The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2015 | August | Volume 16 | Issue 8

EDITORIAL

Barnali Majumdar

Clinical Trials with Oncolytic Viruses: Current and Future Prospects

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-16-8-i  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Safoura Ghodsi, Reza Shabanpour, Niloufar Mousavi, Marzieh Alikhasi

Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance and Mode of Failure of Zirconia and Titanium Abutments with Different Diameters

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:6] [Pages No:613 - 618]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1730  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of the current study was to compare the fracture resistance and mode of failure of zirconia and titanium abutments with different diameters.

Materials and methods

Fourteen groups of abutments including prefabricated zirconia, copy-milled zirconia and titanium abutments of an implant system (XiVE, Dentsply) were prepared in different diameters. An increasing vertical load was applied to each specimen until failure occurred. Fracture resistance was measured in each group using the universal testing machine. Moreover, the failure modes were studied and categorized as abutment screw fracture, connection area fracture, abutment body fracture, abutment body distortion, screw distortion and connection area distortion. Groups were statistically compared using univariate and post-hoc tests. The level of statistical significance was set at 5%.

Results

Fabrication method (p = 0.03) and diameter (p < 0.001) had significant effect on the fracture resistance of abutments. Fracture resistance of abutments with 5.5 mm diameter was higher than other diameters (p < 0.001). The observed modes of failure were dependent on the abutment material as well. All of the prefabricated titanium abutments fractured within the abutment screw. Abutment screw distortion, connection area fracture, and abutment body fracture were the common failure type in other groups.

Conclusion

Diameter had a significant effect on fracture resistance of implant abutments, as abutments with greater diameters were more resistant to static loads. Copy-milled abutments showed lower fracture resistance as compared to other experimental groups.

Clinical significance

Although zirconia abutments have received great popularity among clinicians and even patients selecting them for narrow implants should be with caution.

How to cite this article

Shabanpour R, Mousavi N, Ghodsi S, Alikhasi M. Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance and Mode of Failure of Zirconia and Titanium Abutments with Different Diameters. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):613-618.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mateus Rodrigues Tonetto, Marcos André dos Santos da Silva, Milton Carlos Kuga, Matheus Coelho Bandeca, Célia Regina Maio Pinzan-Vercelino, Maria Reggiani Azevedo Carvalho, Carla Adriana Rodrigues de Sousa Brito, Viriato Campelo, Rudys Rodolfo De Jesus Tavarez

Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity between Chemical Disinfectants on Contaminated Orthodontic Pliers

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:619 - 623]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1731  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To compare the antimicrobial activity of the chemical substances—70% isopropyl alcohol, 2% glutaraldehyde (GTA) and 0.25% peracetic acid (PAA) in disinfecting orthodontic pliers contaminated in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.

Materials and methods

Distal end cutter pliers were divided into five groups: group 1 (negative control—sterilized pliers), group 2 (positive control—sterilized plier, subsequently contaminated), group 3 (disinfected with 70% isopropyl alcohol, friction method), group 4 (disinfected with 2% GTA, immersion method for 30 minutes), group 5 (disinfected with 0.25% peracetic acid (PAA), immersion method for 10 minutes). After the pliers were treated with one disinfectant and submitted to microbiological evaluation (by counting colony forming units), they were submitted to the same cleansing, sterilizing and contaminating processes, and were used in the following groups (crossover and washout study). The two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, followed by the Tukey test, was used to compare the groups.

Results

The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three tested disinfectants.

Conclusion

Although there were no statistically significant differences between the disinfectants, the chemical agents 2% glutaraldehyde and 0.25% PAA were effective in inhibiting the growth of the three microorganisms tested; however, 70% isopropyl alcohol was unable to completely eliminate S. aureus.

Clinical significance

The chemical substances 2% glutaraldehyde and 0.25% PAA completely eliminated the microorganisms tested.

