The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2013 | July-August | Volume 14 | Issue 4

EDITORIAL

So Ran Kwon

The Evolution of Tooth Whitening

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-14-4-i  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

S Sujatha Gopal, B Shiva Kumar, P Spoorti, Jeetender Reddy, Jayaprakash Ittigi

Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Reattached Vertical Fragments Bonded with Fiber-reinforced Composites: An in vitro Study

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:573 - 577]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1365  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the resistance to fracture of vertically fractured and reattached fragments bonded with fiber-reinforced composites.

Materials and methods

Root canals of 45 teeth were prepared, and the teeth were intentionally fractured into two separate fragments. Control groups (n = 15 each) consisted unfractured teeth with instrumented and obturated. Fractured teeth were divided into three groups (n = 15) and were attached using (1) dual-cure resin cement (RelyX U100), (2) dual-cure resin cement and polyethylene fiber (Ribbond), (3) dual-cure resin cement and glass fibers (stick-net). Force was applied at a speed of 0.5 mm/min to the root until fracture.

Results and statistical analysis

Group 1 (RelyX U100 group) demonstrated lowest fracture resistance. Group 4 (control group) showed highest fracture resistance followed by group 2 (Ribbond group) and group 3 (Stick-Net groups). Statistically no significant difference was there between groups 2, 3 and 4.

Conclusion

Vertically fractured teeth can be treated by filling the root canal space with dual-cure adhesive resin cement or by adding polyethylene fiber or glass fiber to increase the fracture resistance of the reattached tooth fragments, an alternative to extraction.

How to cite this article

Kumar BS, Spoorti P, Reddy J, Bhandi S, Gopal SS, Ittigi J. Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Reattached Vertical Fragments Bonded with Fiber-reinforced Composites: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):573-577.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Marcelo Tomas de Oliveira, Kariny Ramos Felix, Maria Claudia Bressan, Luiz Alberto Kanis

Assessment of Acid Neutralizing Capacity in Cola-based Drinks and Energy Beverages by Artificial Saliva

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:578 - 581]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1366  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

To assess the pH of regular and light cola-based drinks and energy drinks, and examine the acid neutralizing capacity by the addition of artificial saliva.

Materials and methods

Ten packages of each product purchased locally at different stores were evaluated. The pH was measured by a pH-electrode calibrated in standard buffer solutions. To assess the pH neutralizing capacity, 1 ml/min of artificial saliva was added until a pH of 5.5 set as a cutoff point was reached in the tested solution. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), at the 0.05 significance level.

Results

The surveyed beverages had an initial acidic pH, ranging between 2.3 and 3.4. The average amount of saliva required to raise the pH of the cola-based drinks above 5.5 ranged between 6.0 and 6.8 ml. Energy drinks used volumes between 11.3 and 12.5 ml; however, it was not possible to achieve a pH of 5.5

Conclusion

According to the methodology used, it was concluded that: (1) All beverages analyzed showed an initial acidic pH. (2) There was no statistical difference between the initial pH level and acid neutralization by the addition of artificial saliva in both regular and light drinks. It was not possible to reach the appropriate pH, set as the cutoff point, for the energy drinks.

How to cite this article

Felix KR, Bressan MC, Kanis LA, De Oliveira MT. Assessment of Acid Neutralizing Capacity in Cola-based Drinks and Energy Beverages by Artificial Saliva. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):578-581.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sridhar Premkumar, Bhuvaneswari Gurumurthy

Assessment of 2D:4D in Subjects with Anteroposterior Mandibular Dysplasia

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:582 - 585]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1367  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives

To compare 2D:4D ratio which is determined by testosterone levels with patients having orthognathic, retrognathic and prognathic mandibles.

Materials and methods

The study was performed at Chennai, on 320 subjects of which, 60 subjects (32 males and 28 females) had retrognathic mandible; 55 subjects (25 males and 30 females) had prognathic mandible and 205 subjects (98 males and 107 females) had normal mandible. All the subjects had a normal maxilla and were in the age group of 18 to 25 years. 2D:4D ratio was determined using the photocopies of the ventral surface of right hand made with vernier calipers of 0.01 mm accuracy. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Student's t- test, ANOVA test and TukeyHSD test.

Results

(i) Low 2D:4D is seen in subjects with mandibular prognathism, (ii) Among females, low 2D:4D is seen only in prognathic mandible.

Conclusion

These findings highlight the fact that testosterone plays an important role in mandibular growth. Thus 2D:4D, a least invasive and reproducible procedure can be used as an early marker for mandibular progathism, and as a diagnostic tool in correlating the mandibular growth with causal relations between hormones and craniofacial development.

How to cite this article

Premkumar S, Gurumurthy B. Assessment of 2D:4D in Subjects with Anteroposterior Mandibular Dysplasia. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):582-585.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

GA Raviraj, DD Darshan, Girish Katti, NS Manikantan, AD Manoj Kumar, Dhanya Balakrishnan

Sound Waves for Unsound Entities: An Electronic Search Study to Evaluate the Diagnostic Efficacy of Ultrasonography in Cysts and Tumors of Maxillofacial Region

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:586 - 589]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1368  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this electronic search study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasonography in cysts and tumors of maxillofacial region.

Materials and methods

An electronic search was performed for articles published from January 1989 to august 2009.

Results

Only 30 publications were searched and 22 publications showed high level of evidence (4 review articles, 12 clinical studies, 2 case reports, 1 quantitative analysis, 2 research articles and 1 preliminary report) with total of more than 2000 patients.

Conclusion

Ultrasonography is a noninvasive, low cost procedure, and recommended as a complimentary imaging modality.

How to cite this article

Darshan DD, Katti G, Raviraj GA, Manikantan NS, Kumar ADM, Balakrishnan D. Sound Waves for Unsound Entities: An Electronic Search Study to Evaluate the Diagnostic Efficacy of Ultrasonography in Cysts and Tumors of Maxillofacial Region. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013; 14(4):586-589.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Hossam A Eid, Tarek H Taha, Manea M Alahmari, Abdullah Awn S Alqarni, Abdulkarim Ali H Alshehri

Utilization of Dental Pulp DNA as Diagnostic Molecular Marker for Fertility Detection in Men

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:590 - 594]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1369  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim of study

The aim of this study was to use DNA material extracted from human teeth pulp for detection of fertility status of men.

Materials and methods

Twenty extracted premolar teeth of systemic disease free male Saudi individuals (45 years average age) were collected; eight of them were infertile while others were fertile and were used as control group. This information was concealed until the PCR analysis was performed. The results of recorded patient information was matched with the results of the DNA analysis.

Results

Results showed that the gene (sY83) an important gene of AZFa region in Y chromosome is important for male fertility. It was later evident that the infertile patients suffered from azoospermia, and that information is completely matched with our results.

