The bidirectional relationship between the periodontal diseases and systemic diseases was attributed to the focal infection concept. The aims of this study were to assess the periodontal and microbiological profile of intensive care unit (ICU) inpatients submitted to orotracheal intubation, and classify them regarding gender, age group, ethnic, hospitalization reason and period, nosocomial infection occurrence, and death.
Materials and methods
Inpatients were assessed, distributed into toothed and toothless groups. The periodontal clinical condition was assessed 24 hours after the ICU admission through plaque index, gum index, probing depth, and clinical level of insertion. All microbiological samples were collected on the 6th day of admission. These samples were collected from different intraoral sites, depending on the group: In the toothed group, samples were collected from gingival sulcus and in the toothless group, from buccal mucosa and tongue. Identification for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Tannerella forsythia (Tf) was accomplished and analyzed, using absolute quantification and specific primer pairs through an amplification system with probes.
Forty subjects composed the sample: Gender characterized by 60% of male, 27.5% of all patients were older than 60, and 22.5% were hospitalized due to cerebrovascular accident. Regarding hospitalization period, 55% of patients were hospitalized for 6 days and 70% of them died during the period of hospitalization. Of inpatients, 40% presented periodontal disease and 100% presented dental biofilm on assessed sites. When assessing the microbiota, statistical significance was observed between Aa, Pg, and Tf, for both toothed and toothless group (p < 0.0001).
Large quantities of Aa were found in samples of toothless inpatients, a fact that suggests that the oral environment, even without teeth, presents favorable conditions for bacterial biofilm formation with a related pathogenic potential.
The dental biofilm may comprise pulmonary pathogen colonies, promoting a perfect environment for their growth and development, facilitating the colonization of the lower airways, as well as colonization by bacteria originally from the oral cavity.
How to cite this article
Porto AN, Borges AH, Rocatto G, Matos FZ, Borba AM, Miranda Pedro FL, Lima SL, Tonetto MR, Bandéca MC, Aranha AMF. Periodontal and Microbiological Profile of Intensive Care Unit Inpatients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):807-814.