The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2016 | October | Volume 17 | Issue 10

EDITORIAL

Akshit Batra

Bipartite Task of Immunity in Cancer Progression

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:3] [Pages No:783 - 785]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1930  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Sarode GS, Sarode SC, Batra A, Patil S. Bipartite Task of Immunity in Cancer Progression. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):783-785.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Osmar A Cuoghi, Francielle Topolski, Mauricio A de O Accorsi, Hugo J Trevisi, Ricardo Moresca

Influence of Preadjusted Bracket Shape and Positioning Reference on Angulation of Upper Central Incisor

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:5] [Pages No:786 - 790]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1931  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To verify the influence of different bracket shapes and placement references according to Andrews and MBT systems on the expression of angulation in upper central incisors (UCI).

Materials and methods

Bracket positioning and mesiodistal dental movement simulations were performed and the angulations produced in the dental crown were evaluated, based on computed tomography scan images of 30 UCI and AutoCAD software analysis. Rectangular (Andrews) and rhomboid (MBT) brackets were placed according to the references recommended by Andrews and MBT systems – long axis of the clinical crown (LACC) and incisal edge (IE) respectively.

Results

Data showed that the use of LACC as reference for bracket positioning produced 5° and 4° UCI angulations in Andrews and MBT brackets respectively. The use of IE produced a 1.2° mean angulation in UCI for both brackets.

Conclusion

When the LACC was used as reference for bracket positioning, the UCI crown angulation corresponded to the angulation built into the brackets, regardless of shape, while the use of IE resulted in natural crown angulation, regardless of bracket shape.

Clinical significance

This research contributes to guide the orthodontist in relation to the different treatment techniques based on the use of preadjusted brackets.

How to cite this article

Topolski F, de O Accorsi MA, Trevisi HJ, Cuoghi OA, Moresca R. Influence of Preadjusted Bracket Shape and Positioning Reference on Angulation of Upper Central Incisor. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):786-790.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mohammed Mustafa

Antibacterial Efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Extract against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro Study

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:791 - 794]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1932  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Debridement and disinfection of the root canal is a crucial step in the success of endodontic treatment. Several antimicrobial agents alone or in combination are used to achieve this. The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) extract against Enterococcus faecalis.

Materials and methods

Neem leaf extract, 2% chlorhexidine, 3% sodium hypochlorite were used to assess the antimicrobial efficiency. Agar well diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial efficacy with saline as control. The zone of inhibition was recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically with the help of IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences statistics version 20 using analysis of variance test.

Results

All the three medicaments showed well-defined and comparable zones of inhibition around their respective wells. All values were significantly higher than the control group. Analysis of variance showed significant difference between zone diameters of chlorhexidine, neem leaf extract, and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. faecalis (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

From the present study, it can be concluded that neem leaf extract shows comparable zones of inhibition with that of chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite.

Clinical significance

Neem leaf extract has significant antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis and thus opens the perspectives for the use of neem extract as an intracanal medication.

How to cite this article

Mustafa M. Antibacterial Efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Extract against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):791-794.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Carlo Fornaini, Elisabetta Merigo, Jean-Paul Rocca, Giuseppe Lagori, Hélène Raybaud, Stefano Selleri, Annamaria Cucinotta

450 nm Blue Laser and Oral Surgery: Preliminary ex vivo Study

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:795 - 800]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1933  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Dental diode lasers were started to be used at the end of the 1990s and were shown to possess several important characteristics, such as small size and low cost, as well as the advantage of optic fibers delivering system. Although only two wavelengths (810 and 980 nm) had been the most used dental diode lasers, a wavelength emitting in the blue portion of the spectrum has recently been proposed.

Aim

The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the effectiveness of five different fiber-delivered laser wavelengths (450, 532, 808, 1064, and 1340 nm) in the oral soft tissue ablation.

Materials and methods

Specimens were surgically collected from the dorsal surface of four bovine tongues and, while deep thermal increase was measured by two thermocouples at 0.5 and 2 mm depth, surface temperature was recorded by an infrared thermometer. Subsequently, specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution, cut into slices, and embedded in paraffin blocks, and a pathologist made a morphological analysis by optic microscope assigning a score based on the quality of the cut and tissue damage.

