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2016 | September | Volume 17 | Issue 9

EDITORIAL

Seyed Amir Danesh-Sani

Maintaining Osseointegration: Understanding, preventing, and treating Risk Factors for Peri-implant Diseases

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:2] [Pages No:711 - 712]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1917  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Danesh-Sani SA. Maintaining Osseointegration: Understanding, preventing, and treating Risk Factors for Peri-implant Diseases. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9):711-712.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Osmar A Cuoghi, Francielle Topolski, Lorraine P de Faria, Marcos R de Mendonça

Pain and Tissue Damage in Response to Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Are They Correlated?

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:8] [Pages No:713 - 720]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1918  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate the correlation between pain and tissue damage in response to orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such as hyalinization and external apical root resorption (EARR).

Materials and methods

The literature review was used as a methodological strategy, following the knowledge development process – constructivist (ProKnow-C). Study axes were defined and keywords that best represented each axis were selected. The terms were submitted to an adherence test and validation, resulting in 12 keyword combinations. Searches were carried out in the most representative databases for the selected terms, without restriction as for language or publication dates. Retrieved studies were filtered using the EndNote X6 program and classified according to analysis of title, abstract, and keywords. The final portfolio of articles was submitted to bibliometric and systematic analysis.

Results

A total of 1,091 studies were retrieved, out of which 719 were repeated and 335 were removed in the classification stage. A total of 37 articles remained in the final portfolio. Only one article was in line with the purpose of this study, indicating absence of correlation between pain and EARR in response to OTM.

Conclusion

Further studies are necessary to confirm whether orthodontic pain might serve as a criterion for the use of appropriate mechanical forces, contributing to minimize tissue damage following OTM.

Clinical significance

This article presents a systematic literature review, in which scientific evidence of the correlation between pain and tissue damage during orthodontic movement was studied, providing a scientific answer for the following question: Is pain reported by patients associated with application of inappropriate orthodontic force? Thus, it aims at aiding the orthodontist in the definition of clinical parameters for the use of optimal orthodontic force.

How to cite this article

Cuoghi OA, Topolski F, de Faria LP, de Mendonça MR. Pain and Tissue Damage in Response to Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Are They Correlated? J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9):713-720.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Fabiana BT Alves, Denise S Wambier, Jenny HA Alvarez, José CF da Rocha, Thais R Kummer, Vanessa C de Castro, Howard Cabral, Vitoldo A Kozlowski

Children using Day Nurseries’ Facilities can be Associated with more Risk to Nonnutritive Sucking Habits

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:7] [Pages No:721 - 727]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1919  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

This study evaluated the expression of nonnutritive sucking habits and the presence of malocclusion in children using day nurseries’ facilities.

Materials and methods

The 195 children (7–40 months) attending 18 public day nurseries were evaluated clinically in Ponta Grossa, Brazil. Statistical package software was used for descriptive, univariate, bivariate, and multiple logistic regressions of the data about the socioeconomic condition, educational family status, malocclusions, and prevalence of nonnutritive sucking habits among the children.

Results

The pacifier users had a statistically significant, explanatory association with open bite [odds ratio (OR) = 10.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.95, 24.31; p < 0.0001]. The children older than 25 months had more open bite than younger children (OR = 6.07; 95% CI: 2.81, 13.11; p < 0.0001). Of the children examined, 35.4% had an anterior open bite, 0.51% had posterior cross-bite, and 1.03% showed finger-sucking habits. A high frequency of pacifier-sucking habits was found (52%), with a significant association between this habit and anterior open bite (p < 0.0001, OR = 7.49; 95% CI: 3.71, 15.15). The 126 children without open bite (36.5%) were pacifier users. There was suggestive, though nonsignificant, evidence of a difference in pacifier use by gender (males, 34%; females, 46%; p = 0.07). The 69 children with open bite (81.16%) were pacifier users and (18.84%) nonusers. The boys showed a slightly greater association with open bite (OR = 21.33; 95% CI: 6.12, 74.40; p < 0.0001) than girls (OR = 5.03; 95% CI: 1.26, 20.00; p = 0.02) in the age group of 25 to 40 months; however, it was not observed in younger children.

Conclusion

Pacifier use is a predictor for open bite in children from the lower socioeconomic classes using day nurseries’ facilities.

