The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2015 | September | Volume 16 | Issue 9

EDITORIAL

Barnali Majumdar

Nanorobots: Changing Trends in Cancer Therapy

[Year:2015] [Month:September] [Volume:16] [Number:9] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jcdp-16-9-i  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Prachi Shivpuje, Renuka Ammanangi, Kishore Bhat, Sandeep Katti

Effect of Ocimum sanctum on Oral Cancer Cell Line: An in vitro Study

[Year:2015] [Month:September] [Volume:16] [Number:9] [Pages:6] [Pages No:709 - 714]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1745  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Cancer till today remains the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Plants have been beacon of therapeutic sources for curing diseases from times immemorial. Hence, the present study aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative activity of extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves on oral cancer cell line.

Objectives:

• To evaluate the antiproliferative effect and to analyze dose dependent cytotoxic activity of aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves on KB mouth cell line.

• To compare the effectiveness among different variety of O. sanctum.

Materials and methods

KB cells (Mouth Epidermal Carcinoma Cells) were used for the present study. Aqueous and dry extract of O. sanctum with both dark (Krishna Tulsi) and light (Rama Tulsi) leaves were prepared in the institution. The antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity on KB cell line was evaluated by MTT assay. Statistical analysis with Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon matched pairs test was carried out.

Results

The aqueous extract of O. sanctum of both the leaves exhibited significant cytotoxic effect against oral cancer cell line.

Conclusion

Aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves was effective as an antiproliferative agent which caused apoptosis in oral cancer cell line.

Clinical significance

Ocimum sanctum herb which is abundantly grown in India can be used for its anticancer properties for treating oral cancer. This will not only be cost-effective but will also have less or no side effects.

How to cite this article

Shivpuje P, Ammanangi R, Bhat K, Katti S. Effect of Ocimum sanctum on Oral Cancer Cell Line: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(9):709-714.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Meena Kulkarni, Swarada Karmarkar

Bioimpedance Assessment of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Clinicopathological Correlation

[Year:2015] [Month:September] [Volume:16] [Number:9] [Pages:8] [Pages No:715 - 722]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1746  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Molecular alterations at membrane, cytosol and nuclear level in cancer cells/tissue show variations in bioimpedance measure. In the present study, bioimpedance assessment and comparison was investigated between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal tissue. Study further involves clinicopathological correlation of bioimpedance values in OSCC.

Materials and methods

The present study is comprised of 50 OSCC cases and 50 healthy control subjects. Four electrical properties of OSCC were measured: Impedance (Z); Phase angle (è); Real part of impedance (R); and Imaginary part of impedance (X) at six frequencies: 20 Hz; 50 kHz; 1.3 MHz; 2.5 MHz; 3.7 MHz; and 5 MHz with the amplitude of the applied voltage limited to 200 mV.

Results

The bioimpedance of OSCC as well as control group decreased as the measurement frequency increased from 20 Hz to 5 MHz. The bioimpedance of OSCC was generally smaller than that of control group. The mean bioimpedance of OSCC was found to be 4493 ± 216.9 Ω and 370.0 ± 26.45 Ω and that of control group was 15490 ± 287.2 Ω and 817.1 ± 7.227 Ω at frequencies of 20 Hz and 50 MHz respectively which is statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The values of phase angle, real and imaginary part of impedance of OSCC group were found to be significantly larger than that of control group (p < 0.0001) at 20 Hz and 50 MHz frequency. Impedance values of OSCC were seen to decrease from stages I to IV. Statistically significant differences in values of impedance were observed between stage I (4881 ± 262.5 Ω) and IV (4500 ± 181.6 Ω) (p = 0.0060) and also between stage I (4881 ± 262.5 Ω) and III (4376 ± 121.3 Ω) at frequency of 20 Hz (p-value 0.0005). Statistically significant differences in values of impedance were also observed between well differentiated (4557 ± 260.8) and poorly differentiated OSCC (4347 ± 76.12) (p = 0.0004) but only at 20 Hz frequency.

