The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2014 | November-December | Volume 15 | Issue 6

EDITORIAL

MICROMETASTASIS IN HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-15-6-i  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mahtab Hamzeh, Mohammad Mehdizadeh, Kamran Nosrati

Availability of Emergency Drugs and Equipment in General and Specialist Dental Settings in Babol, Iran

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:677 - 680]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1598  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Medical emergencies can frequently happen in dental settings and it is critical to outfit the clinic by emergency drugs and equipment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the emergency drugs and equipment in general and specialist dental settings in Babol, Iran.

Materials and methods

A questionnaire containing closed ended questions about the available emergency drugs and equipment was used in this descriptive-analytical study. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis using SPSS 18.0 to identify the most frequent drugs and equipment. Chi-square and t-test were used to evaluate the correlation between the variables. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

One hundred and twelve dentists answered the questionnaire. The most available drug and equipment were epinephrine (67%) and single use syringe (81.3%) respectively. Significant correlation was found between degree of education and availability of first group of emergency drugs and between sex and possession of second group of emergency equipment (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Degree of availability of emergency drugs and equipment was moderate to low and training about emergencies should be included in the didactic topics of universities and workshops.

Clinical significance

Information about emergency drug and equipment would help to manage the unwanted emergency situations.

How to cite this article

Mehdizadeh M, Nosrati K, Hamzeh M. Availability of Emergency Drugs and Equipment in General and Specialist Dental Settings in Babol, Iran. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):677-680.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mateus Rodrigues Tonetto, Matheus Coelho Bandéca, Mônica Barros Silva, Betina Grehs Porto, Thiago Soares Porto, Renésio Armindo Grehs, Ary dos Santos Pinto, Shilpa H Bhandi, Lourdes Aparecida Martins dos Santos-Pinto

Comparison of Linear Measurements and Analyses taken from Plaster Models and Three-dimensional Images

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:7] [Pages No:681 - 687]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1599  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Porto BG, Porto TS, Silva MB, Grehs RA, dos Santos Pinto A, Bhandi SH, Tonetto MR, Bandéca MC, dos Santos-Pinto LAM. Comparison of Linear Measurements and Analyses taken from Plaster Models and Three-dimensional Images. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):681-687.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sukumaran Anil, Farouk Ahmed Hussein, Mohammed Ibrahim Hashem, Elna P Chalisserry

The Impact of Chlorhexidine Mouth Rinse on the Bond Strength of Polycarbonate Orthodontic Brackets

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:688 - 692]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1600  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of the current in-vivo study was to assess the effect of using 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) mouth rinse, before bonding, on shear bond strength of polycarbonate brackets bonded with composite adhesive.

Subjects and methods

Eighteen orthodontic patients with a mean age 21.41 ± 1.2 years, who were scheduled to have 2 or more first premolars extracted, were included in this study. Patients were referred for an oral prophylaxis program which included, in part, the use of a mouth rinse. Patients were divided into 2 groups, a test group of 9 patients who used 0.12% CHX gluconate mouth rinse twice daily and a control group of 9 patients who used a mouth rinse without CHX, but with same color. After 1 week, polycarbonate brackets were bonded to first premolars with Transbond XT composite adhesive. Premolars were extracted after 28 days and tested for shear bond strength on a universal testing machine. Student's t-test was used to compare shear bond strengths of both groups.

Results

No statistically significant difference was found in bond strengths’ values between both groups. The test group (with CHX) has mean shear bond strength of 14.21 ± 2.42 MPa whereas the control group (without CHX) revealed a mean strength of 14.52 ± 2.31 MPa.

Conclusion

The use of 0.12% CHX mouth rinse, for one week before bonding, did not affect the shear bond strength of polycarbonate brackets bonded with Transbond composite. Furthermore, these brackets showed clinically acceptable bond strength.

How to cite this article

Hussein FA, Hashem MI, Chalisserry EP, Anil S. The Impact of Chlorhexidine Mouth Rinse on the Bond Strength of Polycarbonate Orthodontic Brackets. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):688-692.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mohammad Reza Khami, Reza Yazdani, Mohammad Afzalimoghaddam, Samaneh Razeghi, Anahita Moscowchi

Medical Emergency Management among Iranian Dentists

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:693 - 698]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1601  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims

More than 18,000 patients need medical emergencies management in dental offices in Iran annually. The present study investigates medical emergencies management among Iranian dentists.

Materials and methods

From the list of the cell phone numbers of the dentists practicing in the city of Tehran, 210 dentists were selected randomly. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument. The questionnaire requested information on personal and professional characteristics of the dentists, as well as their knowledge and selfreported practice in the field of medical emergency management, and availability of required drugs and equipments to manage medical emergencies in their offices.

Results

Totally, 177 dentists (84%) completed the questionnaire. Less than 60% of the participants were knowledgeable about characteristics of hypoglycemic patient, chest pain with cardiac origin, and true cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) practice. Regarding practice, less than one quarter of the respondents acquired acceptable scores. In regression models, higher practice scores were significantly associated with higher knowledge scores (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

The results call for a need to further education on the subject for dentists. Continuing education and changing dental curriculum in the various forms seems to be useful in enhancement of the self-reported knowledge and practice of dentists.