Clinical significance

The parents, guardians, and caregivers working in public day nurseries should be advised to monitor nonnutritive sucking habits in order to avoid or minimize the occurrence of malocclusion. It demonstrates that the permanence of the children in day nurseries may be linked with deleterious oral habits, and it discusses strategies to minimize the occurrence of alterations in the normal occlusion.

How to cite this article

Alves FBT, Wambier DS, Alvarez JHA, da Rocha JCF, Kummer TR, de Castro VC, Cabral H, Kozlowski VA Jr. Children using Day Nurseries’ Facilities can be Associated with more Risk to Nonnutritive Sucking Habits. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9):721-727.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mariliani Chicarelli, Fernanda P Bragatto, Amanda VB Kasuya, Wilton M Takeshita, Liogi Iwaki-Filho, Lilian CV Iwaki

Golden Proportion Analysis of Dental–Skeletal Patterns of Class II and III Patients Pre and Post Orthodontic-orthognathic Treatment

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:6] [Pages No:728 - 733]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1920  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

The golden proportion has been used in dentistry in an attempt to improve facial function and, possibly, esthetics by simplifying the diagnosis of facial and dental disharmony. The aim of this study is to analyze pre- and postoperative cephalometric tracings of lateral cephalograms of patients with class II and III deformities submitted to orthognathic surgery, and verify if the 13 dental–skeletal patterns (ratios), as defined by Ricketts, moved closer to or further away from the golden proportion.

Materials and methods

A total of 110 lateral cephalometric radiographs, 55 obtained preoperatively and 55 postoperatively, were analyzed using Dolphin Imaging software.

Results

Radiographs analysis demonstrated that ratios 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 13 remained statistically different from the golden proportion postoperatively. Ratio 12 was the only one to move closer to the golden number, while the opposite happened with ratio 6, which moved further away after the surgery. Ratios 2 and 11 kept statistically similar to the golden proportion both pre and postoperatively.

Conclusion

It may be concluded that orthognathic surgery had little effect on the proportions studied, and that the golden proportion was not present in the majority of the ratios analyzed neither before nor after surgery.

Clinical significance

Determine whether the facial patterns approach the golden ratio after surgical correction. Also determine whether the golden ratio may be a standard to guide the surgical treatment of patients with skeletal patterns of type II and III.

How to cite this article

Bragatto FP, Chicarelli M, Kasuya AVB, Takeshita WM, Iwaki-Filho L, Iwaki LCV. Golden Proportion Analysis of Dental–Skeletal Patterns of Class II and III Patients Pre and Post Orthodontic-orthognathic Treatment. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9):728-733.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mohammed E Sayed, Bandar MA Al-Makramani, Fuad A Al-Sanabani, Mohamed S Mohamed

Effect of Intermixing Brands on the Dimensional Accuracy of Master Cast using Putty-wash Impression Technique

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:6] [Pages No:734 - 739]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1921  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intermixing brands of addition silicone impression materials on the dimensional accuracy of stone models using two-step putty-wash technique.

Materials and methods

Two common brands of addition silicone impression material (Express and Aquasil) were used in this study. A total of 40 impressions of a stainless steel model simulating a three-unit bridge were made, 10 impressions for each group. Accuracy was assessed by measuring two dimensions (inter-abutment and intra-abutment) on stone models obtained from impressions of the stainless steel model. Each sample was measured thrice and the mean value was calculated. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe's post hoc test.

Results

The results indicated that each of the inter-abutment and intra-abutment dimensions of the stone models was significantly higher than those for the stainless steel model (p < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in each of the inter-abutment and intra-abutment dimensions of the stone models among the four tested groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

The results obtained were statistically analyzed and the values of the inter-abutment and intra-abutment dimensions were all within the clinically acceptable range.

Clinical significance

Intermixing brands of additional silicone impression materials evaluated in this study did not affect the dimensional accuracy of obtained stone casts. This will help to minimize the wastage of materials due to lack of either light or putty consistency of the same brand of additional silicone impression material.

How to cite this article

Sayed ME, Al-Makramani BMA, Al-Sanabani FA, Mohamed MS. Effect of Intermixing Brands on the Dimensional Accuracy of Master Cast using Putty-wash Impression Technique. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9):734-739.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Kamran Habib Awan, QA Hussain, Mahesh Maralingannavar

Assessing the Risk of Oral Cancer associated with Gutka and Other Smokeless Tobacco Products: A Case–control Study

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:5] [Pages No:740 - 744]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1922  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Tobacco and tobacco-related products have been attributed to be causative factors for oral cancer. Newer, chewable, and commercially available smokeless tobacco (ST) products, such as gutka pose further threat in this direction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of oral cancer associated with gutka and other ST products.