Results

The analysis showed the best quality of the cut and the lowest temperature increase on the specimens obtained with the shortest laser wavelength (450 nm).

Conclusion

Even considering this as preliminary study, the use of 450 nm blue diode laser in oral surgery may be suggested to the clinician in their daily practice.

Clinical significance

This study opens a new perspective in oral surgery. Blue diode laser has demonstrated a good quality of the cut with a low energy causing a minimal thermal damage to the tissue, promising a better comfort to patients.

How to cite this article

Fornaini C, Merigo E, Rocca J-P, Lagori G, Raybaud H, Selleri S, Cucinotta A. 450 nm Blue Laser and Oral Surgery: Preliminary ex vivo Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):795-800.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ra'fat I Farah, Naji Al-Harethi

Microleakage of Glass Ionomer-based Provisional Cement in CAD/CAM-Fabricated Interim Crowns: An in vitro Study

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:801 - 806]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1934  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the marginal microleakage of glass ionomer-based provisional cement with resin-based provisional cement and zinc oxide non-eugenol (ZONE) provisional cement in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-fabricated interim restorations.

Materials and methods

Fifteen intact human premolars were prepared in a standardized manner for complete coverage of crown restorations. Interim crowns for the prepared teeth were then fabricated using CAD/CAM, and the specimens were randomized into three groups of provisional cementing agents (n = 5 each): Glass ionomer-based provisional cement (GC Fuji TEMP LT™), bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin-based cement (UltraTemp® REZ), and ZONE cement (TempBond NE). After 24 hours of storage in distilled water at 37°C, the specimens were thermocycled and then stored again for 24 hours in distilled water at room temperature. Next, the specimens were placed in freshly prepared 2% aqueous methylene blue dye for 24 hours and then embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin blocks and sectioned in buccolingual and mesiodistal directions to assess dye penetration using a stereomicroscope. The results were statistically analyzed using a nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis test. Dunn's post hoc test with a Bonferroni correction test was used to compute multiple pairwise comparisons that identified differences among groups; the level of significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results

All groups exhibited marginal microleakage; the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin-based provisional cement demonstrated the lowest microleakage scores, which were statistically different from those of the glass ionomer-based provisional cement and the ZONE cement.

Conclusion

The provisional cementing agents exhibited different sealing abilities. The Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin-based provisional cement exhibited the most effective favorable sealing properties against dye penetration compared with the glass ionomer-based provisional cement and conventional ZONE cement.

Clinical significance

Newly introduced glass ionomer-based provisional cement proved to be inferior to resin-based provisional cement as far as marginal microleakage is concerned.

How to cite this article

Farah RI, Al-Harethi N. Microleakage of Glass Ionomer-based Provisional Cement in CAD/CAM-Fabricated Interim Crowns: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):801-806.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mateus R Tonetto, Grace Rocatto, Fernanda Z Matos, FL Miranda Pedro, Suellen L Lima, AM Fabio Aranha

Periodontal and Microbiological Profile of Intensive Care Unit Inpatients

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:8] [Pages No:807 - 814]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1935  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

The bidirectional relationship between the periodontal diseases and systemic diseases was attributed to the focal infection concept. The aims of this study were to assess the periodontal and microbiological profile of intensive care unit (ICU) inpatients submitted to orotracheal intubation, and classify them regarding gender, age group, ethnic, hospitalization reason and period, nosocomial infection occurrence, and death.

Materials and methods

Inpatients were assessed, distributed into toothed and toothless groups. The periodontal clinical condition was assessed 24 hours after the ICU admission through plaque index, gum index, probing depth, and clinical level of insertion. All microbiological samples were collected on the 6th day of admission. These samples were collected from different intraoral sites, depending on the group: In the toothed group, samples were collected from gingival sulcus and in the toothless group, from buccal mucosa and tongue. Identification for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Tannerella forsythia (Tf) was accomplished and analyzed, using absolute quantification and specific primer pairs through an amplification system with probes.