Conclusion

Using DNA extracted from dental pulp can be used successfully in determining fertility status of human which may help in an accurate personal identification specially in extreme circumstances.

How to cite this article

Eid HA, Taha TH, Alahmari MM, Alqarni AAS, Alshehri AAH. Utilization of Dental Pulp DNA as Diagnostic Molecular Marker for Fertility Detection in Men. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):590-594.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

KA Abdul Hafiz, N Fysal, Santhosh Jose, Reena Kulshrestha, Dimple Arora, Sanjay Vasudevan

Antibiogram Pattern of Oral Microflora in Periodontic Children of Age Group 6 to 12 Years: A Clinicomicrobiological Study

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:595 - 600]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1370  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The study was carried out to see the diversity of oral microflora and its antibiotic sensitivity test in children of age group 6 to 12 years was carried.

Materials and methods

Total 50 patients of age group 6 to 12 years were analyzed for their oral microflora and then checked for the antibiotic susceptibility test. The samples that were collected were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Once dispersed samples were taken and Gram staining was done, also they were spread on to a number of freshly prepared agar plates and incubated to allow cells to form microbial colony.

Results

The result showed microflora common in all types, Gram-positive facultative anaerobic rods and cocci. In normal children Gram-positive facultative anaerobic and fermenting cocci were predominant where as in children with caries growth of microbiota that were Gram-negative and positive, capnophilic, motile and anaerobic rods and cocci belonging to members of genera S. mutans and A. actinomycetemcomitans was seen.

Conclusion

By the present study it has been concluded that the number of bacteria determined by microscopic counts was twice as high in caries patients as in healthy sites, and also recommended that amoxicillin, ampicillin and amikacin are the most effective antibacterial drugs for the treatment of dental caries.

How to cite this article

Fysal N, Jose S, Kulshrestha R, Arora D, Abdul Hafiz KA, Vasudevan S. Antibiogram Pattern of Oral Microflora in Periodontic Children of Age Group 6 to 12 Years: A Clinicomicrobiological Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013; 14(4):595-600.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Praveen Kumar Madineni, Suresh Babu Ghanta, Naveen Kumar Motupalli, Mahanthesh Bembalgi, P Krishnam Raju

Comparative Analysis of Colony Counts of Different Species of Oral Streptococci in Saliva of Dentulous, Edentulous and in those Wearing Partial and Complete Dentures

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:601 - 604]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1371  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives

To study and compare the number of colony forming units of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus milleri in dentulous, edentulous and in those wearing partial and complete dentures by using semi-quantitative culture method of saliva samples with calibrated standard loop

Materials

Sterile specimen collection bottles, Mitis salivarius agar plates, Standard loop, Candle jar, Incubator, Colony counter

Methodology

Study population consisted of 100 subjects with 25 in each group, with an age range of 40 to 80 years, who were attending the Department of Community Dentistry and Prosthodontics at MNR Dental College, Sangareddy, Hyderabad. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and inoculated on to Mitis salivarius agar plates using calibrated standard loop. The plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 hours and left at room temperature for further 24 hours. Using a colony counter, the number of colonies of each species was counted.

Results

Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis predominates in the dentulous group, Streptococcus sanguis in complete denture group, Streptococcus salivarius in edentulous group and Streptococcus milleri in removable partial denture group.

Conclusion

The results of our study are in accordance with the previous studies, which have sought to differentiate different groups of mutans streptococci using a simple calibrated standard loop.

How to cite this article

Ealla KKR, Ghanta SB, Motupalli NK, Bembalgi M, Madineni PK, Raju PK. Comparative Analysis of Colony Counts of Different Species of Oral Streptococci in Saliva of Dentulous, Edentulous and in those Wearing Partial and Complete Dentures. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):601-604.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Amit Kalra, Sonali V Medsinge, Nitin Jaggi, Gunpreet Kaur Baghla, Nikhil Purohit

Evaluation of Propofol as a General Anesthetic Agent for Minor Oral Surgical Procedure

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:605 - 609]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1372  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Jaggi N, Kalra A, Baghla GK, Medsinge SV, Purohit N. Evaluation of Propofol as a General Anesthetic Agent for Minor Oral Surgical Procedure. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):605-609

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Rashmita Nayak, BR Spoorthi, S Vadiraj, Gopal Krishna Choudhary, Nitin Kudyar

Periodontal Pathogens and Respiratory Diseases— Evaluating Their Potential Association: A Clinical and Microbiological Study

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:610 - 615]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1373  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate whether any potential association exists between respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal health status clinically and or microbiologically.

Materials and methods

Fifty patients of COPD (test group) and 50 Patients without COPD (control group) were recruited for the study with more than 20 years of age with at least six natural teeth. All the patients were nonsmokers. Periodontal health was assessed by measuring clinical attachment loss (CAL) and gingival bleeding by using William's graduated periodontal probe. Microbiological evaluation was done by collecting sputum samples of the subjects with respiratory diseases to find out any periodontal pathogen in the lung fluid.

Result and conclusion

The results showed that the subjects with COPD had significantly more bleeding sites (i.e. >20%) and had more of the clinical mean attachment loss (2.84 ± 0.66) than those without COPD. On the basis of the observed results of the study, we can hypothesize that the risk for COPD appeared to be significantly elevated when attachment loss was found to be severe.

Clinical significance

It is conceivable that oral interventions that improve oral health status may prove to lower the severity of lung infection in susceptible populations.

How to cite this article

Vadiraj S, Nayak R, Choudhary GK, Kudyar N, Spoorthi BR. Periodontal Pathogens and Respiratory Diseases—Evaluating Their Potential Association: A Clinical and Microbiological Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):610-615.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anahita Safari, Zahra Jowkar, Mitra Farzin

Evaluation of the Relationship between Bruxism and Premature Occlusal Contacts

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:616 - 621]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1374  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study evaluates the relationship between occlusal interferences and premature contacts and bruxism by determining the relationship between unassisted and assisted nonworking interferences.

Materials and methods

In this study, 60 subjects (14 males and 46 females) that consisted of 30 bruxers (7 males, 23 females) and 30 nonbruxers (7 males, 23 females) were selected after completion of a questionnaire based on the exclusion criteria. Occlusal interferences in the centric relation and eccentric movements in the two groups were evaluated and recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16) using the Chi-square and paired t-tests.

Results

The results showed a statistically significant relationship between bruxism and nonworking interferences (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship in the centric relation and other eccentric movements (p > 0.05). The number of assisted nonworking occlusal contacts was more than unassisted nonworking occlusal contacts.

Conclusion

According to the results of this study, there is a relationship between certain types of occlusal interferences (nonworking interferences) and bruxism. Hence, it would be useful to examine occlusal contacts in bruxing patients to eliminate probable causative or contributing occlusal factors. Both assisted and unassisted nonworking occlusal contacts should be evaluated.