Materials and methods

A case-control study of 134 cases and 134 controls, over a period of 6 months (July–December 2014), was carried out at the Baqai University, Karachi, Pakistan. An interview-based questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices and type, duration, and frequency of use of tobacco-related products. Data were analyzed using the Pearson's chi-square (χ2) test with the level of significance set as p < 0.05.

Results

Gutka showed the highest odds ratio toward developing oral cancer ratio among all the tobacco-related products [odds ratio (OR) 5.54; 95% CI 2.83–10.83; p < 0.001)]. Participants who consumed other ST products also showed 2 to 4 times higher odds ratio of developing oral cancer than compared to those who did not consume these products.

Conclusion

The study provided strong evidence that gutka and other ST products are independent risk factors for oral cancer.

Clinical significance

This study highlights the strong association of different types of ST and oral cancer. This results in identification of high-risk groups for targeted screening for potential oral cancer lesions.

How to cite this article

Awan KH, Hussain QA, Patil S, Maralingannavar M. Assessing the Risk of Oral Cancer associated with Gutka and Other Smokeless Tobacco Products: A Case-control Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9): 740-744.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

KSA Anzil, J Mathews, AG Sai, M Kiran, S Kevin, S Sunith

Prevalence of Deleterious Oral Habits and Oral Mucosal Lesions among Fishermen Population of Mahe, South India

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:5] [Pages No:745 - 749]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1923  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Fishing is an occupation associated with uneven diet, strain, drunkenness, tobacco use, and deleterious habits. The physical state of laborers on a large scale will also be influenced by conditions at their work site. Oral mucosal lesions can occur as a result of infections, local shock or infuriation, systemic diseases, and uncontrolled usage of tobacco, betel quid, and alcohol. The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of deleterious oral habits and oral mucosal lesions among fishermen population of Mahe, South India.

Materials and methods

The study population consists of 362 fishermen aged between 15 and 54. The questionnaire consisted of questions on personal data, and information related to the subjects’ oral habits were collected by the interview. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form was designed for the assessment of oral mucosal lesions.

Results

Among the 362 fishermen, 266 (73.48%) were males and 96 (26.52%) were females. The overall prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, and gutka chewing was found to be 24.3, 48.85, and 32.4% respectively. Smokeless tobacco (32.4%) was the most prevalent habit followed by smoking tobacco (24.3%). The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 14.9%. There is a statistically significant association between age groups and habits considered.

Conclusion

Findings of the present study suggest that oral health condition of the fisherfolk community was relatively poor, with high habit prevalence and oral mucosal lesions. This epidemiological study has provided baseline data to plan further research in this area.

Clinical significance

Low socioeconomic status, strenuous working hours, inadequate diet and nutrition intake, stress, and use of tobacco and alcohol act as contributing factors for ill health and oral diseases. It is a challenging population to the clinician to identify and treat them.

How to cite this article

Anzil KSA, Mathews J, Sai AG, Kiran M, Kevin S, Sunith S. Prevalence of Deleterious Oral Habits and Oral Mucosal Lesions among Fishermen Population of Mahe, South India. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9):745-749.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Zeeshan H Ahmad, Sukumaran Anil, Sham S Bhat, K Sundeep Hegde, Faizal C Peedikayil, TP Chandru

A Cross-sectional Study of the Prevalence of Dental Caries among 12- to 15-year-old Overweight Schoolchildren

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:5] [Pages No:750 - 754]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1924  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Overweight and obesity are growing healthrelated problems worldwide, and it is currently the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess the association between overweight and dental caries among 12- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in Mangaluru district, Karnataka, India.

Materials and methods

Data were obtained from 2000 schoolgoing children aged 12 to 15 years. The children were categorized as overweight and normal-weight group by assessing the body mass index (BMI). Body mass index was categorized using the classification system given by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and obtained in units of kg/m2. The dental caries was assessed by detection and was performed according to decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index.