Results

Forty subjects composed the sample: Gender characterized by 60% of male, 27.5% of all patients were older than 60, and 22.5% were hospitalized due to cerebrovascular accident. Regarding hospitalization period, 55% of patients were hospitalized for 6 days and 70% of them died during the period of hospitalization. Of inpatients, 40% presented periodontal disease and 100% presented dental biofilm on assessed sites. When assessing the microbiota, statistical significance was observed between Aa, Pg, and Tf, for both toothed and toothless group (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion

Large quantities of Aa were found in samples of toothless inpatients, a fact that suggests that the oral environment, even without teeth, presents favorable conditions for bacterial biofilm formation with a related pathogenic potential.

Clinical significance

The dental biofilm may comprise pulmonary pathogen colonies, promoting a perfect environment for their growth and development, facilitating the colonization of the lower airways, as well as colonization by bacteria originally from the oral cavity.

How to cite this article

Porto AN, Borges AH, Rocatto G, Matos FZ, Borba AM, Miranda Pedro FL, Lima SL, Tonetto MR, Bandéca MC, Aranha AMF. Periodontal and Microbiological Profile of Intensive Care Unit Inpatients. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):807-814.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mojdeh Mehdizadeh, Negar Maarefat, Shervin Bagherieh

Comparison of Accuracy of determining the Distance between Alveolar Crest and Cementoenamel Junction in Digital Radiography with Scanora and DentalEye Software Programs

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:5] [Pages No:815 - 819]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1936  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To compare the accuracy of determining the distance between alveolar crest and cementoenamel junction (CEJ) in digital radiography with two image processing software programs.

Materials and methods

In this in vitro study, 63 sites in a dried human mandible underwent digital periapical radiography. The distance from the alveolar crest to the CEJ was calculated using DentalEye and Scanora software programs and compared with the standard mode (measured on the skull). Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t-test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 23 at α = 0.05.

Results

There were significant differences in the distances between CEJ and the alveolar crest at the mesial surfaces as measured by the three techniques in standard mode, using DentalEye and Scanora (p-value ≤0.03) softwares; however, there were no significant differences between the results on distal surfaces (p-value = 0.248).

Conclusion

Under the limitations of the present study, the measurements made to determine the distance from the CEJ to the alveolar crest with DentalEye and Scanora, relative to each other, and relative to the standard mode, were accurate only on distal surfaces of teeth.

Clinical significance

Digital dental software programs are useful assets that can enhance the diagnosing ability and reduce the need of taking extra images.

How to cite this article

Mehdizadeh M, Maarefat N, Bagherieh S. Comparison of Accuracy of determining the Distance between Alveolar Crest and Cementoenamel Junction in Digital Radiography with Scanora and DentalEye Software Programs. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):815-819.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mateus R Tonetto, Ana CS Diniz, Larissa M Pinheiro, Lauber J dos Santosh Almeida, Carlos RG Torres, Shelon CS Pinto, Rudys R De Jesus Tavarez, Leily M Firoozmand

Influence of Different Etching Modes on Bond Strength to Enamel using Universal Adhesive Systems

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:820 - 825]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1937  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

The adhesive systems and the techniques currently used are designed to provide a more effective adhesion with reduction of the protocol application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of universal adhesive systems on enamel in different etching modes (self-etch and total etch).

Materials and methods

The mesial and distal halves of 52 bovine incisors, healthy, freshly extracted, were used and divided into seven experimental groups (n = 13). The enamel was treated in accordance with the following experimental conditions: FUE-Universal System – Futurabond U (VOCO) with etching; FUWE – Futurabond U (VOCO) without etching; SB-Total Etch System – Single Bond 2 (3M); SBUE-Universal System – Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE) with etching; SBUWE – Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE) without etching; CLE-Self-etch System – Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) was applied with etching; CLWE – Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) without etching. The specimens were made using the composite spectrum TPH (Dentsply) and stored in distilled water (37 ± 1°C) for 1 month. The microshear test was performed using the universal testing machine EMIC DL 2000 with the crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The bond strength values were analyzed using statistical tests (Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney test) with Bonferroni correction.

Results

There was no statistically significant difference between groups (p < 0.05), where FUE (36.83 ± 4.9 MPa) showed the highest bond strength values and SBUWE (18.40 ± 2.2 MPa) showed the lowest bond strength values. The analysis of adhesive interface revealed that most failures occurred between the interface composite resin and adhesive.