How to cite this article

Carvalho MRA, dos Santos da Silva MA, de Sousa Brito CAR, Campelo V, Kuga MC, Tonetto MR, De Jesus Tavarez RR, Bandéca MC, Pinzan-Vercelino CRM. Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity between Chemical Disinfectants on Contaminated Orthodontic Pliers. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):619-623.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mario Tanomaru-Filho, Juliane M Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Gisele Faria, Alana Souza Aguiar, Renato Toledo Leonardo

Antimicrobial Activity and pH of Calcium Hydroxide and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Intracanal Medication and Association with Chlorhexidine

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:6] [Pages No:624 - 629]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1732  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate pH and antibacterial activity of pastes with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and zinc oxide (ZnO) microparticles (micro) or nanoparticles (nano) and association with 0.4% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis.

Materials and methods

The following pastes were analyzed: Ca(OH)2/ZnO micro, (2) Ca(OH)2/ZnO nano, (3) Ca(OH)2/ ZnO micro + 0.4% chlorhexidine, (4) Ca(OH)2/ZnO nano + 0.4% chlorhexidine. Antibacterial activity against E. faecalis was evaluated by agar diffusion test. The direct contact test on planktonic cells of E. faecalis was performed for 30 and 60 seconds. Root canals from bovine teeth were filled with the pastes and pH was evaluated after 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days. The data obtained were submitted to the statistical tests analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn test, with a 5% significance level.

Results

Calcium hydroxide and zinc oxide nano, and the pastes with 0.4% chlorhexidine were more effective in agar diffusion test. In the direct contact test, the pastes with chlorhexidine showed the highest effect after 30 seconds. All pastes eliminated E. faecalis after 60 seconds. All pastes promoted an increase in pH. The highest increase in pH was observed with nanoparticle medications after 1 and 7 days (p < 0.05). After this period, the pastes presented similar pH increase.

Conclusion

It was concluded that calcium hydroxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles promoted greater initial alkalinization. The antimicrobial activity of the pastes against E. faecalis is favored by the association with chlorhexidine.

Clinical significance

Although nanoparticles of calcium hydroxide and zinc oxide promoted antibacterial effect, the activity against E. faecalis is favored by association with chlorhexidine.

How to cite this article

Aguiar AS, Guerreiro-Tanomaru JM, Faria G, Leonardo RT, Tanomaru-Filho M. Antimicrobial Activity and pH of Calcium Hydroxide and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Intracanal Medication and Association with Chlorhexidine. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):624-629.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mohammad Y Hajeer, Maram MN Al-Masri, Mowaffak A Ajaj, Muataz S Al-Eed

Evaluation of Bone Thickness and Density in the Lower Incisors’ Region in Adults with Different Types of Skeletal Malocclusion using Cone-beam Computed Tomography

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:8] [Pages No:630 - 637]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1733  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the bone thickness and density in the lower incisors’ region in orthodontically untreated adults, and to examine any possible relationship between thickness and density in different skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Materials and methods

The CBCT records of 48 patients were obtained from the archive of orthodontic department comprising three groups of malocclusion (class I, II and III) with 16 patients in each group. Using OnDemand 3D® software, sagittal sections were made for each lower incisor. Thicknesses and densities were measured at three levels of the root (cervical, middle and apical regions) from the labial and lingual sides. Accuracy and reliability tests were undertaken to assess the intraobserver reliability and to detect systematic error. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to detect significant differences among the three groups of skeletal malocclusion.

Results

Apical buccal thickness (ABT) in the four incisors was higher in class II and I patients than in class III patients (p < 0.05). There were significant differences between buccal and lingual surfaces at the apical and middle regions only in class II and III patients. Statistical differences were found between class I and II patients for the cervical buccal density (CBD) and between class II and III patients for apical buccal density (ABD). Relationship between bone thickness and density values ranged from strong at the cervical regions to weak at the apical regions.

Conclusions

Sagittal skeletal patterns affect apical bone thickness and density at buccal surfaces of the four lower incisors’ roots. Alveolar bone thickness and density increased from the cervical to the apical regions.

