The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2014 | July-August | Volume 15 | Issue 4

EDITORIAL

Karen Cristina Kazue Yui

DENTAL AMALGAM PHASE-DOWN

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-15-4-i  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Cerida Aurelia Rodrigues Oliveira, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes França, Roberta Tarkany Basting, Cecília Pedroso Turssi, Flavia Lucisano Botelho do Amaral

Effect of Double Coating of One-step Self-etching Adhesive on Micromorphology and Microtensile Bond Strength to Sound vs Demineralized Dentin

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:385 - 391]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1549  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate (1) the one-step adhesive system application method (doubling the adhesive coatings) in regard to microtensile bond strength (MTB) and (2) the interfacial morphology of one-step adhesives to sound vs demineralized dentin.

Materials and methods

Forty dentin fragments were randomly allocated to 2 groups: D. demineralized dentin and S. sound dentin. Specimens were also subdivided into 2 groups (n = 10), according to the one-step adhesive [AEO (Adper Easy One), 3M ESPE] application method: M, According to the manufacturer's instructions, and D, based on the application of two consecutive layers. After adhesive light polymerization, a resin composite block (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) was built on the dentin surface. Resin-tooth blocks were sectioned into 0.9 mm thick slabs, and one slab of each block was prepared for adhesive interface analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The remaining slabs were sectioned into 0.8 mm2 sticks that were subjected to tensile stress (0.5 mm/min). Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05).

Results

The application of two consecutive layers of AEO adhesive system did not influence MTB values for sound dentin. When two consecutive layers of one-step adhesive system were applied, MTB was statistically greater in demineralized vs sound dentin. SEM analysis demonstrated that the application of two consecutive adhesive layers to sound and demineralized dentin produced longer resin tags.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the application of two consecutive adhesive layers improved bond strength to demineralized dentin, but no such effect was observed for sound dentin.

Clinical significance

Application of double coats of one-step self-etching adhesive improved bond strength to demineralized dentin.

How to cite this article

Oliveira CAR, França FMG, Basting RT, Turssi CP, do Amaral FLB. Effect of Double Coating of One-step Self-etching Adhesive on Micromorphology and Microtensile Bond Strength to Sound vs Demineralized Dentin. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):385-391.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Wilcilene Costa Nascimento, Yasmin do Socorro Batista de Lima Gomes, Larissa Dias Alexandrino, Hilton Tulio Costi, José Otávio Carrera Silva, Cecy Martins Silva

Influence of Fluoride Concentration and pH Value of 35% Hydrogen Peroxide on the Hardness, Roughness and Morphology of Bovine Enamel

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:392 - 398]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1550  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different sodium fluoride (NaF) concentrations and pH values on the Knoop hardness (KHN), surface roughness (SR), and morphology of bovine incisors bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP).

Materials and methods

Sixty-five bovine incisors were fragmented (5 mm2 × 2 mm) and distributed in 5 groups: Control (unbleached), Low NaF/Acidic (35% HP + 1.3% NaF, pH 5.5), Low NaF/Neutral (35% HP + 1.3% NaF, pH 7.0), High NaF/ Acidic (35% HP + 2% NaF, pH 5.5), and High NaF/Neutral (35% HP + 2% NaF, pH 7.0). KHN analysis was performed with a microhardness tester under a load of 25 gf for 5 seconds. The average SR was obtained with a rugosimeter. KHN and SR were analyzed before and after treatments. For morphological analysis, specimens were dehydrated and gold-sputtered, and scanning electron micrographs were obtained and analyzed by 3 examiners with a double-blinded technique. KHN and SR results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05).

Results

Only the Low NaF/Acidic and Low NaF/Neutral groups showed significant differences between the initial and final KHN values. All bleached groups presented significant differences between the initial and final SR values. Among the bleached groups, the least and most morphological changes were shown by the High NaF/Neutral and the Low NaF/Acidic group, respectively.

Conclusion

Treatment with 35% HP and 2% NaF at pH 7.0 promoted the least changes in morphology, hardness and roughness among the bleached groups.

Clinical significance

In-office bleaching with high-concentration HP and 2% NaF at neutral pH promoted the least changes in enamel hardness, SR, and morphology compared to other treatments.

How to cite this article

Nascimento WC, Gomes YSBL, Alexandrino LD, Costi HT, Silva JOC Jr, Silva CM. Influence of Fluoride Concentration and pH Value of 35% Hydrogen Peroxide on the Hardness, Roughness and Morphology of Bovine Enamel. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):392-398.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Muhammed Ajmal

Evaluation of Mental Foramen Position from Panoramic Dental Radiographs

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:399 - 402]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1551  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

Evaluate the position of mental foramen by measuring the vertical bone height from digital panoramic radiograph and also the variation of resorption pattern by gender and extraction time frame.

Materials and methods/study design

Digital panoramic radiographs of 500 patients were reviewed. The study population was divided into four age groups aged 30 to 70 years as (30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years of age).

Radiographic Position of mental foramen was evaluated in each panoramic radiograph by measuring the distance from the marginal bone to the mental foramen was being measured.