Clinical implication

Bruxism is an oral habit that consists of involuntary rhythmic or spasmodic nonfunctional gnashing, grinding or teeth clenching, other than chewing movements by the mandible. Bruxism may lead to occlusal trauma, tooth wear, fracture of the teeth and fillings, and hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles. Treatment of bruxism needs a correct diagnosis. Therefore, it is useful to determine the relationship between occlusal interferences and bruxism in order to prevent its development by adjusting for these interferences.

How to cite this article

Safari A, Jowkar Z, Farzin M. Evaluation of the Relationship between Bruxism and Premature Occlusal Contacts. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):616-621.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Walaa Ahmed, Wafa El-Badrawy, Gajanan Kulkarni, Anuradha Prakki, Omar El-Mowafy

Gingival Microleakage of Class V Composite Restorations with Fiber Inserts

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:622 - 628]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1375  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study investigated the effect of different fiber inserts (glass and polyethylene), bonding agents, and resin composites on the gingival margin microleakage of class V composite restorations.

Materials and methods

Sixty premolars were sterilized and mounted in acrylic resin bases. Class V cavities were prepared buccally and lingually, 1 mm below the cementoenamel junction, comprising 12 groups (n = 10). In the experimental groups fiber inserts were cut and placed at the gingival seat, while the control groups had no inserts. Combinations of two composite materials, Filtek-Z250 and Filtek-LS (3M-ESPE), and four bonding agents, Clearfil SE bond (Kuraray) (C), Scotch Bond Multipurpose (3M-ESPE) (SB), Prime and Bond NT (Dentsply) (PB), and Filtek-LS (3M-ESPE) (LS) were used. Restorations were incrementally inserted and polymerized for 40s. Specimens were then stored in distilled water for 7 days and thermocycled for 500 cycles. Teeth surfaces were sealed with nail polish except for 1 mm around restoration margins and immersed in 2% red procion dye. Teeth were then sectioned buccolingually and dye penetration was assessed with five-point scale. Data were statistically-analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 5%).

Results

Mean microleakage scores varied from 0.40 (Groups C, C with polyethylene, LS, LS with polyethylene) to 1.50 (SB).

Conclusion

Different bonding agents led to differences in microleakage scores where C and LS showed significantly lower microleakage than PB. SB had highest mean microleakage score, however, incorporation of fibers resulted in significant reduction in microleakage.

Clinical significance

Class V resin composite restorations bonded with a total-etch adhesive had a significant reduction in mean microleakage scores when glass or polyethylene fibers were placed at the gingival cavo-surface margin. In contrast, for two self-etch adhesive systems, the incorporation of fibers had no significant effect on mean microleakage scores.

How to cite this article

Ahmed W, El-Badrawy W, Kulkarni G, Prakki A, El-Mowafy O. Gingival Microleakage of Class V Composite Restorations with Fiber Inserts. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):622-628.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

E Sujayeendranath Reddy, Dinapadu Sainath, M Narenderreddy, Srikanth Pasari, Sangeetha Vallikanthan, G Sindhurareddy

Cleaning Efficiency of Anatomic Endodontic Technology, ProFile System and Manual Instrumentation in Ovalshaped Root Canals: An in vitro Study

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:629 - 634]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1376  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This in vitro study is an attempt to compare the effectiveness in cleaning oval shaped root canals usingAnatomic Endodontic Technology (AET®), ProFile system® and Manual Instrumentation with K-files

Methodology

Sixty oval shaped single rooted maxillary and mandibular premolars with straight canals were divided in to three groups. The root canals were, confirmed as being oval shape by means of radiographs made in a buccolingual and mesiodistal direction. Automated canal preparation was performed using Anatomic Endodontic Technology (group 1) and the ProFile system® (group 2). Manual instrumentation (group 3) was performed with k-files. Irrigation was performed using alternatively 3% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, followed by rinsing with normal saline. The roots were split longitudinally into two halves and examined under a scanning electron microscope. The presence of debris and smear layer was recorded at distances 1, 5 and 10 mm from the working length using a three step scoring scale. Mean scores for debris and smear layer was calculated and statistically analyzed for between and within groups significance, using the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric ANOVA test and Bonferroni's multiple comparison test.

Results

At 1, 5 and 10 mm levels the root canals prepared with AET had significantly less surface debris and smear layer on the canal walls as compared to canals prepared with ProFile system® or manual instrumentation. For all three groups significantly lower mean smear layer scores (p < 0.05) were recorded at 5 and 10 mm levels compared with the 1 mm level. Significantly lower mean debris scores (p < 0.05) were also recorded at 5 and 10 mm levels for the AET group whereas no significant differences were found between the three levels for the ProFile system® and manual instrumentation groups.

Conclusion

Although better instrumentation scores were obtained in canals prepared with AET, complete cleanliness was not achieved with any of the techniques and instruments investigated.

How to cite this article

Reddy ES, Sainath D, Narenderreddy M, Pasari S, Vallikanthan S, Sindhurareddy G. Cleaning Efficiency of Anatomic Endodontic Technology, ProFile System and Manual Instrumentation in Oval-shaped Root Canals: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):629-634.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Srikanth Pasari, Narender Reddy, Shilpa Reddy Admala, Sainath Dinapadu, Manoranjan P Reddy, MS Rama Rao

Comparative Analysis of Efficacy and Cleaning Ability of Hand and Rotary Devices for Gutta-Percha Removal in Root Canal Retreatment: An in vitro Study

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:9] [Pages No:635 - 643]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1377  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim of the study

To evaluate the efficacy and cleaning ability of Hedstrom files, and ProTaper retreatment instruments in removing gutta-percha from root canals with and without xylene as solvent.

Materials and methods

Sixty extracted single rooted human teeth were selected and decoronated, straight access established working length determined 1 mm short of canal, chemomechanical preparation done and obturated with guttapercha and AH plus sealer. Samples were stored for 1 week in humidifier divided into four groups of 15 teeth each.

• Group I

Hedstrom files without xylene.

• Group II

Hedstrom files with xylene.

• Group III

ProTaper retreatment instruments without xylene.

• Group IV

ProTaper retreatment instruments with xylene. and the following criteria were assessed

– Time taken for initial plunge of instrument into guttapercha.

– Time taken for complete removal of gutta-percha to reach working length

– Ability of H files and ProTaper retreatment files with/ without xylene to remove gutta-percha in coronal, middle and apical 1/3 of canal.

The teeth were grooved in labiolingual cross section, observed under a steromicroscope and scored according to gutta-percha debris left in the canal. Results were evaluated using ANOVA test and multiple comparisons done using Scheffe test.