Conclusion

Bioimpedance at a particular frequency showed significant alteration in OSCC tissue as compared to control. Hence, it can be potentially promising detection technique for OSCC.

Clinical significance

It is a low-cost real time method, which requires little training, and hence can be easily used in primary care centers or in developing countries where multiple challenges limit national screening programs.

How to cite this article

Sarode GS, Sarode SC, Kulkarni M, Karmarkar S, Patil S, Augustine D. Bioimpedance Assessment of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Clinicopathological Correlation. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(9):715-722.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Dante Migliari, Rodrigo R Vieira, Edgar K Nakajima, Luciane H Azevedo

Successful Management of Lip and Oral Venous Varices by Photocoagulation with Nd:YAG Laser

[Year:2015] [Month:September] [Volume:16] [Number:9] [Pages:4] [Pages No:723 - 726]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1747  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study assessed the effectiveness of photocoagulation with Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of lip and oral venous varices.

Materials and methods

Sixteen consecutive patients (eight men and eight women, mean age 56 years) diagnosed as having either lip or oral venous varices, were examined and treated with a noncontact Nd:YAG laser. As lesions were small (less than 1 cm), round or oval in shape, flat, dark to blue in color and symptomless, patients sought for treatment either for esthetic reason, bleeding or cancerophobia-related concern.

Results

All but one lesion were successfully treated with only one irradiation exposure. Healing was completed in about 2 to 4 weeks; none of the patients experienced complications or recurrence. Pain was out of any major concern during immediate follow-up.

Conclusion

Although photocoagulation with Nd:YAG laser did not outperform the effectiveness observed with diode laser (data shown in a previous study),17 it proved to be safe and effective for the treatment of lip and oral varices, with consistent results.

Clinical significance

Most of patients with oral and lip varices only need some clinical advice regarding the their nature of their lesions. Yet, for those who seek treatment for this conditions, the use Nd:YAG laser is an option as it yields satisfactory outcomes.

How to cite this article

Migliari D, Vieira RR, Nakajima EK, Azevedo LH. Successful Management of Lip and Oral Venous Varices by Photocoagulation with Nd:YAG Laser. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(9):723-726.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Zoubeida AL Yahfoufi, Wahib Hadchiti, Antoine Berberi

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Probes Analyses for the Detection of Periodontal Pathogens

[Year:2015] [Month:September] [Volume:16] [Number:9] [Pages:6] [Pages No:727 - 732]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1748  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

In clinical microbiology several techniques have been used to identify bacteria. Recently, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based techniques have been introduced to detect human microbial pathogens in periodontal diseases. Deoxyribonucleic acid probes can detect bacteria at a very low level if we compared with the culture methods. These probes have shown rapid and cost-effective microbial diagnosis, good sensitivity and specificity for some periodontal pathogens in cases of severe periodontitis.

Materials and methods

Eighty-five patients were recruited for the study. Twenty-one subjects ranging between 22 and 48 years of age fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seventy-eight samples became available for DNA probe analysis from the deepest pockets in each quadrant.

Results

All 21 patients showed positive results for Prevotella intermedia; also, Prevotella gingivalis was identified in 19 subjects, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in 6 subjects. P. intermedia was diagnosed positive in 82% of the subgingival samples taken, 79% for P. gingivalis, and 23% for A. actinomycetemcomitans.

Conclusion

This study shows a high frequency of putative periodontal pathogens by using DNA probe technology, which is semi-quantitative in this study. Deoxyribonucleic acid probes can detect bacteria at very low level about 103 which is below the detection level of culture methods. The detection threshold of cultural methods.

Clinical significance

The three types of bacteria can be detected rapidly with high sensitivity by using the DNA probe by general practitioners, and thus can help in the diagnosis process and the treatment.

How to cite this article

Yahfoufi ZAL, Hadchiti W, Berberi A. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Probes Analyses for the Detection of Periodontal Pathogens. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(9): 727-732.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Heba M El-Khodary, Deema J Farsi, Najat M Farsi, Ahmed Z Zidan

Sealing Ability of Four Calcium Containing Cements used for Repairing Furcal Perforations in Primary Molars: An in vitro study

[Year:2015] [Month:September] [Volume:16] [Number:9] [Pages:7] [Pages No:733 - 739]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1749  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to compare the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Portland cement (PC), BiodentineTM and Tech biosealer in repairing furcal perforations in primary molars using the fluid-filtration technique.