Clinical significance

To successful control of medical emergencies in the dental office, dentists must be prepared to recognize and manage a variety of such conditions. In addition to dentist's knowledge and skill, availability of necessary equipments and trained staff is also of critical importance.

How to cite this article

Khami MR, Yazdani R, Afzalimoghaddam M, Razeghi S, Moscowchi A. Medical Emergency Management among Iranian Dentists. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6): 693-698.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anna Karina Figueiredo Costa, Thaty Aparecida Xavier, Tarcisio José Arruda Paes-Junior, Oswaldo Daniel Andreatta-Filho, Alexandre Luiz Souto Borges

Influence of Occlusal Contact Area on Cusp Deflection and Stress Distribution

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:699 - 704]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1602  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of occlusal contact area for loading on the cuspal deflection and stress distribution in a first premolar restored with a high elastic modulus restorative material.

Materials and methods

The Rhinoceros 4.0 software was used for modeling the three-dimensional geometries of dental and periodontal structures and the inlay restoration. Thus, two different models, intact and restored teeth with three occlusal contact areas, 0.1, 0.5 and 0.75 mm2, on enamel at the occlusal surface of buccal and lingual cusps. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed with the program ANSYS (Workbench 13.0), which generated a mesh with tetrahedral elements with greater refinement in the regions of interest, and was constrained at the bases of cortical and trabecular bone in all axis and loaded with 100 N normal to each contact area.

Results

To analysis of maximum principal stress, the smaller occlusal contact area showed greater compressive stress in region of load application for both the intact and inlay restored tooth. However, tensile stresses at the occlusal isthmus were similar for all three tested occlusal contact areas (60 MPa). To displacement of the cusps was higher for teeth with inlay (0.46- 0.48 mm). For intact teeth, the smaller contact area showed greater displacement (0.10 mm). For teeth with inlays, the displacement of the cusps were similar in all types of occlusal area.

Conclusion

Cuspal displacement was higher in the restored tooth when compared to the intact tooth, but there were no significant variations even with changes in the occlusal contact area.

Relevance clinical

Occlusal contacts have a great influence on the positioning of teeth being able to maintain the position and stability of the mandible. Axial loads would be able to generate more uniform stress at the root presenting a greater concentration of load application in the point and the occlusal surface. Thus, is necessary to analyze the relationship between these occlusal contacts as dental wear and subsequent occlusal interferences.

How to cite this article

Costa AKF, Xavier TA, Paes-Junior TJA, Andreatta-Filho OD, Borges ALS. Influence of Occlusal Contact Area on Cusp Deflection and Stress Distribution. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):699-704.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sérgio Luiz Pinheiro, Diana Roberta Pereira, Flávia De Milito, Karina Teixeira Villalpando

Influence of Metalloproteinases on Dentin Hybridization of One-bottle or Self-etch Dental Bonding Systems

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:7] [Pages No:705 - 711]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1603  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To assess the influence of dentin substrate and chlorhexidine on the marginal seal of composite resin restorations.

Materials and methods

The sample comprised 20 third molars. Four cavities were drilled in the dentin surface, followed by sealing and restoration of sound dentin (n = 10) or carious dentin (n = 10). In the control group, cavities were immediately restored as follows: G1: one-bottle bonding agent (OB) + composite resin (CR); G2: chlorhexidine 2.0% (CLX) + OB + CR; G3: self-etch bonding agent (SE) + CR; G4: CLX + SE + CR. In the experimental group (carious dentin), carious lesions were induced with S. mutans and cavities were restored as in the control group. Five specimens from each group (sound and carious) were stored in brain–heart infusion (BHI) medium for 6 months. All specimens were submerged in methylene blue 0.5% to test for microleakage. The Kruskal-Wallis and Student- Newman-Keuls tests were used to assess results.

Results

On immediate assessment, there were no significant between-group differences in the sound dentin group, whereas in carious dentin, there was less leakage when OB and CLX were used. At 6 months, there was less leakage in the sound dentin group when OB and CLX were used; there were no between-group differences in carious dentin. Comparison of immediate and 6-month assessments showed a significant increase in leakage at 6 months when sound dentin was treated with SE and CLX and when carious dentin was treated with OB and CLX.

Conclusion

To ensure better dentin hybridization and preservation of the organic constituents of the dentin matrix, the properties of chlorhexidine digluconate and the components of the resin matrix must be taken into account.

Clinical significance

Metalloproteinases influence degradation of the hybrid layer in composite resin restorations, regardless of whether the bonding system used is one-bottle or self-etching.

How to cite this article

Pinheiro SL, Pereira DR, Milito FD, Villalpando KT. Influence of Metalloproteinases on Dentin Hybridization of One-bottle or Self-etch Dental Bonding Systems. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):705-711.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Suresh Nagaral, Raviraj G Desai, Vikas Kamble, Anand Kumar G Patil

Isolation of Candida Species from the Oral Cavity and Fingertips of Complete Denture Wearers

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:712 - 716]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1604  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Wearing a dental prosthesis is known to increase oral candidal colonization and predispose the wearer to oral candidosis. Denture wearers frequently use fingers to take the prosthesis out of their mouth. Oral Candida, if present may contaminate wearer's finger. The objective of this study was to investigate the simultaneous candidal colonization of oral cavity and fingertips of complete denture wearers.