Conclusion

The universal adhesive system used in dental enamel varies according to the trademark, and the previous enamel etching for universal systems and the self-etch both induced greater bond strength values.

Clinical significance

Selective enamel etching prior to the application of a universal adhesive system is a relevant strategy for better performance bonding.

How to cite this article

Diniz ACS, Bandeca MC, Pinheiro LM, dos Santos Almeida LJr, Torres CRG, Borges AH, Pinto SCS, Tonetto MR, De Jesus Tavarez RR, Firoozmand LM. Influence of Different Etching Modes on Bond Strength to Enamel using Universal Adhesive Systems. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):820-825.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mohammad D Al Amri, Sulieman Al-Johany, Hanan AlOtaibi, Hamad Alzoman, Mohammed Alkindi, Fahad Alqahtani, Farhan Alwadei

Reasons for not using Implants to retain Complete Denture: Patients’ Survey

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:826 - 829]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1938  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

This study aimed to gain more information from complete denture (CD) wearers who did not receive dental implants, of the reasons preventing them from using implants to retain their CD in a selected sample of dental patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Materials and methods

A paper-and-pencil questionnaire containing 20 direct questions of the possible reasons preventing CD wearers from receiving implants to retain their dentures was distributed in three different places in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Results

A total of 270 subjects were included in this survey. The results showed that 180 (66.7%) patients indicated that the fear of pain associated with implant placement was the main reason preventing them from receiving an implant treatment, followed by fear of the surgical procedure (175, 64.8%), fear of postoperative complications (166, 61.5%), information from other people about the various problems associated with implant treatment (154, 57%), and finally cost of the implant (141, 52.2%).

Conclusion

Fear is the main reason preventing CD wearers from receiving implant treatment. Therefore, it is essential for dentists to be familiar with the reasons for implant refusal to overcome a common, yet an influential obstacle.

How to cite this article

Al-Johany S, AlOtaibi H, Al Amri MD, Alzoman H, Alkindi M, Alqahtani F, Alwadei F. Reasons for not using Implants to retain Complete Denture: Patients’ Survey. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):826-829.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Alex Semenoff-Segundo, Milton C Kuga, Mateus R Tonetto, Fabio M Pedro, ATC Marques, Thiago M Pereira, SNL Lima, Alvaro H Borges

Status of Endodontic Treatment and the Correlations to the Quality of Root Canal Filling and Coronal Restoration

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:7] [Pages No:830 - 836]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1939  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence and quality of root canal treatment in 1,977 digital radiological files.

Materials and methods

Data were statistically analyzed using descriptive analysis, and the chi-square test was performed with a 5% significance level.

Results

The mean age of the study population was 34.9 years. The endodontic treatment frequency was 6.14%, significantly higher in premolars. Adequate endodontic treatment was observed in 39.7% of analyzed cases. Molars were significantly more frequent with regard to inadequate filling quality. In 47.6% of cases, the filling's apical limit was classified as adequate, and there was a higher incidence of molars that were inadequate. Restorations were classified as adequate in 79.0% of cases, and molars were responsible for the highest frequency of inadequate restorations. The frequency of teeth with endodontic treatment that showed no periapical changes was 47.7%. There was no significant difference in the presence of periapical change according to gender. An increased presence of periapical change was observed with increasing age. The periapical lesions were observed in 45% of cases and related to inadequate filling quality. The apical limit was considered inadequate and related to periapical changes in 42% of cases. Periapical changes were present in 52% of cases, regardless of the quality of the filling and apical limit. Such changes were present in 42% of cases with adequate coronal restoration.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that apical periodontitis (AP) is associated with the quality of endodontic treatment. The coronal restoration affects significantly the success rate of endodontic treatment.

Clinical significance

The quality of the root filling and coronal restoration is closely related to periapical health.

How to cite this article

Pedro FM, Marques ATC, Pereira TM, Bandeca MC, Lima SNL, Kuga MC, Tonetto MR, Semenoff- Segundo A, Borges AH. Status of Endodontic Treatment and the Correlations to the Quality of Root Canal Filling and Coronal Restoration. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):830-836.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ana CCF Conti, JS de Almeida Giunco, PV Pedron Oltramari-Navarro, TM Freire Fernandes, R de Lima Navarro, MR de Almeida

Assessment of Interexaminer Agreement in the Detection of Condyle Morphology and positioning with Two Methods: Radiographic and Tomographic

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:7] [Pages No:837 - 843]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1940  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study aims at evaluating the interexaminer agreement between radiographic and tomographic methods to determine condyle morphological variations and positioning.