Results

The least time to reach working length was found with group IV followed by groups III, II and group I respectively. Also the fastest way to remove maximum gutta-percha was group IV followed by groups III, II, and I respectively with a statistically significant difference among all groups. Apical 1/3 has more amount of remaining gutta-percha debris than middle and coronal 1/3 in all groups. The amount of gutta-percha debris in apical 1/3 was least in group IV followed by groups III, II and I respectively.

Discussion

The better performance of ProTaper rotary instruments has been attributed to their special flute design which tends to pull gutta-percha coronally directing it toward orifice. Also the movements of engine driven instruments produce frictional heat which plasticises gutta-percha and aids in easy removal. Apical third of root canals showed more gutta percha debris compared to coronal and middle 1/3 and has been attributed to the greater anatomic variability and difficulty of instrumentation in the apical area. The existence of deep groves and depressions on dentine walls in this apical 1/3 make them less instrumented areas as it did be difficult to direct the file against the extreme root canal wall.

Conclusion

The fastest technique to remove gutta-percha and the shortest time to reach working length was observed with ProTaper retreatment instruments with xylene followed by ProTaper retreatment files without xylene and Hedstrom files without xylene. After instrumentation for removal of gutta-percha, apical third was found to have more debris compared to coronal and middle 1/3 of the root canal.

How to cite this article

Reddy N, Admala SR, Dinapadu S, Pasari S, Reddy PM, Rao MSR. Comparative Analysis of Efficacy and Cleaning Ability of Hand and Rotary Devices for gutta-percha Removal in Root Canal Retreatment: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):635-643.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Nitin Shah, Sarita Singh, Jyoti Mandlik, Kalpana Pawar, Paras Gupta, Shoaib Ali Shaik

An in vivo Evaluation of Different Methods of Working Length Determination

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:644 - 648]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1378  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this in vivo study was to compare the ability of digital tactile, digital radiographic and electronic methods to determine reliability in locating the apical constriction.

Materials and methods

Informed consent was obtained from patients scheduled for orthodontic extraction. The teeth were anesthetized, isolated and accessed. The canals were negotiated, pulp chamber and canals were irrigated and pulp was extirpated. The working length was then evaluated for each canal by digital tactile sensation, an electronic apex locator (The Root ZX) and digital radiography. The readings were then compared with post-extraction working length measurements.

Results

The percentage accuracy indicated that EAL method (Root ZX) shows maximum accuracy, i.e. 99.85% and digital tactile and digital radiographic method (DDR) showed 98.20 and 97.90% accuracy respectively.

Clinical significance

Hence, it can be concluded that the EAL method (Root ZX) produced most reliable results for determining the accurate working length.

How to cite this article

Mandlik J, Shah N, Pawar K, Gupta P, Singh S, Shaik SA. An in vivo Evaluation of Different Methods of Working Length Determination. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):644-648.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Dinapadu Sainath, Srikanth Pasari, Shilpa Reddy Admala, Narender Reddy Marukala, Sindhurareddy Gurram, Ravigna Peddi

Accuracy of Electronic Apex Locator in Enlarged Root Canals with Different Root Canal Irrigants: An in vitro Study

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:649 - 652]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1379  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate the accuracy of Root ZX-II (J Morita Corp) apex locator in enlarged root canals with different root canal irrigants.

Materials and methods

48 freshly extracted single rooted mandibular premolar teeth were used. The apical enlargement was done up to #45 K-file as the master apical file (MAF). The teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups and mounted in an experimental apparatus. The following irrigants were used during electronic canal measurements: group 1: saline; group 2: 3% NaOCl; group 3: 2% chlorhexidine; group 4: 17% EDTA. The canal measurement was done with Root ZX-II apex locator using #10 and #45 K-file. Data were analyzed by two way ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparison test.

Results

Statistical analysis showed that there was statistically significant difference between #10 and #45 K-file for group 1 (p < 0.01).

Conclusion

Root ZX-II was accurate in the presence of 3% NaOCl and 17% EDTA when measured with smaller and larger files. However, it was accurate in the presence of saline and 2% CHX when larger files were used.

How to cite this article

Dinapadu S, Pasari S, Admala SR, Marukala NR, Gurram S, Peddi R. Accuracy of Electronic Apex Locator in Enlarged Root Canals with Different Root Canal Irrigants: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4): 649-652.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

KG Nischith, Vinay Chandra, Padma Gandi, Anil Kumar Shivanna, Siva Srinivas, S Himgiri

A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study to evaluate the Efficacy of NaviTip FX in removing the Canal Debris during Root Canal Preparation: An in vitro Study

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:653 - 656]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1380  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy of NaviTip FX in removing the canal debris during root canal preparation using scanning electron microscopic study

Materials and methods

Thirty single rooted teeth with completely formed apices were used in this study. Standard endodontic access cavity preparations were performed. Then the teeth were randomly divided into two groups: groups 1 and 2 of 15 teeth each group. For group 1, NaviTip FX (brush covered needle) was used to irrigate the canal with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite after each instrument use. For group 2, NaviTip (brushless needle) was used for irrigation following each instrument use. ProTaper rotary files were used for the canal preparation. The teeth were then cleaned and dried before splitting them into two halves. The half with most visible part of the apex was used for scanning electron microscopic evaluation. The results were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test at significance level p < 0.005.

Results

The mean values for coronal and middle third of group 1 showed lower debris scores than group 2 and this difference was statistically significant at a p-value 0.01 and 0.05 respectively, but no significance difference between them at the apical third at a p-value of < 0.05.

Conclusion

The NaviTip FX (brush covered needle) showed effectively better canal wall debris removal than the NaviTip (brushless needle).

How to cite this article

Chandra V, Gandi P, Shivanna AK, Srinivas S, Himgiri S, Nischith KG. A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study to evaluate the Efficacy of NaviTip FX in removing the Canal Debris during Root Canal Preparation: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):653-656.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mohammed Ali AlQarni, Rafi A Togoo, Ibrahim Al Shahrani, CR Sumanth Phani

Finishing and Polishing Procedures of Composite Restorations by Saudi Dentists: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:657 - 661]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1381  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and practices of Saudi dentists in finishing and polishing composite restorations.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among 306 Saudi dentists from March to April 2012. The collected data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010 program and descriptive statistics were obtained.

Results

Completed questionnaires were returned by 191 participants, giving a response rate of 62.4%. 115 (65.7%) respondents are using fine diamond finishing burs for finishing occlusal surfaces, 82 (48%) used fine aluminum oxide finishing discs for finishing facial surfaces, 130 (76%) used diamond finishing strips for finishing interproximal surfaces.121 (63.4%) respondents were of the view that the type of filler content has a major influence in providing color stability to the composite restoration and 137 (72.1%) believed nano-composites provided enhanced color stability.