Materials and methods

A total of 25 apparently healthy male subjects who had worn complete dentures for at least 1 year were selected. Information about each patient's denture age, denture hygiene, handling, and wearing habits, and hand washing habits after denture handling were be obtained. Intraoral examination of all the patients was done. For microbiological examination samples were collected from the fingertip and oral rinse of each patient. Candida species were identified with use of germ tube test and commercially available yeast identification system. Data was statistically analyzed. Significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results

It was found that frequency of hand washing, denture handling and denture stomatitis with respect to fingertip candidal isolation was not statistically significant. But poor denture hygiene and denture stomatitis with respect to oral candidal colonization was statistically significant.

Conclusion

Denture wearers with oral Candida had a higher prevalence of Candida contamination on their fingers. Patients with removable prostheses should be informed about the importance of proper prosthesis and personal hygiene and the possibility of microbial contamination of the hands and other parts of the body.

How to cite this article

Nagaral S, Desai RG, Kamble V, Patil AKG. Isolation of Candida Species from the Oral Cavity and Fingertips of Complete Denture Wearers. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):712-716.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sibel A Antonson, Ozlem Tulunoglu, Ibrahim Fevzi Tulunoglu, Marc Campillo-Funollet, Donald Antonson, Carlos Munoz-Viveros

Effectiveness of an Infiltrant on sealing of Composite Restoration Margins with/without Artificial Caries

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:9] [Pages No:717 - 725]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1605  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a resin infiltrant (ICON) on marginal sealing ability of class II resin restorations with/without-caries.

Materials and methods

Forty-eight noncarious human premolar teeth were embedded and MO and DO preparations of standard dimensions were prepared. The left side of dentin margins of the cavities were left nonbonded (UB) while the right side were bonded using total etch-bonding agent and all restored with a Nanohybrid composite. The teeth were thermocycled and half of the specimens in the UB and B groups were subjected to an artificial caries process. ICON was applied to caries and noncaries subgroups following the manufacturer's directions. Impressions were made at each step: after the restorations were completed, thermocycling, artificial caries procedures, and infiltrant application and the silicone tag lengths were measured with a stereomicroscope. The specimens were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine at 37° C for 24 hours, sectioned and microleakage was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Selected samples and their replicas were assessed for marginal quality under a stereomicroscope and SEM. Statistical evaluation of the data were made using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Sign Rank tests.

Results

While bonding application did not create a meaningful difference, the thermocycling and artificial caries significantly increased the gap length and microleakage (p < 0.05). ICON application was decreased the microleakage, created gap-free margins and closed the gaps which were previously occurred at the same cavities (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

A resin infiltrant (ICON) application decreased the microleakage, created gap-free margins and closed the gaps, which previously occurred at the same cavities.

Clinical significance

Approximal application of resin infiltrant may increase the success of the class II composite restorations also reduced the risk of needing more complex restoration therapy.

How to cite this article

Tulunoglu O, Tulunoglu IF, Antonson SA, Campillo-Funollet M, Antonson D, Munoz-Viveros C. Effectiveness of an Infiltrant on Sealing of Composite Restoration Margins with/without Artificial Caries. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6): 717-725.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Haridoss Selvakumar, Swaminathan Kavitha, Rajendran Vijayakumar, Thomas Eapen, Rajendran Bharathan

Study of Pulp Chamber Morphology of Primary Mandibular Molars using Spiral Computed Tomography

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:726 - 729]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1606  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pulp chamber morphology in primary mandibular molars using spiral computed tomography (SCT).

Materials and methods

Sixty extracted primary mandibular molars were scanned using SCT for the (i) distance between the central fissure to furcation, (ii) distance between the central fissure to the floor of the pulp chamber, (iii) height of the pulp chamber (roof-floor), (iv) distance between the floor of the pulp chamber to the furcation. The mean and standard deviation was analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) program.

Results

The results of this study show that the average mean distance from the central fissure to the floor of the pulp chamber is 5.07 mm in first mandibular primary molar and 5.54 mm in second mandibular primary molar.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the greatest depth to which a bur can go during access opening without perforating the furcation in first primary mandibular molar is 5.07 mm and 5.54 mm in second primary mandibular molar.

How to cite this article

Selvakumar H, Kavitha S, Vijayakumar R, Eapen T, Bharathan R. Study of Pulp Chamber Morphology of Primary Mandibular Molars using Spiral Computed Tomography. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):726-729.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Majid Akbari, Reza Afshari, Mahsa Sharifi, Seyed Isaac Hashemy, Sara Majidinia, Naser Karimian Tousi

Evaluation of the Effect of Diacetyl Morphine on Salivary Factors and their Changes after Methadone Therapy

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:730 - 734]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1607  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives

Psychoactive drugs are responsible for pathological changes in the mouth including dental caries, which most troublesome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of heroin on several salivary factors which are involved in the oral health and their changes after methadone maintenance therapy (MMT).