Measurements were taken in each radiograph using Cliniview software. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using paired students t-test and chi-square tests.

Results and conclusion

In our study it was noted that the vertical measurements calculated from the superior margin of mental foramen to the crest of alveolar ridge were greater in edentulous men than in women. This measurement decreased significantly with age. We have noted here that resorption pattern between males and females can be used as an early diagnostic tool and for implant analysis. Studies comparing right and left side edentulous mandibular region are needed for further confirmation.

How to cite this article

Ajmal M. Evaluation of Mental Foramen Position from Panoramic Dental Radiographs. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):399-402.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Abdolreza Jamilian, Omid Moghaddas, Shabnam Toopchi, Letizia Perillo

Comparison of Nickel and Chromium Ions Released from Stainless Steel and NiTi Wires after Immersion in Oral B®, Orthokin® and Artificial Saliva

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:403 - 406]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1552  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Oral environment of the mouth is a suitable place for biodegradation of alloys used in orthodontic wires. The toxicity of these alloys namely nickel and chromium has concerned the researchers about the release of these ions from orthodontic wires and brackets. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel and chromium ions released from 0.018” stainless steel (SS) and NiTi wires after immersion in three solutions.

Materials and methods

One hundred and forty-four round NiTi and 144 round SS archwires with the diameters of 0.018” were immersed in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva. The amounts of nickel and chromium ions released were measured after 1, 6, 24 hours and 7 days.

Results

Two way repeated ANOVA showed that the amount of chromium and nickel significantly increased in all solutions during all time intervals (p < 0.002).

Conclusion

Chromium and nickel ions were released more in NiTi wire in all solutions compared with SS wire. The lowest increase rate was also seen in artificial saliva.

Clinical significance

There is general consensus in literature that even very little amounts of nickel and chromium are dangerous for human body specially when absorbed orally; therefore, knowing the precise amount of these ions released from different wires when immersed in different mouthwashes is of high priority.

How to cite this article

Jamilian A, Moghaddas O, Toopchi S, Perillo L. Comparison of Nickel and Chromium Ions Released from Stainless Steel and NiTi Wires after Immersion in Oral B®, Orthokin® and Artificial Saliva. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014; 15(4):403-406.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres, Graziela Ribeiro Batista, Alessandra Bühler Borges, Paula Tamião Arantes, Annette Wiegand, Thomas Attin

Influence of Simulated Pulpal Pressure on Efficacy of Bleaching Gels

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:407 - 412]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1553  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of simulated pulpal pressure on efficacy of bleaching gels.

Materials and methods

Cylindrical enamel-dentin specimens from bovine teeth (3 mm diameter, enamel and dentin layer each 1 mm thick) were divided into 4 groups, according to the bleaching treatment: negative control (non-bleached), bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP), bleached with 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide. Ten percent CP gel was applied for 8 h/day and 7.5% HP for 1 h/day, during 14 days. For 35% HP treatment, two sessions of 45 minutes each were employed. In intermediate periods specimens were stored in artificial saliva. Experimental groups (n = 19) were subdivided according to the simulation of pulpal pressure (25 mm Hg) during bleaching treatment. Initial color measurement and after bleaching treatment were assessed by spectrophotometry, using CIE L*a*b* system. The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Dunnett's posthoc tests (p < 0.05).

Results

There was significant difference of ∆E for all experimental groups compared to negative control group, according to Dunnett's test (p < 0.0001). There were no significant difference for total color variation (∆E) among experimental groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusion

It was concluded that all bleaching gels showed bleaching efficacy compared to non-bleached group and that the simulated pulpal pressure did not influence the bleaching outcomes of the tested gels.

Clinical significance

Although numerous in vitro studies investigating the efficacy of bleaching agents have been performed, they do not properly simulate the pulpal pressure. In order to make these studies closer to clinical conditions, it is important to reproduce these conditions in laboratory, so the results can be more reliable. This in vitro study was performed under simulated pulpal pressure, aiming to investigate its influence on dental bleaching outcomes.

How to cite this article

Borges AB, Batista GR, Arantes PT, Wiegand A, Attin T, Torres CRG. Influence of Simulated Pulpal Pressure on Efficacy of Bleaching Gels. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):407-412.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mario Tanomaru-Filho, Gustavo Sivieri-Araujo, Juliane M Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Eduardo A Bortoluzzi, Erica G Jorge, Filipe O Abi-Rached, José Mauricio SN Reis

Resistance of Teeth with Simulated Incomplete Rhizogenesis with Intraradicular Post or Root Canal Filling

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:413 - 416]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1554  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture strength (FS) of bovine incisors with simulated incomplete rhizogenesis (IR) after different intraradicular treatments.