How to cite this article

Al-Masri MMN, Ajaj MA, Hajeer MY, Al-Eed MS. Evaluation of Bone Thickness and Density in the Lower Incisors’ Region in Adults with Different Types of Skeletal Malocclusion using Cone-beam Computed Tomography. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):630-637.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Tathiane Larissa Lenzi, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck Soares, Tamara Kerber Tedesco, Rachel de Oliveira Rocha

Is It Possible to induce Artificial Caries-affected Dentin using the Same Protocol to Primary and Permanent Teeth?

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:638 - 642]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1734  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This in vitro study compared the mineral loss of natural and artificially-created caries-affected dentin in primary and permanent teeth using the same protocol to induce caries lesions.

Materials and methods

Twenty molars presenting natural occlusal dentin caries lesions (10 primary–PriC and 10 permanent– PermC; control group), and 20 sound molars (10 primary – PripH and 10 permanent–PermpH; experimental group), were selected. Occlusal cavities were prepared in teeth of the experimental group that were submitted to pH-cycling for 14 days to simulate caries-affected dentin. All specimens were longitudinally sectioned and prepared in order to obtain Knoop microhardness values from 15 to 250 ìm depth, starting in bottom of center of natural lesions or cavities. The microhardness (KHN) data were submitted to three-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05).

Results

Considering all depths, there was no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between the mineral loss of the control (PriC = 30.9 ± 6.4 and PermC = 40.8 ± 8.6) and experimental (PripH = 27.3 ± 11.1 and PermpH = 35.5 ± 14.0) groups, neither between primary and permanent teeth.

Conclusion

The mineral loss of the artificially-created cariesaffected dentin is similar to that from naturally developed dentin caries lesions.

Clinical significance

The pH-cycling model may be a suitable method to simulate caries-affected dentin in both permanent and primary teeth.

How to cite this article

Lenzi TL, Soares FZM, Tedesco TK, de Oliveira Rocha R. Is It Possible to induce Artificial Caries-affected Dentin using the Same Protocol to Primary and Permanent Teeth? J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):638-642.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mateus Rodrigues Tonetto, Alvaro Henrique Borges, Leily Macedo Firoozmand, Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho, Matheus Coelho Bandeca, Rudys Rodolfo De Jesus Tavarez, Isabella Azevedo Gomes, Debora Castelo Branco Rios Mariz, Carlos Milton Kuga

In vivo Evaluation of Proximal Resin Composite Restorations performed using Three Different Matrix Systems

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:643 - 647]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1735  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this in vivo study was to radiographically evaluate the proximal contour of composite resin restorations performed using different matrix systems.

Materials and methods

Patients with premolars needing class II type resin composite restorations involving the marginal ridge were selected. Thirty premolars were selected and randomly divided into three groups (n = 10 each) to receive restorations using different matrix systems: group 1: metal matrix coupled to a carrier matrix and wood wedge (G1-MMW); group 2: sectioned and precontoured metal matrix and elastic wedge (G2-SME); and group 3: a polyester strip and reflective wedge (G3-PMR). After the restorative procedure, bitewing radiographs were performed and analyzed by three calibrated professionals. The quality of the proximal contact and marginal adaptation of the proximal surfaces was classified as either correct or incorrect (undercontour/overcontour).

Results

The Pearson Chi-square statistical test (α = 5%) revealed a statistically difference between frequencies of correct and incorrect restorations (α2 = 6.787, p < 0.05). The group G2 SME produced a higher frequency of correct proximal contours (90%), while G1-MMW and G3-PMR had a ratio of 40% correct and 60% incorrect contours respectively.

Conclusion

None of the matrix systems was able to prevent the formation of incorrect proximal contours; however, the sectioned and precontoured metal matrix/elastic wedge configuration provided better results as compared to the other groups.