Materials and methods

Forty patients with heroin abuse history, who referred to Imam Reza Hospital for MMT were included.

Saliva sampling was carried out two times; at the first visit (time 1) and repeated 1 month after MMT (time 2). The saliva was analyzed immediately to evaluate the total volume, Ph, CPR, the Uric acid concentration, nitric oxide and antioxidant capacity.

Results

The mean values for saliva volume, pH, CRP, Uric acid, antioxidant and nitric oxide were 0.38 ± 0.14, 7.63 ± 1.22, 5.2 ± 2.3, 1.47 ± 0.8, 0.80 ± 0.23, and 0.26 ± 0.03, respectively at first visit and 0.34 ± 0.22, 7.37 ± 1.01, 6.1 ± 2.6, 2.18 ± 0.9, 0.74 ± 0.3 and 0.29 ± 0.08 after 1 month of MMT.

These values are below the normal ranges; however, there was no significant difference between two times in term of saliva volume, pH and saliva component (p > 0.05).

Conclusion

Heroin addiction changed the effective salivary factors and therefore could negatively contribute to oral health. These factors were not return to the normal range after 1 month of MMT. Physicians should be informed about focusing on oral health in patients under MMT.

Clinical significance

Heroin addiction changed the effective salivary factors and these factors were not return to the normal range after 1 month of MMT.

How to cite this article

Akbari M, Afshari R, Sharifi M, Hashemy SI, Majidinia S, Tousi NK. Evaluation of the Effect of Diacetyl Morphine on Salivary Factors and their Changes after Methadone Therapy. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):730-734.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Adilson Luiz Ramos, Ossam Abu El Haje, Daniela Daufenback Pompeo, Gisela Crippa Furtado, Luciana Monti Lima Rivera

Is It Possible to use Cross-sectional and Vertical Facial Measurements to establish the Shape of the Mandibular Arch?

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:735 - 739]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1608  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Given the benefits of radiographic cephalometric studies in determining patterns of dental-skeletal-facial normality in orthodontics, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between mandibular dental arch shape and cross-sectional and vertical facial measurements.

Materials and methods

It was analyzed plaster casts and teleradiographs in frontal and lateral norm belonging to 50 individuals, aged between 15 and 19 years, with no previous history of orthodontic treatment and falling into four of the six Andrews's occlusion keys. The plaster models were scanned (3D) and the images of the dental arches were classified subjectively as oval, triangular and quadrangular by three calibrated examiners, with moderate inter-examiner agreement (Kappa = 0.50). After evaluation of the method error by paired t test (p > 0.05), it was carried out the analysis of cross-sectional and vertical facial measurements to be compared to the shape of the dental arch. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance with a significance level of 5%.

Results

When the VERT index was compared with the three arch shapes, no measurement showed statistically significant differences (p > 0.05): triangular (0.54); oval (0.43); and quadrangular (0.73); as well as there were no differences (p > 0.05) in the widths of the face (141.20; 141.26; 143.27); maxilla (77.27; 77.57; 78.59) and mandible (105.13; 103.96; 104.28).

Conclusion

It can be concluded that there was no correlation between different shapes of the mandibular dental arch and the cross-sectional and vertical facial measurements investigated.

How to cite this article

El Haje OA, Pompeo DD, Furtado GC, Rivera LML, Paranhos LR. Is It Possible to use Cross-sectional and Vertical Facial Measurements to establish the Shape of the Mandibular Arch? J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):735-739.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mojdeh Mehdizadeh, Navid Ahmadi, Mahsa Jamshidi

Evaluation of the Relationship between Mandibular Third Molar and Mandibular Canal by Different Algorithms of Cone-beam Computed Tomography

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:740 - 745]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1609  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives

Exact location of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) bundle is very important. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal by cone-beam computed tomography.

Study design

This was a cross-sectional study with convenience sampling. 94 mandibular CBCTs performed with CSANEX 3D machine (Soredex, Finland) and 3D system chosen. Vertical and horizontal relationship between the mandibular canal and the third molar depicted by 3D, panoramic reformat view of CBCT and cross-sectional view. Cross-sectional view was our gold standard and other view evaluated by it.

Results

There were significant differences between the vertical and horizontal relation of nerve and tooth in all views (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

The results showed differences in the position of the inferior alveolar nerve with different views of CBCT, so CBCT images are not quite reliable and have possibility of error.

How to cite this article

Mehdizadeh M, Ahmadi N, Jamshidi M. Evaluation of the Relationship between Mandibular Third Molar and Mandibular Canal by Different Algorithms of Cone-beam Computed Tomography. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):740-745.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Faezeh Khozeimeh, Omid Savabi, Masih Esnaashari

Evaluation of Interleukin-1α, Interleukin-10, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and transforming Growth Factor-β in the Serum of Patients with Pemphigus Vulgaris

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:746 - 749]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1610  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Material and methods

In this analytic and descriptive study 25 patients with pemphigus vulgaris (in active phase) and 25 healthy persons were examined. Serum samples of two groups were obtained and the level of IL-1α, IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-β were measured by ELISA technique. The data were analyzed statistically by independent T test (α = 0/05).