Materials and methods

Fifty freshly extracted maxillary second primary molars were sectioned horizontally at the furcation region to create dentin disks of 1.5 mm (+ 0.1 mm) thickness. Five disks were not perforated and served as negative controls. In the remaining 45 disks, furcation perforations were prepared. Five disks did not receive furcation repair and served as positive controls. The remaining 40 disks were then randomly divided into four equal groups (10 disks in each group). Perforations were repaired with: MTA, PC, BiodentineTM or Tech Biosealer. The sealing ability of the tested materials was evaluated by measuring microleakage for each disk after four different storage periods: 24-hour, 1-month, 6-month and 1-year storage using fluid-filtration. Comparisons between the four materials and the four time periods were done using the two-way analysis of variance and the Scheffe multiple comparisons test.

Results

There was no significant difference between the mean microleakage values obtained in the four tested materials after 24 hours, 1, 6 month and 1 year. However, microleakage values for each individual material were significantly higher at 24 hours than at the other time intervals.

Conclusion

Mineral trioxide aggregate, PC, BiodentineTM and Tech biosealer showed similar capabilities in sealing the furcal perforations of the primary molars, where the sealing ability improved over time for each individual material.

How to cite this article

El-Khodary HM, Farsi DJ, Farsi NM, Zidan AZ. Sealing Ability of Four Calcium Containing Cements used for Repairing Furcal Perforations in Primary Molars: An in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(9):733-739.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

HP Raghuveer, M Hemanth, MS Rani, Chathura Hegde, B Vedavathi, D Chaithra

An Analysis of the Stress Induced in the Periodontal Ligament during Extrusion and Rotation Movements: A Finite Element Method Linear Study Part I

[Year:2015] [Month:September] [Volume:16] [Number:9] [Pages:4] [Pages No:740 - 743]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1750  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Orthodontic tooth movement occurs due to various biomechanical changes in the periodontium. Forces within the optimal range yield maximum tooth movement with minimum deleterious effects. Among various types of tooth movements, extrusion and rotational movements are seen to be associated with the least amount of root resorption and have not been studied in detail. Therefore in this study, the stress patterns in the periodontal ligament (PDL) were evaluated with extrusion and rotational movements using the finite element method FEM.

Materials and methods

A three-dimensional (3D) FEM model of the maxillary incisors was generated using SOLIDWORKS modeling software. Stresses in the PDL were evaluated with extrusive and rotational movements by a 3D FEM using ANSYS software with linear material properties.

Results

It was observed that with the application of extrusive load, the tensile stresses were seen at the apex, whereas the compressive stress was distributed at the cervical margin. With the application of rotational movements, maximum compressive stress was distributed at the apex and cervical third, whereas the tensile stress was distributed on cervical third of the PDL on the lingual surface.

Conclusion

For extrusive movements, stress values over the periodontal ligament was within the range of optimal stress value as proposed by Lee, with a given force system by Profitt as optimum forces for orthodontic tooth movement using linear properties. During rotation there are stresses concentrated at the apex, hence due to the concentration of the compressive forces at the apex a clinician must avoid placing heavy stresses during tooth movement.

How to cite this article

Hemanth M, Raghuveer HP, Rani MS, Hegde C, Kabbur KJ, Vedavathi B, Chaithra D. An Analysis of the Stress Induced in the Periodontal Ligament during Extrusion and Rotation Movements: A Finite Element Method Linear Study Part I. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(9):740-743.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Kamran Habib Awan

Efficacy of Autofluorescence Imaging as an Adjunctive Technique for Examination and Detection of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: A Systematic Review

[Year:2015] [Month:September] [Volume:16] [Number:9] [Pages:6] [Pages No:744 - 749]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1751  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Oral cancer is a serious global issue and early diagnosis of oral cancer is the key in reducing the high mortality rate. Autofluorescence properties of oral mucosa have been gaining interest in the field of early diagnosis of oral premalignant lesions.