Results

Of the 2000 children examined, the mean BMI recorded was 26.87 ± 2.26 for the overweight children and 20.82 ± 1.48 for the normal-weight children. Even though the DMFT (3.90 ± 2.95) in the overweight children was slightly higher than the control group (3.36 ± 2.73), it was not statistically significant.

Conclusion

Within the confines of the present study, it can be concluded that there is no significant association between overweight and dental caries among the schoolchildren of Mangaluru district in Karnataka. Longitudinal studies are necessary to substantiate the possible relationships between dental caries and overweight in children. Knowledge of these relationships could lead to preventive health measures designed to reduce the prevalence of both obesity and dental caries.

How to cite this article

Kottayi S, Bhat SS, Hegde KS, Peedikayil FC, Chandru TP, Anil S. A Cross-sectional Study on the Prevalence of Dental Caries among 12- to 15-year-old Overweight Schoolchildren. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9): 750-754.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Abhishek Nagpal, Gaurav Issar

Qualitative Assessment of Wear Resistance and Surface Hardness of Different Commercially Available Dental Porcelain: An in vitro Study

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:7] [Pages No:755 - 761]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1925  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

In an attempt to minimize wear damage to the enamel of antagonist teeth, new low and medium fusing ceramic materials have been developed. Manufacturers usually claim that these ceramics are wear-friendly because of their lower hardness, lower concentrations of crystal phase, and smaller crystal sizes. This study aimed to quantitatively analyze the wear strength of various commercially available dental porcelain with tooth enamel as well as the surface hardness of these dental porcelain.

Materials and methods

The basic model was designed as a pin on plate arrangement. The tooth specimens were mounted on the stylus which was centered on the ceramic specimen in a wear testing machine. The dental ceramic specimen was centered in the metal die. A load of 40 N was applied at a rate of 80 cycles/minute for 15 minutes. In the current study, mean wear depth (Ra) value, volumetric loss, and surface hardness were obtained by standard quantification method and were statistically evaluated.

Results

Ceramco-3 was reported to be most abrasive for enamel; however, Duceram love significantly more abraded itself than the other two, Ceramco-3 and Vita Alpha, and generated the lowest loss of enamel. Also, same abrasive type of wear was revealed for all three variants of tested ceramics.

Conclusion

Ceramco-3 was the most abrasive for enamel, while surface roughness (mean wear depth) of Duceram love was maximum and for Ceramco-3 it was minimum. The value of surface roughness for Vita Alpha was in between Duceram love and Ceramco-3. Nonetheless, the mean surface hardness of Duceram love was found to be least and maximum for Vita Alpha.

Clinical significance

In situations of dental wear and wasting tooth disease (Attrition/Abrasion), Duceram can be applied in lieu of Ceramco-3 so as to prevent worsening of existing dentition. However, in younger patients Vita Alpha would offer maximum durability due to its greater surface hardness.

How to cite this article

Singh A, Nagpal A, Pawah S, Pathak C, Issar G, Sharma P. Qualitative Assessment of Wear Resistance and Surface Hardness of Different Commercially Available Dental Porcelain: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016; 17(9):755-761.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Amit Mhapuskar, Shweta Thakare, Darshan Hiremutt, Versha R Giroh, Kedarnath Kalyanpur, KR Alpana

Evaluation of the Position of Mental Foramen for Clinical and Forensic Significance in terms of Gender in Dentate Subjects by Digital Panoramic Radiographs

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:7] [Pages No:762 - 768]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1926  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Evaluation of the position of mental foramen aids in forensic, surgical, endodontic, as well as diagnostic procedures. Thus, in view of this, the present study was conducted among the population of Pune, a central part of India, to determine the most regular location of the mental foramen and to estimate difference in position of mental foramen based on gender.

Materials and methods

The present retrospective study was commenced on 200 digital panoramic radiographs of dentate patients. The location of the representation of the mental foramen was traced. Measurements for evaluating distance of superior and inferior borders of the foramen in relation to the lower border of the mandible were made using the reference lines drawn from anatomical landmarks. The data so obtained were statistically analyzed using chi-square test.

Results

The most common position of mental foramen among Pune population in horizontal plane in both male and female patients was in line with second premolar followed by position in between first and second premolar, whereas in the vertical plane, most common position was at or in line with apex of second premolar followed by in between apex of first and second premolar. The variation in length of superior and inferior border of the foramen in relation to lower border of the mandible with respect to gender was found to be significant, with p-value <0.05.