Conclusion

Dentists in Saudi Arabia are aware of the benefits of proper finishing and polishing of composite restorations. They however need to use finishing and polishing burs, disks, strips and pastes in a sequential series. Usage of composite polishing pastes and composite surface sealants should be emphasized in undergraduate curriculum.

How to cite this article

AlQarni MA, Togoo RA, Al Shahrani I, Phani CRS. Finishing and Polishing Procedures of Composite Restorations by Saudi Dentists: A Cross-sectional Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):657-661.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sevil Gurgan, Asll Berber, Filiz Yalcin Cakir, Meserret Baseren

Effect of Different Polishing Systems and Drinks on the Color Stability of Resin Composite

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:662 - 667]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1382  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability of resin composit using different finishing systems and drinks.

Materials and methods

Composit disks (5 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness) were prepared for each nanofilled composite using a brass mold. The specimens were divided into 5 finishing system groups Mylar strip (Mylar, DuPont, Wilmington, Del., USA), Soft Lex (3M™ ESPE™ St. Paul, MN, USA), Enhance (Dentsply-DeTrey GmbHD Konstanz, Germany), Hiluster (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland), Opti Disc (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland) and each group was divided into 10 subgroups (n = 10) and stored for 24 hours at 37°C in different drinks water coffee, coffee with sugar, tea, tea with sugar, diet coke, coke, light sour cherry juice or sour cherry juice. Color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a spectrophotometer using CIE L*a*b* relative, and color changes (ΔE*) were then calculated. The data were analyzed with a twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA), and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p = 0.05).

Results

For the drinks, the lowest ΔE* values were observed in the water and highest ΔE* values were observed in sour cherry juice. When drinks with and without sugar were compared, all groups with sugar demonstrated a higher color difference than without sugar. For the different finishing systems, Mylar strip group demonstrated signicantly highest color change; Enhance groups demonstrated signicantly lowest color change.

Conclusion

Finishing treatments and storage solutions significantly affect the color stability of resin composite. The presence of sugar in drinks increased the color difference compared to drinks without composit.

Clinical significance

Polishing techniques and drinking drinks with sugar may affect the color of esthetic restorations.

How to cite this article

Berber A, Cakir FY, Baseren M, Gurgan S. Effect of Different Polishing Systems and Drinks on the Color Stability of Resin Composite. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013; 14(4):662-667.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Yamini Nandini, KB Vinitha, M Smitha

Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy of Four Different Die Materials before and after Disinfection of the Impression: An in vitro Study

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:668 - 674]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1383  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

This study was conducted to compare the linear dimensional accuracy of die materials before and after disinfection of the impression. Type IV and V conventional dental stone, type IV-resin impregnated and copper-plated die materials were studied.

Materials and methods

A stainless-steel master die analogs to a complete veneer crown preparation with three scribed lines (I: vertical, II and III: horizontal) was machined and measurements were made from these scribed reference lines. Impressions were made with monophase addition silicone impression material for each of the specimens. 2% glutaraldehyde was used as a disinfectant. The fabricated dies were measured to the nearest 0.0001 mm. ANOVA and post hoc was carried out using Scheffe multiple comparison test at significance level of 0.05.

Results

Type IV resin-impregnated dental stone and copperplated dies approximated the dimensions of the master die. Type IV and V conventional dental stone dies showed greater variation in measurements. Statistically significant differences were observed for type IV resin-impregnated and copper-plated dies in dimension I and III. For dimension II no significant differences were found for dies fabricated from four die materials. A one-way analysis of variance indicated no statistical significant differences among the two groups of dies fabricated from disinfectant treated impressions and those fabricated from nondisinfectant treated impressions.

Conclusion

Type IV resin-impregnated dental stone and copper-plated dies are dimensionally more accurate than type IV and V conventional dental stone die materials. No significant linear distortion in the dies fabricated from the disinfected impressions was observed.

How to cite this article

Nandini Y, Vinitha KB, Manvi S, Smitha M. Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy of Four Different Die Materials before and after Disinfection of the Impression: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):668-674.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Khalil Aleisa

Bond Strength of Overdenture Locator Posts Cemented with Seven Luting Agents

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:675 - 680]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1384  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Statement of the problem

Post retention is crucial factor in restoration survival. Posts are commonly failed due to loss of retention. It is unknown which luting agents would provide the maximum bond strength for Locator overdenture posts.

Aim

The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond retentive strengths of Locator overdenture posts cemented with 7 luting agents.

Materials and methods

One hundred and five single rooted human teeth were decoronated and randomly assigned to 7 groups (n = 15). Post spaces were prepared with Locator post drills to the depth of 6 mm. The Locator posts were cemented with Variolink II, RelyX ARC, Multilink N, RelyX Unicem, ParaCore, or MultiCore Flow resin luting agents. Zinc phosphate cement was served as control group. Specimens were stored in water at 37°C for 24 hours. Each specimen was loaded in tension in an Instron universal testing machine. The maximum force required to dislodge each Locator post was recorded. Means and standard deviations were calculated and data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results

The highest mean bond strength value for Locator posts was recorded for MultiCore® Flow group (mean = 550.1 N), while the lowest mean value was for RelyX Unicem™ resin cement group (mean = 216.8 N). A statistically significant difference in mean locator overdenture post bond strength was observed between the 7 cement types (p < 0.0001). ParaCore™ and MultiCore® Flow groups had significantly higher bond strength than all other groups, but they were not differed from each other.

Conclusion

Bond strength of Locator overdenture posts were influenced by the type of luting agents. MultiCore Flow and ParaCore resin cements offered the greatest retention.

Clinical significance

The type of luting agents had a significant effect on the retention of Locator posts. The use of Core buildup resin cements as luting agent with Locator post demonstrated the greatest retention.

How to cite this article

Aleisa K. Bond Strength of Overdenture Locator Posts Cemented with Seven Luting Agents. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):675-680.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Khalid H Al-Samadani

Color Stability of Restorative Materials in Response to Arabic Coffee, Turkish Coffee and Nescafe

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:10] [Pages No:681 - 690]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1385  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effect of Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee and Nescafe on the color stability of four different composite resins after a period of aging time 1, 7 and 30 days.

Materials and methods

Twenty specimens from each type of tested composite resin material were prepared. Five specimens from each tested material (Z350 XT, Artist, GC and Z250) was evaluated after storage in Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee, Nescafe and distil water (control) at 37°C in a dark container for 1, 7 and 30 days. Color measurement was done using colorimeter based on the CIE L* a* b* color scale. Color differences ΔE*ab, Δb* and Δa* among specimens immersed in distil water and staining coffee beverages were evaluated overtime. Mean values were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey test with p < 0.05 as significance level.

