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2017 | October | Volume 18 | Issue 10

EDITORIAL

Quality of Life Assessment should be Part of Oral Health Evaluations in Day-to-day Practice

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:2] [Pages No:857 - 858]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2139  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Gondivkar SM, Gadbail AR, Sarode SC, Patil S. Quality of Life Assessment should be Part of Oral Health Evaluations in Day-to-day Practice. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):857-858.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres, Thomas Attin, Erica Crastechini, Alessandra B Borges, Klaus Becker

Protective Effect of Adhesive Systems associated with Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser on Enamel Erosive/Abrasive Wear

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:8] [Pages No:859 - 866]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2140  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study evaluated the efficacy of self-etching adhesive systems associated or not associated with the neodymiumdoped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser on the protection against enamel erosive/abrasive wear.

Materials and methods

Bovine enamel specimens were demineralized with 0.3% citric acid (5 minutes). The samples were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 20): SB – Single Bond Universal (3M/ESPE); SB+L – Single Bond Universal + laser (80 mJ/10 Hz); FB – Futurabond U (Voco); FB+L – Futurabond U + laser; GEN – G-aenial bond (GC); GEN+L – G-aenial bond + laser; L – laser irradiation; and C – no treatment. The laser was applied before light curing. The samples were subjected to erosive/abrasive challenges (0.3% citric acid – 2 minutes and tooth brushing four times daily for 5 days). Enamel surface loss was recovered profilometrically by comparison of baseline and final profiles. The adhesive layer thickness, retention percentage of the protective layer, and microhardness of cured adhesive were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (5%).

Results

There were significant differences for all parameters (p = 0.0001). Mean values ± SD and results of the Tukey's test were: Surface wear: GEN – 4.88 (±1.09)a, L – 5.04 ± 0.99)a, FB – 5.32 (±0.93)ab, GEN + L – 5.46 (±1.27)abc, SB + L – 5.78 (±1.12)abc, FB + L – 6.23 (±1.25)bc, SB – 6.35 (±1.11)c, and C – 6.46 (±0.61)c; layer thickness: GEN – 15.2 (±8.63)c, FB – 5.06 (±1.96)a, GEN + L – 13.96 (±7.07)bc, SB + L – 4.24 (±2.68)a, FB + L – 9.03 (±13.02)abc, and SB – 7.49 (±2.80)ab; retention: GEN – 68.89 (±20.62)c, FB – 54.53 (±24.80)abc, GEN + L – 59.90 (±19.79)abc, SB + L – 63.37 (±19.30)bc, FB + L – 42.23 (±17.68) a, and SB – 47.78 (±18.29)ab; microhardness: GEN – 9.27 (±1.75)c; FB – 6.99 (±0.89)b; GEN + L – 6.22 (±0.87)ab; SB + L – 15.48 (±2.51)d; FB + L – 10.67 (±1.58)c; SB – 5.00 (±1.60)a.

Conclusion

The application of Futurabond U and G-aenial bond on enamel surface, as well as the Nd:YAG laser irradiation alone, was able to reduce the enamel wear. The use of laser after the adhesive systems did not improve their efficacy.

Clinical significance

Erosive/abrasive wear is a prevalent condition in clinical practice affecting many patients. The association of adhesive systems and Nd:YAG laser is of considerable clinical interest because it assesses new treatments to reduce the erosive/abrasive wear that would help dentists in clinical treatment decisions to reduce enamel wear and achieve a successful treatment.

How to cite this article

Crastechini E, Borges AB, Becker K, Attin T, Torres CRG. Protective Effect of Adhesive Systems associated with Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser on Enamel Erosive/Abrasive Wear. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):859-866.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Maryam Tavangar, Zahra Zohri, Hosein Sheikhnezhad, Shahrzad Shahbeig

Comparison of Microleakage of Class V Cavities restored with the Embrace WetBond Class V Composite Resin and Conventional Opallis Composite Resin

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:7] [Pages No:867 - 873]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2141  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Purpose

This study was undertaken to compare the microleakage of class V cavities restored with the newly introduced Embrace WetBond class V (EWC) composite resin and conventional Opallis composite resin.

Materials and methods

In this in vitro study, class V cavities were prepared on 30 extracted bovine incisors, with the gingival floor and the coronal margin of the cavities 1 mm apical and coronal to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) respectively. The cavities measured 3 mm in length, 2 mm in width, and 1.5 mm in depth. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups. In group I, the cavities were restored with Opallis composite resin in association with ExciTE adhesive system (total-etch); in group II, the EWC composite resin was used for restorations. After 500 thermocycling procedures, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% fuchsin solution for 24 hours. Then, the samples were placed within a polyester model and sectioned in the buccolingual direction. The samples were evaluated under a stereomicroscope at ×30 for the penetration of dye. The enamel and dentin margins were evaluated separately. To test ordinal results, we used nonparametric statistical methods. To find out whether each independent composite groups I and II came from the same populations, we used Mann–Whitney U test and to compare two related samples’ coronal margin and gingival margin, Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used.