Materials and methods

The sample comprised 100 individuals aged 13 to 30 years, from the patient files of University of North Paraná. The assessment of condyles morphology and positioning was performed in images of digital panoramic radiography (DPR) and reconstructed panoramic images from the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans, by using the Dolphin three-dimensional (3D) program. The condyle morphology was categorized as flat, convex, and angular as well as its positioning classified into anterior, posterior, and concentric. Three calibrated examiners performed this subjective evaluation. After that, another examiner performed an objective assessment of the condyles positioning using tomographic sagittal scans of the condyles, applying the same 3D program. This objective evaluation of the condyle position, considered the gold standard (GS), was achieved by using a formula based on the measurement values of the joint spaces, anterior and posterior. The kappa test was used to assess the interexaminer agreement in determining the condyles morphology and positioning, as well as between the condyle positioning results determined by the examiners and the GS.

Results

The results showed poor agreement among examiners and between the subjective and objective condyle positioning evaluation.

Conclusion

It was concluded that the panoramic radiography (PR), either digitalized or reconstructed from CBCT scans, is not suitable for determining variations in condyle morphology and position.

Clinical significance

Whenever it is necessary to evaluate the mandibular condyle during the orthodontic screening, the orthodontist should consider another image modality better than the PR.

How to cite this article

de Almeida Giunco JS, Oltramari-Navarro PVP, Freire Fernandes TMF, de Lima Navarro R, de Almeida MR, de Castro Ferreira Conti AC. Assessment of Interexaminer Agreement in the Detection of Condyle Morphology and positioning with Two Methods: Radiographic and Tomographic. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):837-843.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

KSA Anzil, Eby Aluckal, Mathews Baby, Eldhose K George, Sanju Lakshmanan, Shilpa Chikkanna

Association between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries among Anganwadi Children of Belgaum City, India

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:5] [Pages No:844 - 848]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1941  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Body mass index (BMI) is an index that measures height for weight, which is commonly used to categorize underweight, overweight, and obese individuals. Deviation from normal weight results from an imbalance between caloric consumption and energy expenditure. Childhood obesity and childhood dental caries are coincidental in many populations, probably due to common confounding risk factors, such as intake frequency, cariogenic diet, and poor oral hygiene. So the aim of the present study was to assess the BMI status and to corelate between dental caries and BMI among the Anganwadi children of Belgaum city, Karnataka, India.

Materials and methods

Four hundred and thirty three children from 20 Anganwadi's belonging to the age group of 2 to 6 years of both sexes were measured for BMI and dental caries status. The caries index was measured as the number of decayed (d) and filled (f) teeth (t) (dft). The BMI in units of kg/m2 was determined and children were categorized according to ageand gender-specific criteria as underweight (<5th percentile), normal (5th–85th percentile), at risk for overweight (85th– 95th percentile), and overweight (>95th percentile). The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.0.

Results

The proportion of subjects in Centre for Disease Control (CDC) weight categories was: 5% underweight, 79% normal, 9% under the risk for overweight, and 6% overweight.

Conclusion

A significant association was found between children with normal BMI and those who were underweight, overweight, and under the risk for overweight. Children with overweight/obese or underweight/malnourished children had higher decayed and filled surfaces compared to children with normal weight.

Clinical significance

Nutritional status has a profound effect on dental caries. Both underweight/malnutrition and overweight/ obesity have significant adverse implications for health. Childhood obesity and childhood dental caries are coincidental in many populations.