Materials and methods

Incomplete rhizogenesis was simulated by sectioning the crowns and roots of 40 bovine incisors. Root canal preparation was performed and the samples divided into 4 groups (n = 10): GI-negative control with intra-radicular preparation; GII-positive control without intra-radicular preparation; GIII-glass fiber post cemented with resin cement and GIVroot canal obturation with Epiphany/Resilon system. In GIII and GIV, 4.0 mm apical plugs of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were done. The samples were embedded into cylinders with polystyrene resin, and the periodontal ligament was simulated with a medium-viscosity polyether-based impression material (Impregum Soft). The specimens were submitted to compressive fracture strength test (0.5 mm/min at 135o in relation to the long axis of the tooth) in a mechanical testing machine MTS 810. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05).

Conclusion

Glass fiber intraradicular posts provided the FS increase of teeth with simulated incomplete rhizogenesis. Epiphany/Resilon root canal filling with MTA plug did not provide the increase of the fracture strength to teeth with simulated incomplete rhizogenesis.

Clinical significance

The fiber post reinforces the root structure of teeth with incomplete rhizogenesis.

How to cite this article

Tanomaru-Filho M, Sivieri-Araujo G, Guerreiro-Tanomaru JM, Bortoluzzi EA, Jorge EG, Abi-Rached FO, Reis JMSN. Resistance of Teeth with Simulated Incomplete Rhizogenesis with Intraradicular Post or Root Canal Filling. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):413-416.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ali M El-Sheikh, Omar F Shihabuddin

Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Narrow-Diameter Titanium-Zirconium Implants in Unilateral Atrophic Mandibular Distal Extensions: A 1-Year Pilot Study

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:417 - 422]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1555  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

The use of endosseous dental implants has led to more sophisticated fixed options when considering treatment of patients with distal extensions. The use of narrow-diameter implants may reduce the necessity for bone augmentation. The mechanical strength of titanium is limited, so titanium alloys with greater tensile and fatigue strength may be preferable.

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically the performance of narrow-diameter bone level implants made from titanium-zirconium alloy (TiZr, RoxolidTM) in restoring unilateral atrophic mandibular distal extensions with fixed dental prostheses.

Materials and methods

Twenty partially edentulous patients with unilateral atrophic mandibular distal extensions received two 3.3 mm diameter bone level TiZr implants (Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland). The two implants were restored with 3-units ceramo-metal fixed partial dentures. Standardized clinical and radiographic parameters (survival rate, probing pocket depth and marginal bone loss) were evaluated at the time of the completion of the prosthetic treatment (baseline) and after 3, 6 and 12 months of functional loading. Prosthetic complications were also assessed.

Results

The survival rate for narrow-diameter bone level TiZr implants was 100% after 1 year of functional loading. There were no statistically significant differences between the values of probing pocket depth over the follow-up period. All implants showed less than 1 mm of marginal bone loss at the end of the follow-up period.

Conclusion

Within the limitations of this 1-year pilot study, the use of narrow-diameter bone level TiZr implants appears to be predictable in restoring the unilateral atrophic mandibular distal extensions. This type of implants meets established success and survival criteria after 1 year.

How to cite this article

El-Sheikh AM, Shihabuddin OF. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Narrow-Diameter Titanium-Zirconium Implants in Unilateral Atrophic Mandibular Distal Extensions: A 1-Year Pilot Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):417-422.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Emel Uzunoglu, Melahat Görduysus

Apical Extrusion of Debris and Irrigant using Novel Preparation Systems

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:423 - 427]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1556  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris and irrigant using Reciproc vs self-adjusting file (SAF) and to investigate the effect, if any, of gravitational force via mandibular and maxillary positioning of the teeth.

Materials and methods

Forty human mandibular premolars were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 teeth each. The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers’ instructions using the Reciproc and SAF. Sodium hypochlorite was used as the irrigant. The apically extruded debris was collected in pre-weighted glass vials using the Myers and Montgomery method, and teeth were placed in vials both in downward and upward positions. After drying, the mean weight of debris was assessed with a microbalance and statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction.

Results

All instrumentation techniques and positions caused measurable apical extrusion of debris. A significant difference was observed according to position and instrument used (p < 0.05). The Reciproc extruded significantly more debris than SAF and vial downward position extruded significantly more debris than upward position (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Under the conditions of this study, all systems caused apical debris extrusion, especially in the downward position.

Clinical significance

According to results of this study, the SAF was associated with less debris extrusion compared to the Reciproc in both mandibular and maxillary positions.

How to cite this article

Uzunoglu E, Görduysus M. Apical Extrusion of Debris and Irrigant using Novel Preparation Systems. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):423-427.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mehmet Ali Kiliçarslan, Pelin Özkan, Bülent Uludag, Emre Mumcu

Comparison of Internal Fit between Implant Abutments and Cast Metal Crowns vs Laser-sintered Crowns

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:428 - 432]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1557  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

A common problem related to cemented single crowns is the internal misfit, which may cause inadequate retention, especially when seated on the implant abutment. The aim of this study was to compare the internal fit of Co-Cr crowns using a traditional lost-wax casting technique from laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy crowns.