How to cite this article

Gomes IA, Filho EMM, Mariz DCBR, Borges AH, Tonetto MR, Firoozmand LM, Kuga CM, De Jesus RRT, Bandéca MC. In vivo Evaluation of Proximal Resin Composite Restorations performed using Three Different Matrix Systems. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):643-647.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mohammad Y Hajeer, Hala K Al-Homsi

An Evaluation of Inter- and Intraobserver Reliability of Conebeam Computed Tomography- and Two Dimensional-based Interpretations of Maxillary Canine Impactions using a Panel of Orthodontically Trained Observers

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:9] [Pages No:648 - 656]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1736  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives

To assess intra- and interobserver agreement when evaluating maxillary impacted canines using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and two-dimensional (2D) images through a panel of orthodontically trained observers.

Materials and methods

An adult skull with permanent dentition was employed to perform 15 simulated maxillary canine impactions. Two sets of 2D and three-dimensional (3D) radiographic images were acquired. A panel of assessors including 11 PhD and MSc postgraduate orthodontic students evaluated maxillary impacted canines using a standard questionnaire with 11 categorical variables. Kappa (K) statistics as well as Krippendorff's alpha (α) coefficients were used for the analysis of reliability.

Results

A high level of intraobserver agreement was found for both the CBCT- and 2D-based interpretations. The 11 observers demonstrated a higher interobserver agreement for the CBCTbased interpretations than that of the 2D-based interpretations (α = 0.68 and 0.38 respectively). The employed 3D classifications canines was found to be reliable among observers on CBCT images for the labiopalatal position (K = 0.87), mesiodistal position, vertical position, labiopalatal inclination and mesiodistal inclination (α = 0.95, 0.83, 0.84 and 0.92 respectively). The 2D-based interpretations were not in agreement among the 11 observers, except for the mesiodistal position (α = 0.88) and mesiodistal inclination (α = 0.88).

Conclusion

The intraobserver agreement was high for both the 2D- and the CBCT-based interpretations. The interobserver agreement for the CBCT-based interpretations was remarkably higher than that of the 2D-based interpretations. The utilized CBCT-based 3D classifications for the location and inclination of maxillary impacted canines were found reliable among observers.

How to cite this article

Al-Homsi HK, Hajeer MY. An Evaluation of Inter- and Intraobserver Reliability of Cone-beam Computed Tomography- and Two Dimensional-based Interpretations of Maxillary Canine Impactions using a Panel of Orthodontically Trained Observers. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):648-656.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

N Menakaya Ifeoma, C Adegbulugbe Ilemobade, H Oderinu Olabisi, P Shaba Olufemi

The Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide Powder mixed with 0.2% Chlorhexidine Digluconate or mixed with Normal Saline as Intracanal Medicament in the Treatment of Apical Periodontitis

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:8] [Pages No:657 - 664]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1737  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To compare the efficacy of calcium hydroxide powder mixed with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate or mixed with normal saline as intracanal medicament in the treatment of apical periodontitis.

Materials and methods

Subjects were 55 in number aged 17 to 60 years. Two-visit conventional root canal treatment was performed on 70 teeth. The teeth were divided by randomization (balloting) into two groups: control group and experimental group, each with 35 teeth treated with calcium hydroxide mixed with normal saline or with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate as intracanal medicament respectively. All treated teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically for signs and symptom of periapical infection at specified periods postoperatively. Overall efficacy of medicament was rated based on quality guidelines for endodontic treatment by the European Society of Endodontology 2006.

Results

A postoperative favorable outcome of 97.1% in the control group and 94.3% in the experimental group was observed at 6-month review. This difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05).

Conclusion

The use of normal saline or 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate to mix calcium hydroxide used as intracanal medicament during endodontic treatment resulted in high postoperative favorable outcomes.

Clinical significance

Efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate as a vehicle for mixing calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in the treatment of apical periodontitis is compa rable to the efficacy of calcium hydroxide mixed with normal saline.