How to cite this article

Aluckal E, Anzil KS A, Baby M, George EK, Lakshmanan S, Chikkanna S. Association between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries among Anganwadi Children of Belgaum City, India. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):844-848.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Harsh Priyank, TM Chaitra Devi, Pallavi Goel, Nivedita Sahu, Shweta Nihalani, Ashutosh Shandilya

Assessment of the Incidence of Posttreatment Endodontic Flare-ups in Patients undergoing Single-sitting Root Canal Therapies: A Clinical Study

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:849 - 852]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1942  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Endodontic therapy is one of the commonly used procedures for treating the teeth affected by various pathologies. One of the major problems for endodontists despite the advancements in the root canal procedures is the posttreatment endodontic flare-ups. Much debate exists regarding the completion of endodontic therapy in a single sitting or multiple sittings. Hence, we assessed the incidence of endodontic flare-ups in patients undergoing single-sitting root canal therapies.

Materials and methods

The present study included 200 patients who underwent single-sitting endodontic therapy. Clinical details and conditions of each and every tooth of every patient were recorded before and after the completion of endodontic therapy. Irrigation during the root canal procedures was done by 2.5% NaOCl solution in most of the cases while others were irrigated with various combinations of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and cycloheximide (CHX) solutions. Follow-up records and readings of the patents were noted and were subjected to statistical analysis.

Results

Four groups were formed which divided the patients equally on the basis of their age. Out of 50 patients in the age group of 21 to 30 years, only 4 showed posttreatment endodontic flare-ups, while no endodontic flare-up was recorded in patients with age group of 31 to 50 years. Only two male and four females showed flare-ups postoperatively. A nonsignificant correlation was obtained when flare-up cases were compared on the basis of type of irrigation solution used during canal preparation.

Conclusion

Single-sitting endodontic therapy appears to be a successful procedure with good prognosis and minimal posttreatment flare-up results, even in patients with periapical pathologies.

Clinical significance

Single-sitting root canal procedures can be successfully carried in patients with vital or nonvital pulp tissues and also in patients with periapical lesions.

How to cite this article

Priyank H, Chaitra Devi TM, Goel P, Sahu N, Nihalani S, Shandilya A. Assessment of the Incidence of Posttreatment Endodontic Flare-ups in Patients undergoing Single-sitting Root Canal Therapies: A Clinical Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):849-852.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sachin Kumar, Aditi Shah, Rishi Thukral, MC Prasant, Sannishth M Sadrani, Harsh Baxi

Assessment of Various Risk Factors for Success of Delayed and Immediate Loaded Dental Implants: A Retrospective Analysis

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:853 - 856]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1943  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Ever since its introduction in 1977, a minimum of few months of period is required for osseointegration to take place after dental implant surgery. With the passage of time and advancements in the fields of dental implant, this healing period is getting smaller and smaller. Immediate loading of dental implants is becoming a very popular procedure in the recent time. Hence, we retrospectively analyzed the various risk factors for the failure of delayed and immediate loaded dental implants.

Materials and methods

In the present study, retrospective analysis of all the patients was done who underwent dental implant surgeries either by immediate loading procedure or by delayed loading procedures. All the patients were divided broadly into two groups with one group containing patients in which delayed loaded dental implants were placed while other consisted of patients in whom immediate loaded dental implants were placed. All the patients in whom follow-up records were missing and who had past medical history of any systemic diseases were excluded from the present study. Evaluation of associated possible risk factors was done by classifying the predictable factors as primary and secondary factors. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Kaplan–Meier survival analyses and chisquare test were used for assessment of level of significance.

Results

In delayed and immediate group of dental implants, mean age of the patients was 54.2 and 54.8 years respectively. Statistically significant results were obtained while comparing the clinical parameters of the dental implants in both the groups while demographic parameters showed nonsignificant correlation.

Conclusion

Significant higher risk of dental implant failure is associated with immediate loaded dental implants. Tobacco smoking, shorter implant size, and other risk factors play a significant role in predicting the success and failure of dental implants.

Clinical significance

Delayed loaded dental implant placement should be preferred as they are associated with decreased risk of implant failure.