Materials and methods

Twelve metallic crowns per each technique were fabricated. The effect of the thickness of cement, originated internal gap was evaluated. Crowns were cemented on the implant abutments with resin cement, and the internal fit of crowns was measured at five areas with an optical microscope. The data were analyzed, and the means were compared with a t-test (p<0.05).

Results

The internal gap width measurements for the lasersintered group (min. 52.19 ± 11.61 µm and max. 140.01 ± 31.84 µm) indicated the presence of a significantly closed internal gap compared to the crowns obtained through the lost wax method (min. 65.50 ± 9.54 µm and max. 313.46 ± 48.12 µm).

Conclusion

The fit of the metal crown likely varies with the fabrication technique. The use of techniques that enable the adjustment of crown parameters, such as the laser sintering technique, maintains the desired fit between casting and implant abutments.

Clinical significance

This study investigated which technique affects the internal fit of cemented implant-supported crowns, comparing the use of lost wax casting and laser-sintered metal dental alloys. The results of this study indicate that the use of laser-sintered crowns can improve for crown accuracy.

How to cite this article

Kiliçarslan MA, Özkan P, Uludag B, Mumcu E. Comparison of Internal Fit between Implant Abutments and Cast Metal Crowns vs Laser-sintered Crowns. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):428-432.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Varsha H Tambe, Jayshree Vishwas, WN Ghonmode, Pradnya Nagmode, Gaurav Pralhad Agrawal, Omkar Balsaraf

Scanning Electron Microscopic Analysis to Compare the Cleaning Efficiency of Three Different Irrigation Systems at Different Root Canal Levels: An in vitro Study

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:433 - 437]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1558  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study compared the efficacy of conventional, endovac and ultrasonic irrigation system for the removal of debris from root canal walls, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at cervical, middle and apical 3rd.

Materials and methods

A total of 30 freshly extracted human mandibular premolars with complete root formation were selected and divided into group 1 endovac, group 2 conventional and group 3 ultrasonic. After instrumentation and irrigation, the teeth were sectioned in buccolingual direction and analyzed by SEM and the results were analyzed statistically by students unpaired ‘t’ test.

Results

There was significant difference between mean values of cervical (CV), middle (M), and apical (A) when endovac compared with conventional and conventional compared with ultrasonic group (i.e. < 0.05) and no significant difference between mean values at CV, M and A when endovac compared with ultrasonic group.

Conclusion

Among all groups ultrasonic and endovac group showed cleaner canal walls and less amount of debris than conventional group.

Clinical significance

Application of ultrasonic and endovac can be used effectively for irrigation of canals leading to least debris and better prognosis.

How to cite this article

Tambe VH, Vishwas J, Ghonmode WN, Nagmode P, Agrawal GP, Balsaraf O. Scanning Electron Microscopic Analysis to Compare the Cleaning Efficiency of Three Different Irrigation Systems at Different Root Canal Levels: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4): 433-437.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mahroo Vojdani, Kianoosh Torabi, Sasan Rasaeipour, Safoura Ghodsi, Amir Ali Reza Khaledi

Evaluation of the Effect of a Home Bleaching Agent on Surface Characteristics of Indirect Esthetic Restorative Materials—Part II Microhardness

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:438 - 443]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1559  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

The exponential usage of esthetic restorative materials is beholden to society needs and desires. Interaction between the bleaching agents and the esthetic restorative materials is of critical importance.

Aim

This in vitro study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of a home bleaching agent, carbamide peroxide (CP) 38%, on the microhardness of the fiber reinforced composite (FRC), overglazed, autoglazed, or polished porcelain specimens.

Materials and methods

For overglazed, autoglazed, polished ceramics and also FRC cylindrical specimens (n = 20 per group) were prepared. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 48 hours prior to testing. Six samples from each group were selected randomly as negative controls which were stored in distilled water at 37°C that was changed daily. CP 38% was applied on the test specimens for 15 minutes, twice a day for 14 days. By using Knoop-microhardness tester microhardness testing for baseline, control and test specimens was conducted. Data were statistically analyzed using paired t-test, Mann- Whitney test, and Kruskal-Wallis test.

Results

Home bleaching significantly decreased the surface microhardness of all the test samples (p < 0.05), whereas the control groups did not show statistically significant changes after 2 weeks. The polished porcelain and polished composite specimens showed the most significant change in microhardness after bleaching process (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Although the type of surface preparation affects the susceptibility of the porcelain surface to the bleaching agent, no special preparation can preclude such adverse effects.

Clinical Significance

The contact of home bleaching agents with esthetic restorative materials is unavoidable. Therefore protecting these restorations from bleaching agents and reglazing or at least polishing the restorations after bleaching is recommended.

How to cite this article

Torabi K, Rasaeipour S, Ghodsi S, Khaledi AAR, Vojdani M. Evaluation of the Effect of a Home Bleaching Agent on Surface Characteristics of Indirect Esthetic Restorative Materials — Part II Microhardness. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):438-443.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

César Dalmolin Bergoli, Rodrigo Furtado de Carvalho, Ivan Balducci, Josete Barbosa Cruz Meira, Maria Amélia Máximo de Araújo, Marcia Carneiro Valera

Influence of Fiber Post Cementation Length on Coronal Microleakage Values in vitro and Finite Element Analysis

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:444 - 450]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1560  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study aims to evaluate, the influence of different fiber posts cementation lengths by finite element analysis (FEA) and coronal microleakage.