Results

All tested composite resins showed increase color change after a period of 1, 7 and 30 days. The color change ΔE*ab, Δb* and Δa* exhibited by Arabic coffee, in Turkish coffee and Nescafe except Δa*. The highest total color difference ΔE*ab after 30 days was in group A Arabic coffee (ΔE > 1.5 perceivable) and not perceivable in group B Turkish coffee and group C Nescafe. For Δb* all materials discolored toward yellowness after 30 days except Arabic coffee group which shifted from yellowness toward blueness (Δb*> 1.5 perceivable).

Conclusion

The effect of staining beverages on the resin composite materials increases with time of aging toward yellowness and not perceivable in all groups except with Arabic coffee which had highest effect after 30 days and the discoloration shifted from yellowness to blueness perceivable.

How to cite this article

Al-Samadani KH. Color Stability of Restorative Materials in Response to Arabic Coffee, Turkish Coffee and Nescafe. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):681-690.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Joao Cardoso Ferreira, Patricia Teixeira Pires, Alvaro Ferreira Azevedo, Sofia Arantes Oliveira, Paulo Ribeiro Melo, Mario Jorge Silva

Influence of Solvents and Composition of Etch-and-Rinse and Self-Etch Adhesive Systems on the Nanoleakage within the Hybrid Layer

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:9] [Pages No:691 - 699]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1386  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The goal of this study was to evaluate nanoleakage within the hybrid layer yielded by etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems, with different solvents and compositions.

Materials and methods

Four adhesives were applied onto 20 human dentin disks: group A: Adper Scotchbond 1XT™ (3M ESPE), group B: One Coat Bond® (Coltène Whaledent), group C: AdheSE® (Ivoclar Vivadent) and group D: Xeno-V® (Dentsply). The samples were immersed in aqueous ammoniacal silver nitrate for 24 hour, prepared and observed under field-emission scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electrons. Microphotographs were scanned and data were processed. The mean value and standard deviation were calculated. KruskalWallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used (p < 0.05).

Results

All the adhesives showed nanoleakage within the hybrid layer: Adper Scotchbond 1XT™ (218.5 μm ± 52.6 μm), One Coat Bond® (139.6 μm ± 79.0 μm), AdheSE® (92.7 μm ± 64.8 μm) and Xeno-V® (251.0 μm ± 85.2 μm). AdheSE® yielded less nanoleakage than Adper Scotchbond-1XT™ (p = 0.003) and than Xeno-V® (p = 0.007). No other statistically significant differences were detected.

Conclusion

Two-step self-etch adhesive system (AdheSE®) might contribute for lower nanoleakage deposition and thus better performance in dentin adhesion.

Clinical significance

The two-step self-etch adhesive system showed the lowest nanoleakage deposition compared with the other adhesive systems evaluated, which seems to indicate a better behavior when a restoration is performed in dentin and possibly can lead to a durable adhesion along time.

How to cite this article

Ferreira JC, Pires PT, Azevedo AF, Oliveira SA, Melo PR, Silva MJ. Influence of Solvents and Composition of Etch-and-Rinse and Self-Etch Adhesive Systems on the Nanoleakage within the Hybrid Layer. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):691-699.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Daniela Hesse, Tathiane Lenzi, Camila Guglielmi, Ketlin Anacleto, Daniela Prócida Raggio

Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Materials to Eroded Enamel

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:700 - 703]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1387  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate the bond strength of one etch-and-rinse adhesive system and one resin-modified glass ionomer cement to sound and eroded enamel.

Materials and methods

Forty-eight bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal enamel surfaces. Half of the specimens were submitted to erosion challenge with pH-cycling model (3x/cola drink for 7 days) to induce eroded enamel. After that, all specimens were randomly assigned according to adhesive material: etch-andrinse adhesive system (Adper Single Bond 2 – 3M ESPE, USA) or resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitro Fil LC – DFL, Brazil). The shear bond testing was performed after 24 hours water storage (0.5 mm/min). Shear bond strength means were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests (p < 0.05).

Results

Adper Single Bond 2 showed the highest bond strength value to eroded enamel (p < 0.05), whereas no difference was observed in sound enamel compared with Vitro Fil LC (p > 0.05).

Conclusion

Bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesive system increases in eroded enamel, while no difference is verified to resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

Clinical significance

Adhesive materials may be used in eroded enamel without jeopardizing the bonding quality; however it is preferable to use etch-and-rinse adhesive system.

How to cite this article

Lenzi T, Hesse D, Guglielmi C, Anacleto K, Raggio DP. Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Materials to Eroded Enamel. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):700-703.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ayman Al-Dharrab

Effect of Energy Drinks on the Color Stability of Nanofilled Composite Resin

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:704 - 711]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1388  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

To study the effect of three energy drinks on the color stability of nanofilled composite resins after different periods of aging time.

Materials and methods

Composite resin disks, 6 mm diameter, 3 mm thickness were prepared from Filtec Z350 XT, Tetric EvoCeram, and Filtec Z250 XT. Specimens from each material were tested after aging with Red Bull, Bison and Power Horse energy drinks and distilled water as a control. Specimens were stored at 37°C in dark containers for 1, 7, 30 and 60 days. Color was assessed in the CIELAB using a colorimeter before and after each storage period. Color differences ΔE*ab and Δb* among specimens were measured. Mean values were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with p < 0.05 as significance level.

Results

The color change ΔE*ab and Δb* occurred by Red Bull, Bison and Power Horse energy drinks was significantly different for all tested materials at all four times p < 0.05 except in the Red Bull group. All specimens showed increase in color changes toward yellowness Δb* after a period of 1, 7, 30 and 60 days. The highest total color difference ΔE*ab was found in the Red Bull group after 60 days.

Conclusion

Energy drinks used in this study had staining effect on the tested composite resin materials. The discoloration increased with aging time toward yellowness; however, it was not perceptible in all test groups after 60 days.

How to cite this article

Al-Dharrab A. Effect of Energy Drinks on the Color Stability of Nanofilled Composite Resin. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):704-711.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Johnson K Issac, MS Rama Rao, Abdul Shameem, Rashmi Nair, Sureshbabu Ghanta, Rekha P Thankachan

Comparison of the Remaining Dentin Thickness in the Root after Hand and Four Rotary Instrumentation Techniques: An in vitro Study

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:712 - 717]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1389  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of the present study was to compare the remaining dental thickness (RDT) in the mesiobuccal root of mandibular first molars at 3 and 7 mm from the anatomic apex after instrumentation with ProTaper, light speed LSX, K3 and M2 and to compare with that of K-files.

Materials and methods

In this study, 60 extracted, untreated human mandibular first molars with fully formed apices, with curvature less than 35° and no root resorption were used. Prepared specimens were cut horizontally at 3 and 7 mm short of anatomic apex. The least dentin thickness from canal to external root surface was observed under 3× magnification and recorded using Clemax measuring tool and the sections were reassembled. Group I—instrumentation with ProTaper, group II—instrumentation with K3, group III—instrumentation with Light Speed LSX, group IV—instrumentation with M2 and group V— instrumentation with K-files and RDT was measured.