How to cite this article

Menakaya IN, Adegbulugbe IC, Oderinu OH, Shaba OP. The Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide Powder mixed with 0.2% Chlorhexidine Digluconate or mixed with normal Saline as Intracanal Medicament in the Treatment of Apical Periodontitis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):657-664.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Fabiano Luiz Heggendorn, Lucio Souza Gonçalves, Eliane Pedra Dias, Viviane de Oliveira Freitas Lione, Márcia Teresa Soares Lutterbach

Biocorrosion of Endodontic Files through the Action of Two Species of Sulfate-reducing Bacteria: Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:9] [Pages No:665 - 673]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1738  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study assessed the biocorrosive capacity of two bacteria: Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis on endodontic files, as a preliminary step in the development of a biopharmaceutical, to facilitate the removal of endodontic file fragments from root canals.

Materials and methods

In the first stage, the corrosive potential of the artificial saliva medium (ASM), modified Postgate E medium (MPEM), 2.5 % sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution and white medium (WM), without the inoculation of bacteria was assessed by immersion assays. In the second stage, test samples were inoculated with the two species of sulphur-reducing bacteria (SRB) on ASM and modified artificial saliva medium (MASM). In the third stage, test samples were inoculated with the same species on MPEM, ASM and MASM. All test samples were viewed under an infinite focus Alicona microscope.

Results

No test sample became corroded when immersed only in media, without bacteria. With the exception of one test sample between those inoculated with bacteria in ASM and MASM, there was no evidence of corrosion. Fifty percent of the test samples demonstrated a greater intensity of biocorrosion when compared with the initial assays.

Conclusion

Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and D. fairfieldensis are capable of promoting biocorrosion of the steel constituent of endodontic files.

Clinical significance

This study describes the initial development of a biopharmaceutical to facilitate the removal of endodontic file fragments from root canals, which can be successfully implicated in endodontic therapy in order to avoiding parendodontic surgery or even tooth loss in such events.

How to cite this article

Heggendorn FL, Gonçalves LS, Dias EP, de Oliveira Freitas Lione V, Lutterbach MTS. Biocorrosion of Endodontic Files through the Action of Two Species of Sulfatereducing Bacteria: Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):665-673.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mateus Rodrigues Tonetto, Matheus Coelho Bandéca, Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho, José Carlos Elias Mouchrek Junior, Lívia Helena de Araújo Castro Nunes, Cleidiane Silveira Arruda, Claudia de Castro Rizzi, Adriana Quinzeiro e Silva Mouchrek, Rudys Rodolfo De Jesus Tavarez

Effectiveness of Oral Antiseptics on Tooth Biofilm: A Study in vivo

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:674 - 678]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1739  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate the effectiveness of five different mouthwashes through measurement of the plaque index.

Materials and methods

Fifty subjects took part in this blind study, randomized into blocks of five groups according to the active ingredient of the mouthwash: CHX group (0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate), essential oils (EO) group, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) group, Tri group (triclosan) and Hamamelis virginiana (HV) group. All subjects were evaluated for a reduction in the bacterial plaque index at 7, 14 and 21 days.

Results

There was a significant reduction in the mean plaque index during the period of evaluation (p < 0.01), and the reduction during the period of evaluation was different between mouthwashes (p < 0.01). The reduction in the plaque index at the end of 21 days was, in decreasing order, CHX > EO > CPC > Tri > HV.

Conclusion

The reduction in the plaque index during the period of evaluation was different between the types of mouthwash. The mouthwash containing the active ingredient chlorhexidine was the most effective, followed by the essential oil, cetylpyridinium chloride, triclosan and H. virginiana.