Materials and methods

Fifty anterior bovine teeth were sectioned to obtain roots with 16 mm length. The coronal length of the post was 6 mm for all groups, while the radicular length were varied 6, 8, 10 or 12 mm. The fiber posts surfaces were cleaned with alcohol and silanized. Then the posts were cemented using a two steps total etch-and-rinse adhesive system + conventional resin cement. Forty teeth were submitted to mechanical cycling (45°; 2.000.000 cycles; 90N; 4Hz; 37°C) and ten teeth with radicular length of 12 mm was not submitted, serving as control. So, the experimental design was composed by different ratios of post coronal length/post radicular length and mechanical cycling (MC): Gr1- 1/1 + MC; Gr2- 3/4 + MC; Gr3- 3/5 + MC; Gr4- 1/2 + MC. All groups were immersed in a 1% toluidine blue solution. After 24 hours, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and the microleakage scores was given by a blind operator. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.05). The experimental variables were simulated in twodimensional finite element analysis (2D-FEA). The maximum principal stress distributions were compared.

Results

No difference was observed in microleakage values between the cycled groups, whilst the control groups showed the lowest values. FEA analysis showed similar maximum principal stress distribution between the groups.

Conclusion

Mechanical cycling affected the values of coronal microleakage and different cementation length generated similar values of coronal microleakage and stress distribution.

Clinical significance

These results showed that from the microleakage point of view, more conservative cementation lengths have the same effect as longer cementation lengths.

How to cite this article

Bergoli CD, de Carvalho RF, Balducci I, Meira JBC, de Araújo MAM, Valera MC. Influence of Fiber Post Cementation Length on Coronal Microleakage Values in vitro and Finite Element Analysis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014; 15(4):444-450.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Dina Al-Sudani, Hassan Kaabi, Abdulrahman Al Gamdi, Abdulla Al Dakheel

The Influence of Different Angles and Reciprocation on the Shaping Ability of Two Nickel-Titanium Rotary Root Canal Instruments

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:451 - 455]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1561  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare the effect of different reciprocating movements and angles on the shaping ability of the WaveOne and the single-file ProTaper F2 using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Materials and methods

The mesiobuccal canals of 40 extracted maxillary molars, with curvatures of 20 to 45° were coded and randomly divided into 4 equal experimental groups according to the instrument used (ProTaper F2 file and WaveOne) and the reciprocation range, for both instruments, a 150° angle was used for cutting and a 30° angle was used for release. Group 1 — WaveOne primary 150° CCW rotation angle and 30° CW rotation angle; Group 2 — WaveOne 90° CCW rotation angle and 30° CW rotation angle; Group 3 — ProTaper F2 150° CW rotation angle and 30° CCW rotation angle; Group 4 — ProTaper F2 90° CW rotation angle and 30° CCW rotation angle. Canals were scanned before and after preparation using CBCT to evaluate the volumetric change, canal transportation and the canal centering ability at 2.6, 5.2 and 7.8 mm from the apex. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) values were analyzed, and the significance level was set at p≤ 0.05

Results

There was no significant difference in the amount of dentin removed among the experimental groups, except that WaveOne 150°CCW 30°CW significantly showed the least volume of dentin removed (0.40 ± 0.9) at 7.8 mm. All rotary systems tested in the different groups resulted in canal transportation in different directions at all examined levels. WaveOne 150°CCW 30°CW, demonstrated the lowest mean value of root canal transportation in both the mesial and furcal directions and in both the coronal and apical directions compared to the other groups. At the 7.8 level, WaveOne 150°CCW 30°CW yielded the highest mean centering ratio, whereas ProTaper F2 CW 150° CCW 30° yielded the lowest, statistically significant at p≤ 0.05

Conclusion

The results of the present study demonstrated that differences among various reciprocating motions and angles could affect the shaping ability of a single-file Nickel-titanium (NiTi) instrument.

How to cite this article

Al-Sudani D, Kaabi H, Gamdi AA, Dakheel AA. The Influence of Different Angles and Reciprocation on the Shaping Ability of Two Nickel-Titanium Rotary Root Canal Instruments. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):451-455.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Matheus Coelho Bandéca, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez, Adelson Mota de Aguiar, Arilton Mota de Aguiar, Júlio de Araújo Gurgel, Celia Regina Maio Pinzan Vercelino, Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho

The Prestretching Effect on the Force Decay of Orthodontic Elastic Chain

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:456 - 460]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1562  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

de Aguiar AM, de Aguiar AM, de Araújo Gurgel J, Vercelino CRMP, Filho EMM, Bandeca MC, de Jesus Tavarez RR. The Prestretching Effect on the Force Decay of Orthodontic Elastic Chain. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):456-460.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Amir Moeintaghavi, Hossein Hosseinizarch, Sara Mohammadzadeh Tabassi

The Comparison of Mandibular Radiomorphometric Indices in Panoramic Radiography between Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and Healthy Individuals

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:461 - 465]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1563  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Osteoporosis and periodontitis are two separate diseases with different origins and manifestations. It is believed that these diseases linked together, because they both lead to bone damage, some risk factors are similar, they both have the highest prevalence in middle-aged and older women. Some studies showed that the use of panoramic radiography and special indices could be reliable tools for osteoporosis screening. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease and jaw osteoporotic indices.