Results

Results showed that group V removed lesser amount of dentin compared to all other groups while all the three instrumentation techniques removed almost equal amount of dentin apically.

Clinical significance

Cleaning and shaping of the root canal space involves the elimination of pathogenic contents as well as attaining a uniform specific shape. However, the RDT following the use of various intraradicular procedures is an important factor to be considered as an iatrogenic cause that may result in root fracture. To avoid this, newer rotary instruments are being introduced.

How to cite this article

Rao MSR, Shameem A, Nair R, Ghanta S, Thankachan RP, Issac JK. Comparison of the Remaining Dentin Thickness in the Root after Hand and Four Rotary Instrumentation Techniques: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):712-717.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

P Sarveshwar Reddy, KL Sunil Tejaswi, Suneeth Shetty, BM Annapoorna, Sudarshan C Pujari, HM Thippeswamy

Effects of Commonly Consumed Beverages on Surface Roughness and Color Stability of the Nano, Microhybrid and Hybrid Composite Resins: An in vitro Study

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:718 - 723]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1390  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Consumption of certain beverages may affect the esthetic and physical properties of the resin composite, thereby undermining the quality of restorations.

Aim

To analyze the effect of three beverages (cola, coffee, tea) on color stability and surface roughness of three different types of resin composites at various time intervals in vitro.

Materials and methods

Nano, microhybrid and hybrid resin composites were used. Each material was randomly divided into four equal subgroups of 10 samples each according to the beverages used (cola, coffee, tea, distilled water). The samples were immersed in each beverage for 1, 15 and 30 days. Surface roughness and color changes measurements were noted at the baseline—the first, fifteenth and thirteenth day.

Results

It was found that nanoresin composite followed by microhybrid and hybrid showed least surface roughness and color change. The Coke beverage subgroup showed more surface roughness and the subgroup coffee has shown more color changes with respect to other subgroups.

Conclusion

All specimens showed discoloration after completion of the test period which was visually perceptible and clinically unacceptable.

At the end of 30th day, among the materials, nanofilled composite resin showed comparatively less surface roughness and color change than microhybrid and hybrid composite resins.

How to cite this article

Reddy PS, Tejaswi KLS, Shetty S, Annapoorna BM, Pujari SC, Thippeswamy HM. Effects of Commonly Consumed Beverages on Surface Roughness and Color Stability of the Nano, Microhybrid and Hybrid Composite Resins: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4): 718-723.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Aljazi H Al-Jabaa, Abdullah M Aldrees

Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in Saudi Orthodontic Patients

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:724 - 730]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1391  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies and study the association of these anomalies with different types of malocclusion in a random sample of Saudi orthodontic patients.

Materials and methods

Six hundred and two randomly selected pretreatment records including orthopantomographs (OPG), and study models were evaluated. The molar relationship was determined using pretreatment study models, and OPG were examined to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies among the sample.

Results

The most common types of the investigated anomalies were: impaction followed by hypodontia, microdontia, macrodontia, ectopic eruption and supernumerary. No statistical significant correlations were observed between sex and dental anomalies. Dental anomalies were more commonly found in class I followed by asymmetric molar relation, then class II and finally class III molar relation. No malocclusion group had a statistically significant relation with any individual dental anomaly

Conclusion

The prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi orthodontic patients was higher than the general population.

Clinical significance

Although, orthodontic patients have been reported to have high rates of dental anomalies, orthodontists often fail to consider this. If not detected, dental anomalies can complicate dental and orthodontic treatment; therefore, their presence should be carefully investigated during orthodontic diagnosis and considered during treatment planning.

How to cite this article

Al-Jabaa AH, Aldrees AM. Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in Saudi Orthodontic Patients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):724-730.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Reem Saleem Tubaishat, Zain A Malkawi, Zakereyya S Albashaireh

The Influence of Different Factors on the Oral Health Status of Smoking and Nonsmoking Adults

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:731 - 737]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1392  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study to determine the influence of smoking on self-reported oral health status among university students.

Materials and methods

Voluntary sample of 669 adults of 18 to 26 years old were invited to participate in the study. They were asked to read a self-designated questionnaire and a covering letter which explained the purpose of the study. The questionnaire addressed self-reported demographics, oral hygiene and smoking habits; knowledge about smoking and its effects on oral health. Data were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test to determine statistically significant differences across the oral health status.

Results

The sample included 340 (56.7%) males and 240 (43.3%) females; 56.8% of the subjects were nonsmokers; 43.2% were current smokers, and 17.5% smoke argileh. Almost 24.7% of subjects started smoking because of emotional effects; 66.9% did not smoke because of its harm to health. The percentage of subjects with dental plaque on their teeth was 27.1%, and with calculus was 27.9%, and with stains was 26.9%. About 35.5% of the subjects brushed their teeth once daily. Statistically, significant association was proven between smoking and gender (p < 0.01); and smoking and halitosis (p < 0.01).

Conclusion

Smoking is significantly related to esthetics, calculus, tooth stains, halitosis, gingival bleeding, and gender with p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p = 0.05, and p < 0.01 respectively.

How to cite this article

Tubaishat RS, Malkawi ZA, Albashaireh ZS. The Influence of Different Factors on the Oral Health Status of Smoking and Nonsmoking Adults. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):731-737.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mohamad Hossein Ahangar Atashi

Long-Term Evaluation of Clinical Performance of Directbonded Brackets: An Epidemiologic Survey

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:738 - 742]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1393  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The objective of the current epidemiologic study was to investigate characteristics associated with bracket failure in bonded brackets.

Materials and methods

A retrospective study on data of 144 patients treated during 2009 to 2012 was done. Baseline data including age, gender, malocclusion, bite type and debonding incidences per teeth were retrieved. ANOVA analysis and t-test were used to evaluate the data.

Results

Second premolar teeth had significantly higher debonding incidences. Patients’ age was negatively correlated with debonding incidences. No difference was observed for various types of malocclusion (class I, II and III), arch side (right or left) or arch location (upper or lower). However, deep bite patients had significantly higher failure incidents.

Conclusion

For a total of 144 patients with 2,524 bonded brackets, the overall failure rate was 7.8%. Deep bite was the only factor that was associated with higher bracket failure. The bracket failure incidents tend to decrease as patients age increase.

Clinical significance

Deep bite patients and also second premolar teeth seem to be especially prone to debonding incidents. Care must be taken to avoid premature contacts in deep bite patients. Also strict adherence to moisture control protocols when bonding second premolar teeth is recommended since these teeth are at increased risk for debonding.