Results

All cytokines tested, showed higher concentration in patient's sera comparing to healthy control individuals. The level of IL-1α (p = 0.004), TNF-α (p = 0.008) and TGF-β (p = 0.009) were statistically different in two experimental groups, There was no significant difference in IL-10 level (p = 0.605).

Conclusion

Cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-β probably have a role in pathogenesis of PV. Further comprehensive studies are suggested to confirm these findings.

How to cite this article

Khozeimeh F, Savabi O, Esnaashari M. Evaluation of Interleukin-1α, Interleukin-10, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and transforming Growth Factor-β in the Serum of Patients with Pemphigus Vulgaris. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):746-749.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

BS Suprabha

Efficacy of Lignocaine in Gel and Spray form during Buccal Infiltration Anesthesia in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:750 - 754]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1611  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To compare the efficacy of 15% lignocaine spray and 8% lignocaine gel as a topical anesthetic, in reducing pain, during buccal infiltration in children.

Materials and methods

Forty-two patients aged between 7 and 12 years requiring restorative procedures/extraction/pulp therapy of primary/ permanent teeth in the maxillary arch, under buccal infiltration anesthesia were selected for the study. The participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 21 each. In group A, 8% lignocaine gel and in group B, 15% lignocaine spray was applied prior to buccal infiltration. Pain was assessed using Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPRS) and faces legs activity cry and consolability (FLACC) painscale.

Results

Pearson's chi-square test revealed that there was no significant difference in the FLACC scores of the two groups (p = 0.54). Independent t-test demonstrated that there was no significant difference in Wong-Bakers faces pain score between the two agents (p = 0.07).

Conclusion

There is no significant difference in the efficacy of 15% lignocaine spray and 8% lignocaine gel as a topical anesthetic in controlling pain during buccal infiltration anesthesia, in children.

How to cite this article

Sharma A, Suprabha BS, Shenoy R, Rao A. Efficacy of Lignocaine in Gel and Spray form during Buccal Infiltration Anesthesia in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):750-754.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Omar A Bawazir, Bandar Alsuwayt, Waleed Alqahtani, Ahmad Al-Dhafiri, Mosleh Al-Shamrani

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pediatricians and Pharmacists in Riyadh City toward the use of Sugar free Medications

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:755 - 760]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1612  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

This study was intended to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of pediatricians and pharmacists about sugar free medications (SFMs) and their impact on oral health.

Materials and methods

Self-administered close ended questionnaire was handed out to all pediatricians and pharmacists in five tertiary hospitals in Riyadh (King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud Medical City, King Fahad Medical City, Prince Sultan Medical Military City, Security Forces Hospital) to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice concerning SFMs.

Results

Eighty-five pediatricians and 77 pharmacists participated in this study. The results showed that pediatricians and pharmacists have a good knowledge, but negative attitude toward SFMs. Only (5.9%) of pediatricians had formal undergraduate training which is significantly lower than pharmacists (15.6%) (p = 0.04). One-third of pediatricans and pharmacists prescribe or dispense SFMs. The most influencing factors toward prescription (pediatrician) of SFMs was the medical status of the patient (70.6%), while the most influencing factor of dispensing (pharmacists) SFMs was the availability in the pharmacy (64.9%). Two-third of pediatricians (67%) guide the parents about the risk associated with sugarcontaining medications (SCMs) which is significantly higher than pharmacists (p < 0.0001). Also, 53% of pediatricians recommend oral hygiene instructions when prescribing SCMs which is also significantly higher than pharmacists (p = 0.002).

Conclusion

There is a considerable knowledge about SFMs and its impact on dental caries, among pediatricians and pharmacists participated in this study. However, their attitude toward prescribing or dispensing SFMs was not positive and may be linked to the gap in knowledge. Further training and education of healthcare providers regarding the use of SFMs and its negative impact on dental caries has to be reiterated.

How to cite this article

Bawazir OA, Alsuwayt B, Alqahtani W, Al-Dhafiri A, Al-Shamrani M. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pediatricians and Pharmacists in Riyadh City toward the use of Sugar free Medications. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014; 15(6):755-760.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Natalia Cimadon, Isabel Silva Lauxen, Vinicius Coelho Carrard, Manoel Sant'Ana Filho, Pantelis Varvaki Rados, Márcia Gaiger Oliveira

Analysis of the Proliferative Potential of Odontogenic Epithelial Cells of Pericoronal Follicles

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:761 - 765]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1613  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate the proliferative potential and the cell proliferation rate of odontogenic epithelial cells.

Materials and methods

Forty-two cases of pericoronal follicles of impacted third molars were submitted to silver impregnation technique for quantification of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR) and immunohistochemical staining for EGFR and Ki-67. For AgNOR quantification, the mean number of active nucleolar organizer regions per nucleus (mAgNOR) and the percentage of cells with 1, 2, 3 and 4 or more AgNORs per nucleus (pAgNOR) were quantified. Ki-67 immunolabeling was quantified, whereas for EGFR, a descriptive analysis of staining patterns (membrane, cytoplasm or membrane + cytoplasm positivity) was performed. We evaluated the reduced epithelium of the enamel organ and/or islands of odontogenic epithelium present in the entire connective tissue.