Materials and methods

Eighty-two patients with chronic periodontitis and 80 healthy individuals were selected, they had been referred to a private oral and maxillofacial radiology clinic to take a panoramic radiograph. Then panoramic indicators; including the mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), and panoramic mandible index (PMI) in both groups were measured, recorded and analyzed.

Results

The mean age of investigated individuals was 39/8 ± 9/33. 58.6% of participants were females and 41.4% were males. MI and PMI levels in the periodontal group were more than the periodontally healthy group, but the differences between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.808 and p = 0.102 respectively). The MCI level was significantly different between two groups (p = 0.028).

Conclusion

The results of this study showed that there is significant relationship between MCI in panoramic radiography and chronic periodontitis. It is suggested to perform more studies to confirm if this index could be used for screening and indicating of bone status in high risk individuals. This study did not show a strong evidence of a relationship between osteoporosis and periodontitis.

Clinical significance

Since panoramic radiographs are routinely used for screening in dental practice, any association between radiomorphometric indices of mandible in periodontitis patients might be useful in prediction of osteoporosis in patients referring to dental clinics.

How to cite this article

Moeintaghavi A, Hosseinizarch H, MohammadzadehTabassi S. The Comparison of Mandibular Radiomorphometric Indices in Panoramic Radiography between Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and Healthy Individuals. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):461-465.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Yalamanchili Samatha, Avula Jogendra Sai Sankar, KS Ganapathy, Kandula Srinivas, Dasari Ankineedu, Alluri Leela Subhashini Choudary

Clinicopathologic Evaluation of Lesions associated with Tobacco Usage

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:466 - 472]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1564  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Tobacco usage in different forms is the single most common etiological factor responsible for oral cancers. The aim of the present study was to record various mucosal lesions associated with tobacco usage and to ascertain the prevalence of dysplasia in them by histopathological evaluation and to compare the extent of dysplastic features seen among patients associated with a habit of smoked and smokeless form of tobacco.

Materials and methods

Seventy-six patients with the clinical diagnosis of tobacco related lesions (Leukoplakia, Erythroplakia, Nicotina stomatitis, Tobacco pouch keratosis) were selected. A detailed description of the clinical presentation of the lesion was noted and the patients were subjected to incisional biopsy followed by a histopathological evaluation.

Results

Showed dysplastic changes in 50 cases (65.8%) ranging from mild dysplasia in 27 cases (35.5%), moderate dysplasia in 17 cases (22.4%) and 6 cases (7.9%) showed severe dysplasia. Moderate to severe dysplasia was 1.83 times more likely to occur with smokeless tobacco usage when compared to smoked form. Data obtained from this study reveals that patients with a duration of tobacco usage more than 10 years were 2.17 times more likely to have moderate to severe dysplasia (p = 0.154).

Conclusion

Thus, the study highlights the role of oral physicians in detecting oral mucosal lesions and screening high-risk patients on a regular basis and also reaffirms the importance of public education, stressing the risk factors for oral cancers.

How to cite this article

Samatha Y, Sankar AJS, Ganapathy KS, Srinivas K, Ankineedu D, Choudary ALS. Clinicopathologic Evaluation of Lesions associated with Tobacco Usage. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):466-472.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Zeeshan H Ahmad, Sarah M Alkahtany, Sukumaran Anil

An in vitro Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Varying Concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:9] [Pages No:473 - 481]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1565  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity of various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on immortalized human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

Materials and methods

The 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at concentrations of 0.5, 0.1, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.005 mg/ml were used to assess the cytotoxic effect on MSCs. Immortalized human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hTERT-MSCs) were exposed to NaOCl at 5 different concentrations. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and alamarBlue assays. The cell morphology changes were assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after exposure to 2, 4, and 24 hour incubation. The ethidium bromide/acridine orange (EB/ AO) fluorescent stain was applied to the cells in the 8-chamber slides after they were incubated with the testing agents for 2 and 4 hours to detect live and dead cells. The observations were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed.

Results

The cell viability study using MTT assay and AB assay showed significant reduction with varying concentration at 2 and 4 hours incubation period. The cell viability decreased with the higher percentage of NaOCl. The exposure time also revealed an inverse relation to the cell viability. The SEM analysis showed reduction in the number of cells and morphological alterations with 0.5 mg/ml at 2 and 4 hours compared to 0.025 mg/ml NaOCl. Destruction of the cells with structural alterations and lysis was evident under fluorescence microscope when the cells were exposed to 0.5 mg/ml NaOCl.

