Giant cell lesions are characterised histologically by multinucleated giant cells in a background of ovoid to spindleshaped mesenchymal cells. There is a major debate whether these lesions are separate entities or variants of the same disease. Our aim was to study the nature of multinucleated and mononuclear cells from peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG), and central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) and giant cell tumor (GCT) of long bones using immunohistochemistry evaluation and to determine whether there is a correlation between recurrence and the markers used.
Materials and methods
Ki-67, p53, Vimentin, smooth muscle specific actin, CD68 and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin were used to study 60 giant cell lesions. These included 26 CGCG, 28 PGCG, and 6 GCT cases using an avidin-biotin-complex immunohistochemistry standard method.
All studied cases showed the same results except the percentage of Ki-67 positive mononuclear cells in PGCG was significantly higher than that of both CGCG and GCT (p < 0.05). Interestingly, no statistical correlation between recurrence and the markers used was found.
Our results may suggest that these lesions have the same histogenesis. The mononuclear stromal cells, both histiocytic and myofibroblastic, are thought to be responsible for the behavior of these lesions whereas the multinucleated cells are considered as reactive. This might support the argument that PGCG, CGCG and GCT are different variants for the same disease. Further studies using molecular techniques are required to elucidate why some of these lesions behave aggressively than others.
How to cite this article
Kujan O, Al-Shawaf AZ, Azzeghaiby S, AlManadille A, Aziz K, Raheel SA. Immunohistochemical Comparison of p53, Ki-67, CD68, Vimentin, α-smooth Muscle Actin and Alpha-1-Antichymotrypsin in Oral Peripheral and Central Giant Cell Granuloma. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(1):20-24.