Results

mAgNOR were 1.43 (1.0-2.42) and were significantly different among pericoronary follicles from upper and lower teeth (p = 0.041). Immunostaining of Ki-67 was negative in all cases. EGFR immunolabeling was found mainly in the cytoplasm and was more intense in islands and cords when compared to reduced epithelium of the enamel organ.

Conclusion

Odontogenic epithelial cells of some pericoronal follicles have proliferative potential, suggesting their association with the development of odontogenic lesions.

Clinical significance

The authors suggest that nonerupted, especially of the lower teeth, should be monitored and if necessary removed.

How to cite this article

Cimadon N, Lauxen IS, Carrard VC, Filho MSA, Rados PV, Oliveira MG. Analysis of the Proliferative Potential of Odontogenic Epithelial Cells of Pericoronal Follicles. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):761-765.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vinod Kumar, Prahalad Hunsigi, Balakasi Reddy Kaipa, Rajini Reddy, Chakki B Arun Kumar, MD Prasanna

Radiographic Localization of Mental Foramen in Northeast and South Indian Ethnic Groups of Indian Population

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:766 - 769]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1614  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background and objectives

The position of mental foramen varies in different ethnic groups. The position of mental foramen is mainly important for achieving effective mental nerve block to carry out dental surgical procedures in mandible. Deviation in its position can be a cause of complication during local anesthesia or surgical procedures. The position of the mental foramen in South Indian and Northeast Indian population has not been reported.

The purpose of the current study was to determine the most common location of the mental foramen (MF) and its bilateral symmetry in selected Indian population.

Materials and methods

380 digital panoramic radiographs (DPR) of a randomly selected 2 Ethnic groups of Indian population were studied.

Results

The common position (59.2%) of the mental foramen was located between the 1st and 2nd premolars (P3) in Northeast Indians and in South Indians the common location (62.8%) was in line with the long axis of the 2nd premolar (P4), which was statistically significant in both Populations.

Conclusion

A bilateral symmetry was observed in the location of mental foramina, either mesial to or in line with the long axis of the 2nd premolar, which is consistent with the observations of similar studies in various ethnic or racial groups. In our study a statistically significant association between the 2 ethnic groups and the position of mental foramen exists. Therefore the position of mental foramen may be specific to racial groups facilitating accurate landmark for mental nerve block depending on the ethnic group. Further, studies are required with larger sample for better understanding of mental foramen location in different ethnic groups.

How to cite this article

Kumar V, Hunsigi P, Kaipa BR, Reddy R, Ealla KKR, Kumar CBA, Prasanna MD. Radiographic Localization of Mental Foramen in Northeast and South Indian Ethnic Groups of Indian Population. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):766-769.

CASE REPORT

Renato de Toledo Leonardo, Milton Carlos Kuga, Katia Cristina Keine, Andrea Abi Rached Dantas, Gisele Faria, Jardel Camilo do Carmo Monteiro, Keren Cristina Fagundes Jordão-Basso, Prashant Jay Ruchaya

A Method for retrieving Endodontic or Atypical Nonendodontic separated Instruments from the Root Canal: A Report of Two Cases

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:770 - 774]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1615  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This clinical report presents a new method for retrieving separated instruments from the root canal with minimally invasive procedures.

Background

The presence of separated instrument in root canal may interfere in the endodontic treatment prognosis. There are several recommended methods to retrieve separated instruments, but some are difficult in clinically practice.

Case report

This study describes two cases of separated instrument removal from the root canal using a stainless-steel prepared needle associated with a K-file. Case 1 presented a fractured gutta-percha condenser within the mandibular second premolar, it was separated during incorrect intracanal medication calcium hydroxide placement. Case 2 had a fractured sewing needle within the upper central incisor that the patient used to remove food debris from the root canal. After cervical preparation, the fractured instruments were fitted inside a prepared needle and then an endodontic instrument (#25 K-file) was adapted with clockwise turning motion between the needle inner wall and the fragment.

Conclusion

The endodontic or atypical nonendodontic separated instrument may be easily pull on of the root canal using a single and low cost device.

Clinical significance

The methods for retrieving separated instruments from root canal are difficult and destructive procedures. The present case describes a simple method to solve this problem.

How to cite this article

do Carmo Monteiro JC, Kuga MC, Dantas AAR, Jordão-Basso KCF, Keine KC, Ruchaya PJ, Faria G, de Toledo Leonardo R. A Method for retrieving Endodontic or Atypical Nonendodontic separated Instruments from the Root Canal: A Report of Two Cases. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):770-774.

CASE REPORT

Omer Gunhan, Emin Murat Canger, Peruze Çelenk, Emel Bulut

An Unusual Case of Ameloblastoma observed in the Left Anterior Mandible

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:775 - 778]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1616  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To report a small intaalveolar ameloblastoma which resembled cystic lesion, and to emphasize the value of Computed tomography (CT) in radiographic examination.