Conclusion

There was no difference in position of mental foramen in horizontal and vertical planes based on gender.

Clinical significance

The stability of location of mental foramen and significant difference in length of superior and inferior border of the foramen in relation to lower border of the mandible with respect to gender offer its application in forensic identification of gender.

How to cite this article

Thakare S, Mhapuskar A, Hiremutt D, Giroh VR, Kalyanpur K, Alpana KR. Evaluation of the Position of Mental Foramen for Clinical and Forensic Significance in terms of Gender in Dentate Subjects by Digital Panoramic Radiographs. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9):762-768.

CASE REPORT

Edna Perez, Linda S Behar-Horenstein, Marcio Guelmann

Crown-root Fracture Restoration on a Patient with Autism Spectrum Disorder

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:5] [Pages No:769 - 773]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1927  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Children with intellectual and physical disabilities including autism are susceptible to dental trauma as a sequela from falls due to poor muscular coordination. In addition, their altered muscle tonus often results in an open bite with labial flaring of the maxillary incisors and lip incompetence, predisposing these teeth to fractures. This case report describes an alternative approach of restoring a fractured maxillary permanent central incisor with a composite strip crown during surgical repositioning of the periodontium on an autistic patient. The prognosis of the incisor is guarded due to the probability of re-injury. However, the decision to maintain the tooth clinically was esthetically preferable in comparison to an extraction or decoronation.

How to cite this article

Perez E, Behar-Horenstein LS, Guelmann M. Crown-root Fracture Restoration on a Patient with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9):769-773.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Sophie Doméjean, Julie Rongier, Michèle Muller-Bolla

Detection of Occlusal Carious Lesion using the SoproLife® Camera: A Systematic Review

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:6] [Pages No:774 - 779]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1928  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this systematic review was to assess the in vivo scientific evidence regarding the ability of a recently developed light fluorescence device, SoproLife® (Sopro-Acteon group, La Ciotat, France) in detecting occlusal carious lesions.

The PubMed database was searched for in vivo trials that evaluated the validity of the SoproLife® camera for the detection of occlusal carious lesions. Among the 11 articles originally identified with the keyword “Soprolife,” only three articles were included.

The three included surveys used the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)-II criteria as gold standard for the assessment of SoproLife® compared or not to other detection devices (DIAGNOdent® and Spectra Caries Detection Aid®). Two of the included studies reported only on permanent teeth or both primary and permanent teeth. The SoproLife® validity values varied markedly among studies with a sensitivity ranging between 0.43 and 0.95 and a specificity between 0.55 and 1. Interobserver reproducibility with the SoproLife® was reported in two of the three studies (0.98 and 0.72) and none of the studies reported about intraobserver reproducibility.

No clear-cut conclusion can be made based on the three included clinical studies; further in vivo investigations are needed to confirm the validity of the SoproLife® camera in terms of detection of occlusal carious lesions.

How to cite this article

Doméjean S, Rongier J, Muller-Bolla M. Detection of Occlusal Carious Lesion using the SoproLife® Camera: A Systematic Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9):774-779.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Prajna P Shetty, Makam Gangaiah

Hidden Overdenture Bar in Fixed Implant-retained Hybrid Prosthesis: Report of a Novel Technique

[Year:2016] [Month:September] [Volume:17] [Number:9] [Pages:3] [Pages No:780 - 782]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1929  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Every patient needs a comprehensive treatment planning. Dentists must consider the advantages and disadvantages of the available implant prosthetic options and match them to patient's expectations. Hybrid denture prosthesis is one, i.e., fabricated and retained by screw threaded into implant abutments, most of the time on four implants. Sometimes due to failure of an implant, the prosthesis needs to be replaced with a newer casting to accommodate the existing implants.

Clinical consideration

This article presents a novel technique, wherein the existing framework of the fixed prosthesis can be used to convert the fixed prosthesis to removable prosthesis on the existing implants, without recasting.

Clinical significance

The implant is economical and easily convertible from a fixed-fixed to a fixed-removable prosthesis. Hence, there is reduced morbidity, reduced cost, and an increased psychological comfort for the patient.

How to cite this article

Shetty PP, Gangaiah M, Chowdhary R. Hidden Overdenture Bar in Fixed Implant-retained Hybrid Prosthesis: Report of a Novel Technique. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(9):780-782.

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