How to cite this article

Junior Mouchrek JCE, Nunes LHAC, Arruda CS, Rizzi CC, Mouchrek AQS, Tavarez RRJ, Tonetto MR, Bandeca MC, Maia Filho EM. Effectiveness of Oral Antiseptics on Tooth Biofilm: A Study in vivo. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):674-678.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sandra Ribeiro de Barros da Cunha, Pedro Augusto Mendes Ramos, Ana Cristina Aló Nesrallah, Cláudia Joffily Parahyba, Eduardo Rodrigues Fregnani, Ana Cecília Corrêa Aranha

The Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Oral Cavity

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:9] [Pages No:679 - 687]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1740  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study is to present a literature review on the effects of the ionizing radiation from radiotherapy treatment on dental tissues.

Background

Among the effects of increasing global life expectancy and longevity of the teeth in the oral cavity, increasing rates of neoplastic diseases have been observed. One of the important treatment modalities for head and neck neoplastic diseases is radiotherapy, which uses ionizing radiation as the main mechanism of action. Therefore, it is essential for dentists to be aware of the changes in oral and dental tissues caused by ionizing radiation, and to develop treatment and prevention strategies.

Results

In general, there is still controversy about the effects of ionizing radiation on dental structures. However, qualitative and quantitative changes in saliva and oral microbiota, presence of oral mucositis and radiation-related caries are expected, as they represent the well-known side effects of treatment with ionizing radiation. Points that still remain unclear are the effects of radiotherapy on enamel and dentin, and on their mechanisms of bonding to contemporary adhesive materials.

Conclusion

Ionizing radiation has shown important interaction with organic tissues, since more deleterious effects have been shown on the oral mucosa, salivary glands and dentin, than on enamel.

Clinical significance

With the increasing number of patients with cancer seeking dental treatment before and after head and neck radiotherapy, it is important for dentists to be aware of the effects of ionizing radiation on the oral cavity.

How to cite this article

de Barros da Cunha SR, Ramos PAM, Nesrallah ACA, Parahyba CJ, Fregnani ER, Aranha ACC. The Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Oral Cavity. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):679-687.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Achint Devendra Chachada, PV Hazarey, Mrunal Shyam Aley, Harish Keshaorao Atram, Asmita Kharche

Effect of Three-wall Bony Defect along Various Root Surfaces on Position of Center of Resistance: A 3D Finite Element Analysis

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:688 - 691]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1741  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Increase in adult orthodontic patients has increased the challenges faced by orthodontists, as they often present themselves with a varying degree of dental and periodontal compromise, in which the entire orthodontic treatment planning will revolve around maintenance and augmentation of supporting apparatus. One of the many factors to be considered during treating an adult patient is the height of alveolar bone and its effect on center of resistance (CRes).

Materials and methods

Eight 3D analytical models of upper central incisor were designed using ‘Solid Works Office Premium’. The models were subjected to 3 and 6 mm bone loss along all four surfaces, i.e. labial, lingual, mesial and distal. One Newton of retraction force was applied on labial surface of tooth on model number 1, 2, 5 and 6 and 1N of distalization force was applied to model number 3, 4, 7 and 8. The relative location of the CRes to the total root length was taken as 41.8% of total root length from the root apex. The ANSYS software was used to evaluate the change in CRes on all the models.

Results

It was observed that CRes shifted apically from its relative location (41.8% from apex); however, this shift was clinically insignificant. Minimum deflection of CRes, 0.0122 mm, was seen when a distalization force was applied on model with 6 mm bone loss on distal surface, while maximum deflection of 0.0245 mm was seen when retraction force was applied on model with 6 mm bone loss on labial surface.

Conclusion

The resultant displacement in position of center of resistance is negligible; hence, there is no need of changing biomechanics during orthodontic treatment for a tooth with three wall infrabony defects. However, it is necessary to further study other infrabony defects like two wall or one wall defect, and their effect on position of CRes.

How to cite this article

Chachada AD, Hazarey PV, Aley MS, Atram HK, Kharche A. Effect of Three-wall Bony Defect along Various Root Surfaces on Position of Center of Resistance: A 3D Finite Element Analysis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8): 688-691.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Hamid Jafarzadeh, Zahed Mohammadi, Sousan Shalavi

Genotoxicity of Endodontic Materials: A Critical Review

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:692 - 696]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1742  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Mohammadi Z, Shalavi S, Jafarzadeh H, Bhandi S, Patil S. Genotoxicity of Endodontic Materials: A Critical Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):692-696.