Results

There was significantly more microleakage in group II at both the enamel and dentin margins (coronal margin: p = 0.04; gingival margin: p = 0.21). In both groups, microleakage gingival margins was significantly higher than that at coronal margins (group I: p = 0.008; group II: p = 0.26).

Conclusion

Despite the high speed and the short process of restoration with Embrace WetBond, it is not a reliable restorative material for class V cavities due to its inadequate marginal seal.

How to cite this article

Tavangar M, Zohri Z, Sheikhnezhad H, Shahbeig S. Comparison of Microleakage of Class V Cavities restored with the Embrace WetBond Class V Composite Resin and Conventional Opallis Composite Resin. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):867-873.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Eman H Ismail, Evren Kilinc, Patrick C Hardigan, James K Rothrock, Jeffrey Y Thompson, Cristina Garcia-Godoy

Effect of Two-minute Application of 35% Sodium Ascorbate on Composite Bond Strength following Bleaching

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:7] [Pages No:874 - 880]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2142  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study is to assess the effect of 35% sodium ascorbate on microtensile bond strength of dentin immediately after bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide.

Materials and methods

A total of 25 sound human 3rd molars were collected. Teeth were randomly divided into five groups for different treatments: Group I [bleaching + immediate bonding (i.e., restoration)], group II (bleaching + delayed bonding), group III (bleaching + sodium ascorbate + immediate bonding), group IV (bleaching + sodium ascorbate + delayed bonding), and group V (bonding only). After bleaching, but before bonding, groups II and IV were stored for 1 week in deionized water at 37°C. All samples were bonded using OptiBoned FL (Kerr) and Filtek Supreme (3M/ESPE). Teeth were sectioned into 1 × 1 mm 2 bars, and microtensile bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine (Instron 8841) at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute.

Results

Microtensile bond strength differed significantly across the five groups, with a significant reduction in microtensile strength observed for samples in group I relative to samples in any of the other treatment groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

The application of a high concentration of sodium ascorbate for a shorter time reversed the negative effect of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching on composite bonding strength to dentin.

Clinical significance

The negative effects of bleaching on composite bonding can be neutralized by the application of the reversing agent sodium ascorbate thus, increasing the efficiency of clinic chair time. This is clinically relevant for those patients requiring restorative treatment immediately after inoffice bleaching.

How to cite this article

Ismail EH, Kilinc E, Hardigan PC, Rothrock JK, Thompson JY, Garcia-Godoy C. Effect of Twominute Application of 35% Sodium Ascorbate on Composite Bond Strength following Bleaching. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):874-880.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anip K Roy, Dennis Mohan, M Sunith, Rashmi B Mandokar, S Suprasidh, Soumya Rajan

Comparison of Shear Bond Strengths of Conventional Resin Cement and Self-adhesive Resin Cement bonded to Lithium Disilicate: An in vitro Study

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:881 - 886]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2143  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strengths of conventional resin cement and self-adhesive resin cement bonded to lithium disilicate.

Materials and methods

A total of 40 extracted human molar teeth were mounted in self-cure acrylic resin. Teeth were prepared to obtain flat occlusal surface. About 40 lithium disilicate specimens of dimension—10 mm in diameter and thickness of 2 mm—were fabricated using lost wax technique. The samples were divided into four groups: Groups I, II, III, and IV (n = 10). The specimens were surface treated with Monobond S silane coupling agent. Self-etching primer and bonding agent were applied on the bonding surface of the teeth in groups I and III. The specimens were bonded to the primed teeth with the Multilink N resin cement and subjected to the universal testing machine. The specimens were light-cured. Specimens in groups II and IV were luted to teeth using self-adhesive cement RelyX U100. The same force was applied over the specimen as mentioned above. Excess cement was removed, and light curing was done. The specimens in groups III and IV were subjected to thermocycling for 10,000 cycles at temperatures altering between 5°C and 55°C.

Results

The shear bond strengths of conventional resin cement and self-adhesive resin cement with lithium disilicate were tested before and after thermocycling. Results indicated thermocycling has no significant effect on the bond strengths of conventional or self-adhesive resin cement. However, from the study, it is seen that conventional resin cement had a higher shear bond strength value than the self-adhesive resin cement.

Conclusion

There was a significant difference between the average shear bond strength values of conventional resin cement (Multilink N) and self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100) when bonded to lithium disilicate disks, and thermocycling had no significant effect on the bond strength of conventional or self-adhesive resin cements.