Objective

The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of an autofluorescence based imaging system to detect oral premalignant and malignant lesions.

Materials and methods

A systematic review of the Englishlanguage literature to evaluate the effectiveness of visually enhanced lesion scope (VELscope) published between 1966 and March, 2014 was undertaken. Data relating to study design, sampling and characteristics of the study group, interventions, and reported outcomes and diagnostic value of VELscope were abstracted from articles meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Results

Eleven articles that met the inclusion criteria were included. In nine studies, all the lesions underwent histological assessment, whereas the remaining four studies only performed histological assessment on suspicious lesions. Visually enhanced lesion scope showed high sensitivity values in detecting oral premalignant and malignant lesions. However, most of the studies reported it inability in discriminating dysplasia cases from nondysplasia cases.

Conclusion

There is insufficient evidence to support the use of VELscope in primary care setting, however, they may be useful in hands of a specialist.

How to cite this article

Awan KH, Patil S. Efficacy of Autofluorescence Imaging as an Adjunctive Technique for Examination and Detection of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: A Systematic Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(9):744-749.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Lelis Gustavo Nicoli, Elcio Marcantonio Junior, Daniela Leal Zandim-Barcelos

Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors of Peri-implantitis: A Concept Review

[Year:2015] [Month:September] [Volume:16] [Number:9] [Pages:8] [Pages No:750 - 757]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1752  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this review is to estimate the prevalence of peri-implantitis, as well as to determine possible risk factors associated with its development in patients treated with oral implants.

Background

Although implant therapy has been identified as a successful and predictable treatment for partially and fully edentulous patients, complications and failures can occur. Periimplantitis is considered a biologic complication that results in bone loss around implants and may lead to implant treatment failure.

Results

A great variation has been observed in the literature regarding the prevalence of peri-implantitis according to the diagnostic criteria used to define peri-implantitis. The prevalence ranges from 4.7 to 43% at implant level, and from 8.9 to. ≥56% at patient level. Many risk factors that may lead to the establishment and progression of peri-implantitis have been suggested. There is strong evidence that presence and history of periodontitis are potential risk factors for peri-implantitis. Cigarette smoking has not yet been conclusively established as a risk factor for peri-implantitis, although extra care should be taken with dental implant in smokers. Other risk factors, such as diabetes, genetic traits, implant surface roughness and presence of keratinized mucosa still require further investigation.

Conclusion

Peri-implantitis is not an uncommon complication following implant therapy. A higher prevalence of peri-implantitis has been identified for patients with presence or history of periodontal disease and for smokers. Until now, a true risk factor for peri-implantitis has not been established. Supportive maintenance program is essential for the long-term success of treatments with oral implants.

Clinical significance

The knowledge of the real impact of peri-implantitis on the outcome of treatments with oral implants as well as the identification of risk factors associated to this inflammatory condition are essential for the development of supportive maintenance programs and the establishment of prevention protocols.

How to cite this article

Marcantonio C, Nicoli LG, Junior EM, Zandim-Barcelos DL. Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors of Peri-implantitis: A Concept Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(9):750-757.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Roberta Okamoto, Lorraine Perciliano de Faria, Melyna Marques de Almeida, Marina Fuzette Amaral, Marcos Rogério Mendonça

Orthodontic Extrusion as Treatment Option for Crown- Root Fracture: Literature Review with Systematic Criteria

[Year:2015] [Month:September] [Volume:16] [Number:9] [Pages:5] [Pages No:758 - 762]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1753  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

To review the literature searching for a consensus for the choice of orthodontic extrusion as treatment for crownroot fracture.

Materials and methods

An electronic search was performed in the databases PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Scopus and a manual search of the Journal Dental Traumatology.

Results

Forty articles were found in PubMed and 38 in Scopus and after removal of duplicate sample 51 contained articles. Of these, 48 were excluded for not having orthodontic treatment, no follow-up or follow-up less than 6 months, or not report the presence of crown-root fracture. In manual search in Dental Traumatology 20 articles were found, but none of them met the prerequisites established. So, three articles formed the basis of the study.