Background

Ameloblastoma is a slow-growing, locally invasive odontogenic neoplasm that accounts for approximately 10% of all tumors detected in the jaws. Radiographically, those tumors are usually well-defined. Computerized tomography is highly recommended to confirm the diagnosis.

Case description

A 48-year-old female attended with a chief complaint of painless swelling in the left anterior of mandible, 1 month duration. In intraoral examination, non-fluctuant, immobile, approximately 1 × 1 cm in dimension, painless, swelling which had a bone-like hardness and located in the mandibular canine region was detected. Panoramic radiography revealed a well circumscribed unilocular radiolucent lesion located in the inter-radicular area of left mandibular lateral and canine teeth. In CT examination it was realized that the lesion was multilocular. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen was reported as ameloblastoma.

Clinical significance

It is extremely difficult to find such an ameloblastoma in small dimension in alvolar bone.

How to cite this article

Canger EM, Çelenk P, Bulut E, Günhan Ö. An Unusual Case of Ameloblastoma observed in the Left Anterior Mandible. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):775-778.

CASE REPORT

Aditi Chopra, Karthik Sivaraman, Tarun K Awataramaney

Calcium Phosphate Barrier for Augmentation of Bone in noncontained Periodontal Osseous Defects: A Novel Approach

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:779 - 783]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1617  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this technique is to augment bone in noncontained osseous deformities using a unique self-sustaining calcium phosphate barrier.

Introduction

Bone has the inherent ability to regenerate completely if it is provided with a fracture space or an undisturbed enclosed scaffold. A secluded environment is essential as it provides a secured, sterile and stable wound system that regenerates lost bone by a process of osteopromotion. Reconstructive techniques using bone grafts and barrier membranes utilize this principle for augmentation of deficient bony sites by providing a closed environment that promotes clot stability, graft retention, and facilitates correct cell repopulation. However, in noncontained bone defects like one walled infrabony periodontal defect or sites with horizontal bone loss, regeneration of bone still remains an unrealistic situation since osseous topography at such sites does not favor membrane stability or bone grafts retention. This case report presents a promising technique to augment bone in areas with horizontal loss.

Technique

Augmentation of bone in the interdental area with horizontal bone loss was accomplished by building a contained defect using a unique self sustaining calcium phosphate cement formulation. The calcium phosphate barrier stimulates the lost cortical plates and promotes graft retention and clot stability. At 6 months, there was a significant bone fill and trabecular formation in the interdental area and reduction in tooth mobility.

Conclusion

This promising technique could prove to be a good alternative to the conventional approaches for treating osseous deformities.

Clinical significance

Calcium phosphate is a promising barrier graft for repair of noncontained periodontal osseous defect. This technique cues both the clinicians and manufacturers to develop moldable tissue engineered constructs for osseous repair.

How to cite this article

Chopra A, Sivaraman K, Awataramaney TK. Calcium Phosphate Barrier for Augmentation of Bone in noncontained Periodontal Osseous Defects: A Novel Approach. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):779-783.

CASE REPORT

Manoj Agarwal, HP Trivedi, Ankit Gaur, Manju Gupta, Anuradha Sharma, Lalit Likhyani

Mandibular First Molar with Vertucci Type I Canal Configuration diagnosed with the Help of Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Rare Case Report

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:784 - 787]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1618  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Gaur A, Trivedi HP, Gupta M, Sharma A, Likhyani L, Agarwal M. Mandibular First Molar with Vertucci Type I Canal Configuration diagnosed with the Help of Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Rare Case Report. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):784-787.

CASE REPORT

Fabian Calixto Fraiz, Renato Cordeiro Gugisch, Bianca Lopes Cavalcante-Leão, Liliane Moreira Macedo

Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Clinical Case with a Longitudinal Approach

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:788 - 791]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1619  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This paper describes a clinical case of a male with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia submitted to rehabilitation and occlusal dental interventions with follow-up from 3 to 14 years of age.

Background

Due to the severe effects on function and esthetics, the clinical manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia exert a negative impact on quality of life. However, oral rehabilitation in childhood poses a challenge due to growth and development.

Case description

A male with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia began dental intervention at the age of 3 years. The clinical and radiographic exams revealed the absence of several primary and permanent teeth and abnormal shape of the primary maxillary incisors. The facial characteristics were compatible with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, such as a prominent brow, everted lips, flattened bridge of the nose and small vertical facial height. The treatment proposed involved rehabilitation through successive temporary partial dentures, functional orthopedics of the jaws, esthetic reconstruction of the anterior teeth, timely occlusal intervention and preventive actions for the control of dental caries and plaque.

Conclusion

The present case demonstrates that early care plays a fundamental role in minimizing the biopsychosocial consequences of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and preparing the patient for future oral rehabilitation.

Clinical significance

Although, the literature offers a number of papers describing dental treatment for ectodermal dysplasia, few cases include long-term follow-up and the use of a functional orthopedic appliance in combination with removable dentures in such patients.