How to cite this article

Prasant MC, Thukral R, Kumar S, Sadrani SM, Baxi H, Shah A. Assessment of Various Risk Factors for Success of Delayed and Immediate Loaded Dental Implants: A Retrospective Analysis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):853-856.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Javed Khan, B Vikas Prasad, Gauri S Kakatkar, Preet Jain, Meetu Jain, Maulik Patel

Expression of Myofibroblasts in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Immunohistochemical Study

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:857 - 860]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1944  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of malignancy affecting the orafacial region and with a high mortality rate. The fact that stroma of the tumor modulates and facilitates the progression and metastasis of the malignancy has been shown in the past studies. The cells of the activated stroma that are responsible for the progression and metastasis of the tumor are the fibroblasts having smooth muscle properties. These myofibroblasts are said to secrete numerous inflammatory mediators and factors which are said to play a crucial role in tumor progression. Therefore, we evaluated the presence of myofibroblasts in OSCC, by immunohistochemistry using alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibody.

Materials and methods

We evaluated a total of 50 biopsy specimens from the archives of the oral pathology, where 20 specimens out of 50 were of well-differentiated OSCC (WDOSCC), 20 were of poorly differentiated OSCC (PDOSCC), and 10 were of normal healthy controls. All the specimens were stained by immunohistochemically using with monoclonal antihuman α-SMA. Etemad-Moghadam et al method was used for assessing the myofibroblast distribution. Staining index was evaluated for the groups and compared. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Results

The mean percentage of myofibroblasts score for WDOSCC and PDOSCC were 2.88 and 2.92 respectively. The mean staining intensity score in WDOSCC and PDOSCC were 2.88 and 2.55 respectively. Statistically significant results were obtained while comparing the final staining index score between the OSCC group and normal control group. No significant correlation could be obtained while comparing the mean staining index score in between WDOSCC and PDOSCC.

Conclusion

Malignant epithelium might induce the adjacent stromal tissue to produce myofibroblasts. These specialized cells may be utilized as therapeutic targets for the treatment of OSCC.

Clinical significance

Proliferation of myofibroblasts may be used as a stromal marker of premalignancy and malignancy.

How to cite this article

Prasad BV, Kakatkar GS, Jain P, Jain M, Patel M, Khan J. Expression of Myofibroblasts in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Immunohistochemical Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):857-860.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Josimeri Hebling, Débora LS Scheffel, Cláudia Huck, Diana G Soares, Fernanda G Basso, Carlos A de Souza Costa, Martha G Brackett, David H Pashley

Uninfiltrated Collagen in Hybrid Layers produced after Reduced Acid-etching Time on Primary and Permanent Dentin

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:861 - 866]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1945  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study evaluated the influence of acid-etching time on collagen exposure in adhesive interfaces established on primary and permanent dentin.

Materials and methods

Flat dentin surfaces were produced on sound primary molars and premolars (n = 8). The surfaces were divided into mesial and distal halves, and each half was etched with phosphoric acid for 5 or 15 seconds. The teeth were randomly allocated into two groups according to the adhesive system applied: Prime & Bond NT or Prime & Bond 2.1. After the adhesive application, the specimens were processed for Goldner's trichrome staining. The thickness of the uninfiltrated collagen zone (UCZ) in the hybrid layer was measured under optical microscopy. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α = 0.05).

Results

The thickness of UCZ was adhesive dependent. Within the same substrate, the specimens treated with Prime & Bond 2.1 presented thicker UCZ when etched for 15 seconds. Collagen exposure was significantly higher for the primary teeth etched for 5 seconds and treated with Prime & Bond 2.1.

Conclusion

The thickness of UCZ in hybrid layers is directly affected by acid-etching time and by the adhesive system applied. Primary dentin seems to be more susceptible to collagen exposure than is permanent dentin.

Clinical significance

Both acid-etching time and adhesive system can influence the amount of exposed collagen interfering on resin–dentin bond quality, especially on primary dentin.

How to cite this article

Scheffel DLS, Huck C, Soares DG, Basso FG, de Souza Costa CA, Brackett MG, Pashley DH, Hebling J. Uninfiltrated Collagen in Hybrid Layers produced after Reduced Acid-etching Time on Primary and Permanent Dentin. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):861-866.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Mohammed S Bin-Shuwaish

Effects and Effectiveness of Cavity Disinfectants in Operative Dentistry: A Literature Review

[Year:2016] [Month:October] [Volume:17] [Number:10] [Pages:13] [Pages No:867 - 879]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1946  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Bin-Shuwaish MS. Effects and Effectiveness of Cavity Disinfectants in Operative Dentistry: A Literature Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(10):867-879

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