Conclusion

The choice of how to treat orthodontic extrusion of crown-root fracture was effective and stable, without root and periodontal changes. Factors, such as root formation and presence of pulp vitality were decisive for determining the stages of treatment, however, there is no consensus based on scientific evidence about these protocols.

How to cite this article

de Faria LP, de Almeida MM, Amaral MF, Pellizzer EP, Okamoto R, Mendonça MR. Orthodontic Extrusion as Treatment Option for Crown-Root Fracture: Literature Review with Systematic Criteria. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(9):758-762.

CASE REPORT

Lucianne Cople Maia, Andréa Laudares Marques, Nashalie Andrade de Alencar, Andréa Gonçalves Antonio

Quality of Life related to Eruption Hematoma in a Twenty Months Old Infant

[Year:2015] [Month:September] [Volume:16] [Number:9] [Pages:5] [Pages No:763 - 767]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1754  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This paper describes a case of an eruption hematoma in a 20-month-old boy and the impact of this hematoma on the quality of life (QoL) related to oral health of this infant and his family.

Background

Eruption hematoma is a soft benign cyst that contains blood and overlie a tooth that are about to erupt. Oral health conditions can affect the QoL and bring psychological impacts.

Case report

The proposed treatment was based on oral hygiene instruction, normal diet and massage on the lesion area. A weekly follow-up visits up to the spontaneous regression at the 6 weeks of the lesion was conducted. The impact on QoL was assessed though the Brazilian version of the early childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS) questionnaire before and after 2 months of the hematoma regression.

Conclusion

The presence of eruption hematoma impacted, physically and emotionally, the QoL related to oral health of the child and his family, and this impact decreased when the eruption hematoma disappeared.

Clinical significance

It is important the knowledge of the dentists about eruption cyst/hematoma to make the correct decisions to improve the QoL of their patients and families.

How to cite this article

Marques AL, de Alencar NA, Maia LC, Antonio AG. Quality of Life related to Eruption Hematoma in a Twenty Months Old Infant. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(9): 763-767.

CASE REPORT

Mogammad Thabit Peck

Alveolar Ridge Augmentation using the Allograft Bone Shell Technique

[Year:2015] [Month:September] [Volume:16] [Number:9] [Pages:6] [Pages No:768 - 773]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1755  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

The loss of teeth, whether it is from trauma or pathology, is accompanied by a concomitant loss of the surrounding alveolar bone. Khoury introduced a new method for grafting ridge defects in 2007. This technique involved using thin cortical plates harvested from the ramus, and in a ‘sandwich’ type manner, interposed these bone plates with cancellous bone harvested from the same site. Although this has shown success, the technique suffers from similar disadvantages of most harvesting techniques, i.e. a need for a second surgical site, and donor site morbidity. In this case presentation, we report the use of an allograft bone plate in a similar manner as was previously described by Khoury, to reconstruction lost alveolar bone in order to facilitate the correct three dimensional (3D) placement of dental implants.

Case description

A 53-year-old female presented for the restoration of her missing dentition in her upper jaw. The cone bean computed tomography (CBCT) revealed a large horizontal bony defect in the region of the upper anterior teeth, with minimal remaining bone. Using bone fixation screws, the bone plates were fixed to the buccal defect and the space between the plate and the existing palatal bone wall was then filled using a combination of autograft bone scrapings and xenograft bone particles. Six months after the initial surgery, the grafted sites were surgically re-entered and showed a marked increase in ridge width.

Conclusion

Evidence exists for the use of bone allografts for a variety of alveolar bone augmentation procedures. The case presented outlines another use for this versatile biomaterial.

Clinical significance

Bone harvesting for large alveolar defects is invariably associated with increased morbidity and an increased risk of postoperative complications. The above technique described by the author, may be used as a suitable alternative to reconstruct these defects, without harvesting bone from a second surgical site.

How to cite this article

Peck MT. Alveolar Ridge Augmentation using the Allograft Bone Shell Technique. J Contemp Dent Pract 2015;16(9):768-773.

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