How to cite this article

Atashi MHA, Shahamfar M. Long-Term Evaluation of Clinical Performance of Direct-bonded Brackets: An Epidemiologic Survey. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4): 738-742.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

CS Jayapalan, Rajesh V Gondhalekar, B Jaya Krishna, KM Muhamed Shaloob, P Fajar Ummer

Prevalence of Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status Among School Going Children: An Epidemiological Study

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:743 - 746]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1394  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Ravishankar PL, Jayapalan CS, Gondhalekar RV, Krishna BJ, Shaloob KMM, Ummer PF. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status Among School Going Children: An Epidemiological Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):743-746.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mitesh D Kathariya, Prashant S Viragi, KS Dwijendra, Kirti Chopra, Mahesh V Dadpe, HS Madhukar

Dental Health and Treatment Needs Among Children in a Tribal Community

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:747 - 750]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1395  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

To assess the dental health status and treatment needs among children of ‘Pardhi’ tribal community.

Methods

A total of 185 children were examined over a period of 2 months using WHO proforma. The statistical software namely SPSS version 15.0 and data was analyzed using Student's t-test and ANOVA test at p < 0.05.

Results

The mean score for dft and DMFT was 1.87 ± 1.073 and 2.04 ± 1.564 respectively with males subjects were having comparatively more scores. It was also found significant differences between age groups. Most of the children needed one surface filling, i.e. 29.40%, followed by pulp care and restoration (19.30%), two or more surface fillings (15.60%) and extraction (11.70%).

Clinical significance

The study subjects were characterized by a lack of dental care services, high prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs. Therefore, implementation of a basic oral health care program for this tribal population is a high priority

How to cite this article

Viragi PS, Dwijendra KS, Kathariya MD, Chopra K, Dadpe MV, Madhukar HS. Dental Health and Treatment Needs Among Children in a Tribal Community. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):747-750.

CASE REPORT

Yavuz Findik, Timuçin Baykul

Secondary Closure of Alveolar Clefts with Mandibular Symphyseal Bone Grafts and with Platelet-Rich Fibrin Under Local Anesthesia: Three Case Reports

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:751 - 753]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1396  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Flndlk Y, Baykul T. Secondary Closure of Alveolar Clefts with Mandibular Symphyseal Bone Grafts and with Platelet-Rich Fibrin Under Local Anesthesia: Three Case Reports. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):751-753.

CASE REPORT

KF Basavaraj, AU Madihalli, Abdul Mujeeb, Samir Mansuri, Mohammed Abid Hussain

Advancing Mandibular Swelling: A Diagnostic Dilemma

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:754 - 758]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1397  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Basavaraj KF, Madihalli AU, Mujeeb A, Mansuri S, Hussain MA. Advancing Mandibular Swelling: A Diagnostic Dilemma. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):754-758.

CASE REPORT

Parth Satwalekar, B Anantha Reddy, K Subash Chander, G Ramaswamy Reddy, Taruna Agarwal, Sheeba Glory Chowdary

Endoscopic Retrieval of Dental Implant from Maxillary Sinus

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:3] [Pages No:759 - 761]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1398  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Minimally invasive method for retrieving displaced objects like implants from the maxillary antrum with minimal complications.

Background

Minimal invasive endoscopic surgery has been developed for various indications in the craniomaxillofacial area.

Case description

In this article, a technique for endoscopic removal of a dental implant displaced into the maxillary sinus is presented. Access to the implant was achieved transorally via the canine fossa. The endoscopic surgical approach described was reliable and minimally invasive for removing dental materials displaced into the maxillary sinus.

Conclusion

Transantral endoscopic surgery is a reliable, minimally invasive method for retrieving displaced objects from the maxillary antrum with minimal complications.

How to cite this article

Satwalekar P, Reddy BA, Chander KS, Reddy GR, Agarwal T, Chowdary SG. Endoscopic Retrieval of Dental Implant from Maxillary Sinus. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):759-761.

CASE REPORT

Vidya Baliga, VPK Gopinath, Sudhindra Baliga, Srinivas Sulugodu Ramachandra, KD Jithendra, Shamila Shetty

Intraoral Manifestations in a Patient with Epidermal Nevus Syndrome

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:762 - 765]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1399  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To report rare findings of oral and periodontal manifestations in a patient with Epidermal nevus syndrome (ENS).

Background

The ENS describes the rare association of an epidermal nevus with abnormalities of central nervous system, ocular and skeletal abnormalities. Reports of oral involvement have been few. Also, most of the intraoral lesions have been reported in patients with nevi that do not fulfill the criteria for the diagnosis of ENS.

Case description

This report describes a case of ENS that, in addition to cutaneous manifestations showed skeletal involvement and intraoral manifestations such as the extension of the nevi on the face intraorally involving the labial mucosa, hypoplasia, hypodontia of teeth and severe periodontal destruction.

Conclusion

Patients with extensive epidermal nevi and systemic abnormalities should be suspected of having the ENS. Evaluation and management of patients with ENS requires a multidisciplinary team approach involving the dermatologist, pediatrician, ophthalmologist, neurologist, genetist, plastic surgeon and orthopedic services. Although uncommonly described in association with ENS, significant intraoral lesions do occur. Periodontal manifestations as in our patient, which to our knowledge has not been described in association with ENS so far, may also be present.

Clinical relevance

Alteration of the response of periodontal tissues to dental plaque in the presence of certain systemic diseases has been reported, but not in association with ENS. Severe periodontal destruction due to exaggerated response to dental plaque was seen in the present case. Hence, emphasis on oral hygiene maintenance in such patients is essential. Patients with ENS must be evaluated periodically as they show a persistent predisposition for the development of tumors

How to cite this article

Baliga V, Gopinath VPK, Baliga S, Ramachandra SS, Jithendra KD, Shetty S. Intraoral Manifestations in a Patient with Epidermal Nevus Syndrome . J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):762-765.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Bhagyalakshmi Avinash, BM Shivalinga, S Jyothikiran, MN Padmini

Going Green with Eco-friendly Dentist

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:766 - 769]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1400  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Avinash B, Avinash BS, Shivalinga BM, Jyothikiran S, Padmini MN. Going Green with Eco-friendly Dentistry. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):766-769.

REVIEW ARTICLE

BS Ganavi

The Museum Maze in Oral Pathology Demystified—Part I

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:770 - 776]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1401  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Patil S, Rao RS, Ganavi BS. The Museum Maze in Oral Pathology Demystified—Part I. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):770-776.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Ahmed Mubarak Al-Kahtani

Carrier-based Root Canal Filling Materials: A Literature Review

[Year:2013] [Month:July-August] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:777 - 783]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1402  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Al-Kahtani AM. Carrier-based Root Canal Filling Materials: A Literature Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(4):777-783.

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