traditional occlusal planes and is highly reproducible at all times.

Clinical significance

Maxillomandibular planes angle bisector may be a useful adjunct for the cephalometric assessment of sagittal relationship of the patient.

How to cite this article

Ganiger CR, Nayak USK, Cariappa KU, Ahammed ARY. Maxillomandibular Plane Angle Bisector (MM) Adjunctive to Occlusal Plane to evaluate Anteroposterior Measurement of Dental Base. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012; 13(4):539-544.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Santosh T Olekar, T Sangeeta, YS Prasanna Kumar, M Gururaj

Diagnostic Reliability of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology against Histopathology for the Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Oral Leukoplakia

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:545 - 549]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/JCDP-13-4-545  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as a primary diagnostic test in oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma.

Materials and methods

This study consisted of clinically diagnosed 15 cases of leukoplakia and 15 cases of oral squamous cell carcinomas. FNAC and biopsy were done on all the cases. A cytological and histopathological correlation was undertaken to determine the proportion of cancers. A 23-gauge sterile disposable needle was attached to a disposable syringe and introduced into the lesion at the proposed biopsy site in one movement. In leukoplakias, the center of the lesion or erythroplakic areas and, in squamous cell carcinomas, proliferative areas and edges of the ulcers were chosen.

Results

In leukoplakia group, out of 15 biopsy samples, one (6.67%) sample was negative and 14 (93.33%) were positive. Whereas out of 15 FNAC samples, 14 (93.33%) were negative and one (6.67%) sample was positive. In squamous cell carcinoma, out of 15 biopsy samples, no sample was negative and all (100.00%) were positive. Whereas out of 15 FNAC samples, two (13.33%) were negative and 13 (86.67%) sample were positive.

Conclusion

It is noted that FNAC can be employed as a sound diagnostic tool for rapid diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. It may be particularly useful in cases, where formal biopsy procedure is difficult or contraindicated due to medical reasons or in cases of advanced malignancy.

Clinical significance

FNAC has been shown to be reliable and safe technique in the diagnosis of malignant in the head and neck. When the aspirations are performed by cytopathologists, it is easy to perform a rapid staining of the first smear and within 10 to 15 minutes to ensure that the material is sufficient and diagnosable and to suggest a preliminary diagnosis.

How to cite this article

Olekar ST, Sangeeta T, Kumar YSP, Gururaj M. Diagnostic Reliability of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology against Histopathology for the Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Oral Leukoplakia. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):545-549.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

KM Nanda Kishor

Comparison of Working Length Determination using Apex Locator, Conventional Radiography and Radiovisiography: An in vitro Study

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:550 - 553]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1184  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this study was to compare the working length determination done using three methods, namely, apex locator (Foramatron D-10, Parkell), radiovisiography (Planmeca) and conventional radiography (Prostyle intra, Planmeca).

Materials and methods

In this experiment, to determine the working length, 35 single-rooted teeth were selected and each tooth was subjected to all the three methods of the working length determination. This was compared with the actual working length measured utilizing ground sections of the individual teeth.

Results

The results revealed that all the three methods located the apex nearly as accurately as the actual root canal length obtained by histological ground sectioning, and among three methods apex locator being the closest to the actual root canal length.

Conclusion

The study concludes that all the three techniques are equally effective in determining working length.

How to cite this article

Nanda Kishor KM. Comparison of Working Length Determination using Apex Locator, Conventional Radiography and Radiovisiography: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):550-553.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

TS Ashwini, Sonam Bhandari

The Influence of Cervical Preflaring of Root Canal on Determination of Initial Apical File using Gates Glidden Drills, Protaper, Race and Diamond-Coated Galaxy Files

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:554 - 558]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/JCDP-13-4-554  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To investigate the influence of cervical preflaring on apical file size determination using four different rotary instruments.

Materials and methods

Fifty root canals from extracted human maxillary premolars with complete root formation, straight roots were used for the study. Access opening was done and the working length established with 8 no K-file for each canal. Teeth were randomly divided into five groups of 10 canals. In Group 1- no preflaring was done and acted as control and in Groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 cervical and middle third preflaring of the root canals were done using Gates Glidden drills, Protaper instruments, Race instruments and Galaxy files respectively.

After preflaring, the apical file size determination was done and the initial apical file (IAF) was fixed at the working length. Teeth were sectioned transversally 1 mm from the apex, with the binding file in position. The samples were imaged under stereomicroscope with 30× magnification. Root canal and file maximum diameters were recorded for each sample. The readings were subjected to analysis of variance test and Scheffe's multiple comparison test.

Results

Preflaring with Race instruments lead to most accurate determination of the IAF. It was followed by Protaper, Galaxy files and Gates Glidden drills.