CASE REPORT

Danilo Alessio Di Stefano, Paolo Arosio, Monica Moschioni, Luca Maria Banfi

An Intraoperative Site-specific Bone Density Device: A Pilot Test Case

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:7] [Pages No:697 - 703]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1743  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This paper reports a case of all-on-four rehabilitation where bone density at implant sites was assessed both through preoperative computed tomographic (CT) scans and using a micromotor working as an intraoperative bone density measurement device.

Background

Implant-supported rehabilitation is a predictable treatment option for tooth replacement whose success depends on the clinician's experience, the implant characteristics and location and patient-related factors. Among the latter, bone density is a determinant for the achievement of primary implant stability and, eventually, for implant success. The ability to measure bone density at the placement site before implant insertion could be important in the clinical setting.

Case description

A patient complaining of masticatory impairment was presented with a plan calling for extraction of all her compromised teeth, followed by implant rehabilitation. A week before surgery, she underwent CT examination, and the bone density on the CT scans was measured. When the implant osteotomies were created, the bone density was again measured with a micromotor endowed with an instantaneous torque-measuring system. The implant placement protocols were adapted for each implant, according to the intraoperative measurements, and the patient was rehabilitated following an all-on-four immediate loading protocol.

Conclusion

The bone density device provided valuable information beyond that obtained from CT scans, allowing for site-specific, intraoperative assessment of bone density immediately before implant placement and an estimation of primary stability just after implant insertion.

Clinical significance

Measuring jaw-bone density could help clinicians to select implant-placement protocols and loading strategies based on site-specific bone feature

How to cite this article

Arosio P, Moschioni M, Banfi LM, Di Stefano DA. An Intraoperative Site-specific Bone Density Device: A Pilot Test Case. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8): 697-703.

CASE REPORT

Zafer Ozgur Pektas, Secil Cubuk, Beyza Kircelli, Sina Uckan

Management of Maxillary Deformity with Segmental Osteotomy followed by Implant Insertion in β-Thalassemia Major Patient

[Year:2015] [Month:August] [Volume:16] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:704 - 707]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1744  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this report is to present the management of the maxillary deformity and subsequent implant therapy of a case with β-thalassemia major.

Background

β-thalassemia is a hematologic disorder that results from the abnormality of the β-globulin chain synthesis. The best known thalassemia-induced dentofacial problem is the maxillary enlargement, and this undesirable growth of maxilla affects not only the facial esthetics but also dental occlusion, and leads to functional deficiency.

Case description

A 16-year-old female patient with â-thalassemia major was referred with the complaints of severe facial deformity and malocclusion, resulting in psychosocial and functional problems for her. The dentofacial deformity was characterized by an excessive premaxillary growth both in sagittal and vertical planes. Anterior maxillary osteotomy was performed with bilateral canines extraction, and dental implants were inserted to the canine regions, following bone healing. Postoperative course was free of problems with the crown restorations in function. Recurrence has not been occurred at 6 years follow-up.

Conclusion

With maintaining hemoglobin level over 10 gm/dl, correction of maxillary defects is stable for long-term in â-thalassemia major patient. Implant application to these patients may lead to unforeseeable results.

Clinical significance

Although having some difficulties, such as overbleeding and stability problems, maxillary enlargement can be treated by segmental osteotomies successfully in β-thalassemia major patient. Implant failure frequency may be higher, but many other studies are needed for determining implant survival rate in β-thalassemia major patients.

How to cite this article

Pektas ZO, Cubuk S, Kircelli B, Uckan S. Management of Maxillary Deformity with Segmental Osteotomy followed by Implant Insertion in β-Thalassemia Major Patient. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(8):704-707.

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