Conclusion

Within the limitations of this in vitro study it can be concluded that NaOCl is toxic to the human bone marrow MSCs. The cell lysis was evident with higher concentration of sodium hypochlorite. From the observations, it can be concluded that a lower concentration of NaOCl may be used as endodontic irrigant due to its cytotoxic properties. Further studies are man datory to evolve a consensus on the optimal concentration of sodium hypochlorite to be used as endodontic irrigant.

How to cite this article

Alkahtani A, Alkahtany SM, Anil S. An in vitro Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Varying Concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):473-481.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Arefe Hajian-Tilaki, Farshid Oliae, Niloofar Jenabian, Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki, Mina Motallebnejad

Oral Health-related Quality of Life and Periodontal and Dental Health Status in Iranian Hemodialysis Patients

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:9] [Pages No:482 - 490]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1566  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health status and oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Iranian patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Materials and methods

In this cross-sectional study 145 (95 dentate and 50 edentulous) patients undergoing hemodialysis participated. Demographic information, laboratory findings and dental health status was recorded by a standard form. Oral hygiene status was obtained by simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and oral health was evaluated by decay missing filling teeth (DMFT) index, plaque index (PLI) and periodontal disease index. Oral health related quality of life was determined by means of short form oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) and general oral health assessment index (GOHAI).

Results

The mean (± SD) DMFT, PLI and PDI were 15.47 ± 7.85, 2.03 ± 0.95, 4.09 ± 1.31 respectively. OHI-S was good in 7 (7.4%), fair 25 (26.6%) and poor in 38 (26.6%) of patients. The mean OHIP-14 and GOHAI scores were 31.32 ± 12.53 and 29.07 ± 8.5 respectively. The self-perceived oral health of 58 (40%) was good, 49(33.8%) was fair and 38 (26.2%) was poor. Patients with higher scores for the questionnaires had significantly worst self-rated oral health. Besides, there was a significant positive correlation between dental and periodontal variables with OHIP-14 and GOHAI scores.

Conclusion

Hemodialysis patients had a poor oral hygiene and periodontal status, weak attitudes and negligence toward oral health but they were satisfied of their oral health condition and their OHRQoL was approximately good. Therefor it should be communications between nephrologists and oral health care professionals for promoting the oral health status of the patients.

Clinical significance

The findings high light the need of comprehensive oral examinations including periodontal therapy, restorative treatment, preventive dental treatment and follow-up care in the hemodialysis patients.

How to cite this article

Hajian-Tilaki A, Oliae F, Jenabian N, Hajian-Tilaki K, Motallebnejad M. Oral Health-related Quality of Life and Periodontal and Dental Health Status in Iranian Hemodialysis Patients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):482-490.

CASE REPORT

Fidan Alakus Sabuncuoglu, Erkan Özcan

Orthodontic Management of a Patient with Cerebral Palsy: Six Years Follow-up

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:491 - 495]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1567  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder that affects muscle tone, movement and motor skills. CP can also lead to other health issues, including vision, hearing and speech problems, as well as learning disabilities and dental problems. A case report describing the successful orthodontic treatment of a 10-year-old boy with the dyskinesia type of CP and severe malocclusion is presented.

Materials and methods

A 10-year and 2-month old boy was presented by his parents for orthodontic treatment, complaining of his unsatisfactory occlusion and poor chewing efficacy. An extraoral examination showed a convex profile. An intraoral examination showed the patient to be in mixed dentition with a class II molar relationship, 10 mm overjet and 4 mm overbite. In addition, his maxillary and mandibular arches were severely crowded. Cephalometric analysis indicated a severe skeletal class II discrepancy, which was confirmed by an ANB of 12°. The first phase of treatment involved the use of twin blocks with a headgear tube to attempt some growth modification and reduce the overjet. Once it was clear that the appliance was being well tolerated and the oral hygiene was satisfactory, the fixed appliance was used.

Results

Because of the good participation of the patient and his parents, orthodontic treatment was successful in the patient, achieving a normal overjet in combination with successful orofacial therapy.

Conclusion

As demonstrated in our case report, the success of the treatment was dependent on the cooperation of the patient and his parents. Furthermore, this case illustrates the importance of the treatment by a dental team in patients with CP.

How to cite this article

Sabuncuoglu FA, Özcan E. Orthodontic Management of a Patient with Cerebral Palsy: Six Years Followup. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):491-495.

CASE REPORT

Manoj Agarwal, HP Trivedi, Meetu Mathur, Deepak Goel, Sankalp Mittal

The Radix Entomolaris and Radix Paramolaris: An Endodontic Challenge

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:496 - 499]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1568  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Agarwal M, Trivedi HP, Mathur M, Goel D, Mittal S. The Radix Entomolaris and Radix Paramolaris: An Endodontic Challenge. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4): 496-499.