Conclusion

Traditional method of apical size determination may lead to a substantial underestimation of actual canal size. Cervical preflaring increases the accuracy of apical size determination.

Clinical significance

Thus, cervical preflaring is recommended before selection of IAF as it increases the accuracy of apical size determination.

How to cite this article

Ashwini TS, Bhandari S. The Influence of Cervical Preflaring of Root Canal on Determination of Initial Apical File using Gates Glidden Drills, Protaper, Race and Diamond-Coated Galaxy Files. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012; 13(4):554-558.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

RK Baad, Kiran Jagtap

The Study of Role of Stress in Children with Behavior Disorders and Orofacial Lesions

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:559 - 561]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1186  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

(1) To study the behavior disorders in children between 5 to 15 years. (2) To study the role of stress in causing behavior disorders. (3) To interpret the orofacial findings in children with behavior disorders. (4) Correlate the orofacial findings with behavior disorder.

Materials and methods

Ninty children with behavior problems between age of 5 to 15 years along with their parents who visited the Department of Child-Guidance Clinic, BYL Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai. Intraoral examinations were conducted. Behavioral disorders and factors predisposing to those disorders were recorded.

Results

Behavior disorders with orofacial lesions was more common in age group of 8 to 10 years. The children were continuously under stress, which manifested in the form of various orofacial disorders or oral lesions. Most common orofacial condition was bruxism.

Conclusion

Awareness of behavior disorders in dental treatment should guide the pediatric dentist to seek child psychiatric consultation for behavioral disorders to enable early evaluation of the underlying disorder.

Clinical significance

The present study suggested that orofacial and behavior characteristics can serve as markers to diagnose children with behavioral disorders. It also serves as a guide to dental clinicians to refer such children to psychiatrists or pediatricians for early identification, prevention and treatment.

How to cite this article

Baad RK, Jagtap K. The Study of Role of Stress in Children with Behavior Disorders and Orofacial Lesions. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):559-561.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

N Simhachalam Reddy, Nallala Amarendra Reddy, R Narendra, Sashi Deepth Reddy

Epidemiological Survey on Edentulousness

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:9] [Pages No:562 - 570]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1187  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims and objectives

The present study was planned to assess the level of edentulousness, cause of edentulousness, denture wearing and denture needs of the middle and elderly in the society and study was correlated between habits and socioeconomic variables, diet and body mass index (BMI).

Materials and methods

A total of 500 subjects (random sampling) from dental outpatient were studied. A prepared questionnaire was developed, explained, interviewed and questions were filled personally.

Results

The level of edentulousness was found to be high in the subjects with low socioeconomic status and in advancing age with no significant difference between male and females. Another finding was very low level of denture wearing of 62% needing complete denture and partial denture only 10.4% of subjects wearing dentures.

Mixed diet population had higher level of edentulousness compared with vegetarians. The BMI was correlated with level of edentulousness.

Conclusion

The study clearly showed that there is lack of dental awareness, so dental education and motivation in very important. The study concludes that the need for prosthodontics care will increase due to the increase in life span.

This study is clinically significant with regard to knowing the root cause of edentulism, either partial or complete. Out of 62% tooth loss, dental caries (37.4%) topped the cause for tooth loss followed by combination of dental caries and periodontal disease (12.2%).

How to cite this article

Reddy NS, Reddy NA, Narendra R, Reddy SD. Epidemiological Survey on Edentulousness. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):562-570.

CASE REPORT

Ramesh Babu, VK Taneja, Cecil Williams, Anuj Malhotra, Ravi Kiran

Enhancing White and Pink Esthetics using Porcelain Laminates in a Fluorosis Patient

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:571 - 573]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1188  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Clinical significance

Porcelain laminates offer an excellent solution to enhance esthetics in a patient with fluorosis as it combines the advantage of being highly esthetic along with being conservative in its penetration to enamel.

How to cite this article

Williams C, Malhotra A, Taneja VK, Kiran R, Babu R. Enhancing White and Pink Esthetics using Porcelain Laminates in a Fluorosis Patient. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):571-573.

CASE REPORT

Manish Goel, Amit Maheshwari, Dandu Sitarama Raju, AS Veereshi, D Lakshmayya Naidu, BHV Ramakrishnan Raju

Therapeutic Extraction of Lower Incisor for Orthodontic Treatment

[Year:2012] [Month:July-August] [Volume:13] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:574 - 577]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1189  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Clinical significance

Mandibular incisor extraction can be an effective treatment option in borderline cases with mild crowding in lower arch. Minimal alteration of mandibular arch form is key factor for success and stable results.

How to cite this article

Raju DS, Veereshi AS, Naidu DL, Raju BHVR, Goel M, Maheshwari A. Therapeutic Extraction of Lower Incisor for Orthodontic Treatment. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(4):574-577.

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