How to cite this article

Fraiz FC, Gugisch RC, Cavalcante- Leão BL, Macedo LM. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Clinical Case with a Longitudinal Approach. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):788-791.

CASE REPORT

Sophia Thakur, VJ Narmatha, Sheetal Shetty, Praveen Kumar Bali

The Complex Radicular Groove: Interdisciplinary Management with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Bone Substitute

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:792 - 796]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1620  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Narmatha VJ, Thakur S, Shetty S, Bali PK. The Complex Radicular Groove: Interdisciplinary Management with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Bone Substitute. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):792-796.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Sara Abdulaziz Alfadda

Early and Immediate Loading Protocols for Overdentures in Completely Edentulous Maxillas: A Comprehensive Review of Clinical Trials

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:9] [Pages No:797 - 805]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1621  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Alfadda SA. Early and Immediate Loading Protocols for Overdentures in Completely Edentulous Maxillas: A Comprehensive Review of Clinical Trials. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):797-805.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Zeeshan H Ahmad

Halitosis: A Review of the Etiologic Factors and Association with Systemic Conditions and its Management

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:806 - 811]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1622  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Mokeem SA. Halitosis: A Review of the Etiologic Factors and Association with Systemic Conditions and its Management. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):806-811.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Kamran Habib Awan, Syed Rashid Habib, Ana Pejcic, Rosnah Binti Zain

Evaluation of Medicinal Interventions for the Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Systematic Review of the Literature

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:812 - 817]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1623  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Awan KH, Patil S, Habib SR, Pejcic A, Zain RB. Evaluation of Medicinal Interventions for the Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Systematic Review of the Literature. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):812-817.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Dileep Nag Vinnakota, V Vijay Sankar, Naveen Chirumamilla, V Vamsikrishna Reddy

Osseointegrated Silicone Finger Prosthesis using Dental Implants: A Renovated Technique

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:3] [Pages No:818 - 820]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1624  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and background

In clinical practice, we come across patients with traumatically amputated or congenitally missing partial or complete fingers that can be restored using microsurgical replantation or transplantation procedures. However, in some cases this might not be possible due to systemic or local factors and the lost or missing part has to be replaced prosthetically to offer psychological and functional wellbeing. These prostheses can be constructed with various materials like acrylics or silicone retained with the help of auxiliary aids. However, these prostheses cause some hindrance in performing functions like writing, typing, etc. The aim of the present trial was to ameliorate the existing design of implant supported finger prosthesis.

Technique

Distal phalange of middle finger replaced with implant supported silicone finger prosthesis is modified by utilizing a metal framework to support silicone material to improve rigidity while working.

Conclusion and clinical significance

We could achieve a good function, esthetics and tactile sensibility with this modified design. Whenever, feasible this design can improve the performance and patients feel a deep sense of satisfaction and improved self-esteem with this modified prosthesis.

How to cite this article

Vinnakota DN, Sankar VV, Chirumamilla N, Reddy VV. Osseointegrated Silicone Finger Prosthesis using Dental Implants: A Renovated Technique. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):818-820.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Walid Ahmed Abdullah, Hesham S Khalil, Maryam M Alhindi, Hamdy Marzook

Modifying Gummy Smile: A Minimally Invasive Approach

[Year:2014] [Month:November-December] [Volume:15] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:821 - 826]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1625  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Excessive gingival display is a problem that can be managed by variety of procedures. These procedures include non-surgical and surgical methods. The underlying cause of gummy smile can affect the type of procedure to be selected. Most patients prefer minimally invasive procedures with outstanding results. The authors describe a minimally invasive lip repositioning technique for management of gummy smile.

Materials and methods

Twelve patients (10 females, 2 males) with gingival display of 4 mm or more were operated under local anesthesia using a modified lip repositioning technique. Patients were followed up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and gingival display was measured at each follow up visit. The gingival mucosa was dissected and levator labii superioris and depressor septi muscles were freed and repositioned in a lower position. The levator labii superioris muscles were pulled in a lower position using circumdental sutures for 10 days. Both surgeon's and patient's satisfaction of surgical outcome was recorded at each follow-up visit.

Results

At early stage of follow-up the main complaints of patients were the feeling of tension in the upper lip and circum oral area, mild pain which was managed with analgesics. One month postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded to be between 2 and 4 mm with a mean of (2.6 mm). Patient satisfaction records after 1 month showed that 10 patients were satisfied with the results. Three months postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded and found to be between 2 and 5 mm with a mean of 3 mm. Patient satisfaction records showed that 8 patients were satisfied with the results as they gave scores between. Surgeon's satisfaction at three months follow up showed that the surgeons were satisfied in 8 patients. The same results were found in the 6 and 12 months follow-up periods without any changes. Complete relapse was recorded only in one case at the third postoperative month.

Conclusion

This study showed that the proposed lip repositioning technique is an acceptable minimally invasive procedure in managing gummy smile.

Clinical significance

A non-invasive procedure to avoid other complicated surgical procedures.

How to cite this article

Abdullah WA, Khalil HS, Alhindi MM, Marzook H. Modifying Gummy Smile: A Minimally Invasive Approach. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):821-826.

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