CASE REPORT

Antônio Sérgio Guimarães, Daniel Humberto Pozza, Idercy Cabral de Castro, Iván Claudio Suazo Galdames, Sandro Palla

Complete Ossification of the Stylohyoid Chain as Cause of Eagle's Syndrome: A Very Rare Case Report

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:500 - 505]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1569  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To report on a patient with Eagle's syndrome with a complete and very large ossification of the stylohyoid complex on the right side that to our best knowledge has never been published previously.

Background

Eagle's syndrome is characterized by a set of symptoms that are caused by the irritation of the neurovascular and soft-tissues caused by an elongated styloid process or ossification of stylohyoid ligament.

Case description

Because of the high discomfort and pain degree as well as limitations of mandibular and head mobility and also the thickness of the ossified stylohyoid chain, the patient was treated surgically by removing the hypertrophic segment.

Conclusion

These symptoms subsided completely after the surgical excision of the anomaly. The elongated styloid process on the left side was symptom free.

Clinical significance

Eagle's syndrome symptoms are not specific and can mimic those of other disorders, the syndrome must be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with pain in the orofacial, pharyngeal and cervical area.

How to cite this article

Guimarães AS, Pozza DH, de Castro IC, Galdames ICS, Palla S. Complete Ossification of the Stylohyoid Chain as Cause of Eagle's Syndrome: A Very Rare Case Report. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):500-505.

CASE REPORT

Adriana Cristina Zavanelli, José Vitor Quinelli Mazaro, Caroline Cantieri de Mello, Joel Ferreira Santiago, Andressa Paschoal Amoroso

An Esthetics Rehabilitation with Computer-aided Design/ Computer-aided Manufacturing Technology

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:506 - 512]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1570  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This paper describes a case of a rehabilitation involving Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CADCAM) system in implant supported and dental supported prostheses using zirconia as framework.

Background

The CAD-CAM technology has developed considerably over last few years, becoming a reality in dental practice. Among the widely used systems are the systems based on zirconia which demonstrate important physical and mechanical properties of high strength, adequate fracture toughness, biocompatibility and esthetics, and are indicated for unitary prosthetic restorations and posterior and anterior framework.

Case description

All the modeling was performed by using CAD-CAM system and prostheses were cemented using resin cement best suited for each situation.

Conclusion

The rehabilitation of the maxillary arch using zirconia framework demonstrated satisfactory esthetic and functional results after a 12-month control and revealed no biological and technical complications.

Clinical significance

This article shows the important of use technology CAD/CAM in the manufacture of dental prosthesis and implant-supported.

How to cite this article

Mazaro JVQ, Mello CC, Zavanelli AC, Santiago JF Jr, Amoroso AP, Pellizzer EP. An Esthetics Rehabilitation with Computer-aided Design/Computer-aided Manufacturing Technology. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4): 506-512.

CASE REPORT

Matheus Coelho Bandéca, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez, Adriana Santos Malheiros, Leily Macedo Firoozmand, Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho, Amanda Martins Calixto, Mario Gilson Nina Gomes

Atraumatic Extraction, Implant Placement and Immediate Provisionalization

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:513 - 517]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1571  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

de Jesus Tavarez RR, Calixto AM, Filho EMM, Bandeca MC, Firoozmand LM, Gomes MGN, Malheiros AS. Atraumatic Extraction, Implant Placement and Immediate Provisionalization. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):513-517.

CASE SERIES

Solomon Olusegun Nwhator, Iyobosa Uhunmwangho, Benedict Chukwuma, Osagie Ikponmwosa

Aggressive Periodontitis in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:518 - 522]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1572  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

These case series were aimed at highlighting late presentations of aggressive periodontitis (AP) in a teaching hospital as well as proffering possible reasons for such presentations which would serve as part of the solution to prevent such presentations in the future.

Background

Aggressive periodontitis is a severe form of destructive periodontitis traditionally believed to present around puberty. However, many cases seen in a teaching hospital presented much later for yet-to-be explained reasons.

Case description

Seven patients referred to the specialist periodontal clinic of a Nigerian teaching hospital presented with clinical features consistent with AP. Most of the patients were over twenty and some over thirty years of age.

Conclusion

Aggressive periodontitis patients seen in our center were often outside the traditional age brackets. The range of treatment options available to the patients were under-utilized due to serious financial constraints.

Clinical significance

Aggressive periodontitis comes with serious psychological challenges and severe morbidity. Prompt diagnosis and effective management hold the key to success It is important to investigate why many of the cases seen in our center presented that late. Could be due to ignorance and poverty or could be due to failure of dentists recognize these cases and consequent misdiagnosis? Further studies are needed to answer these questions.

How to cite this article

Nwhator SO, Uhunmwangho I, Chukwuma B, Ikponmwosa O. Aggressive Periodontitis in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4): 518-522.

REVIEW ARTICLE

DS Sanketh, N Amrutha, Anveeta Agarwal

The Ambiguous Salivary Myoepithelial Cells

[Year:2014] [Month:July-August] [Volume:15] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:523 - 528]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1573  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Rao RS, Patil S, Amrutha N, Sanketh DS, Agarwal A. The Ambiguous Salivary Myoepithelial Cells. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(4):523-528.

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