Clinical significance

Among all-ceramic systems available, lithium disilicate materials have emerged as an excellent esthetic material for fabrication of anterior and posterior crowns and three-unit anterior fixed partial dentures because of their high translucency and improved optical properties. For successful clinical outcomes, the luting agent should have high bond strength not only to the ceramic surface, but also to the tooth surface.

How to cite this article

Roy AK, Mohan D, Sunith M, Mandokar RB, Suprasidh S, Rajan S. Comparison of Shear Bond Strengths of Conventional Resin Cement and Self-adhesive Resin Cement bonded to Lithium Disilicate: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):881-886.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Veena B Benakatti, Abhijit P Patil, Jayashee Sajjanar, Supriya S Shetye, Ulhas N Amasi, Raghunath Patil

Evaluation of Antibacterial Effect and Dimensional Stability of Self-disinfecting Irreversible Hydrocolloid: An in vitro Study

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:887 - 892]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2144  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study evaluated the antibacterial activity and dimensional stability of irreversible hydrocolloids mixed with different concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate instead of water.

Materials and methods

Experimental specimens (45 specimens) were prepared and allocated into three groups of 15 each. Group I: Impression material mixed with distilled water served as control. Groups II and III were prepared with 0.12 and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution, respectively. Specimens in each group were subjected to tests for dimensional stability. For antimicrobial activity, 30 specimens were prepared and allocated into three groups of 10 each named as group I (control), group II (0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate), and group III (0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate) similar to specimens for dimensional stability. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test.

Results

Zones of inhibition were observed around test specimens, but not around control specimens; there was a significant intergroup difference in the diameters of the inhibition zones. In the test for dimensional stability, no significant differences were detected among groups, and the accuracy was clinically acceptable.

Conclusion

Irreversible hydrocolloid impression material mixed with chlorhexidine exhibits varying degrees of antibacterial activity without influencing the dimensional stability of set material.

Clinical significance

Many contagious diseases can be prevented by practical control of infection in the dental office. Chlorhexidine gluconate, as a mixing liquid, ensures disinfection of impression, and this method of disinfection is more convenient and avoids extra effort as in other disinfection techniques.

How to cite this article

Benakatti VB, Patil AP, Sajjanar J, Shetye SS, Amasi UN, Patil R. Evaluation of Antibacterial Effect and Dimensional Stability of Self-disinfecting Irreversible Hydrocolloid: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):887-892.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Malleedi Shanthi, EV Soma Sekhar Goud, G Padmanabha Kumar, Jagdeesh P Rajguru, Subramaniam Ratnasothy, Kranti KR Ealla

Risk Factors and Treatment Needs among Orphan School Children

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:893 - 898]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2145  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of the study was to identify risk factors and treatment needs of orphan children of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objectives

(1) To identify the association between the frequency of snacking and caries among orphan schoolchildren, (2) To assess Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli (microbiological assessment) in saliva of orphan children, and (3) To formulate treatment needs for orphan children.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional study was done among 253 children of 5-, 12-, and 15-year-olds living in various orphanage houses of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Demographic data, and dietary and oral hygiene practices were collected through a structured questionnaire. Clinical examinations of children were conducted to assess oral health status and recorded in the World Health Organization oral health assessment form (1997). Stimulated saliva was collected for S. mutans and Lactobacilli levels. The statistical software, namely, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 19.0 was used for the analysis of the data.

Results

The final data analysis included 253 children of which 116 (45.8%) were boys and 137 (54.2%) were girls. 140 (55.33%) children were caries-free and 113 (44.66%) children presented with caries (decayed/missing/filled surface >0). High levels of salivary microbiological counts (S. mutans and Lactobacilli), i.e., ≥ 105, stress the importance of necessary preventive oral health services. Treatment needs among orphan children showed that most of the children, i.e., 58 (22.9%), need preventive or caries-arresting care followed by 49 (19.4%) who require two-surface filling as an immediate measure.

Conclusion

From the results of our study, orphan children have low utilization of preventive and therapeutic oral health services. Urgent attention is required to plan a comprehensive dental health-care program to improve their oral health status.

Clinical significance

Parents are the primary caretakers of children, but woefully some of them have to lead their lives without parents, the latter either being dead or incapable of bringing up their children. Such a group of children is known as orphans. As oral health is an integral part of general health, it is essential for health-care policy makers to address oral health needs of this underprivileged group of society. This article highlights the risk factors and treatment needs among orphan schoolchildren.

How to cite this article

Shanthi M, Goud EVSS, Kumar GP, Rajguru JP, Ratnasothy S, Ealla KKR. Risk Factors and Treatment Needs among Orphan School Children. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):893-898.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Kamran Habib Awan, Syed R Habib, Sakhar Alghofaily, Hussam Alshamrani, Abdullah Alhammad

Relationship of Body Mass Index with Diet, Physical Activities, and Lifestyles of Dental Students

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:899 - 904]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2146  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

The objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight issues and obesity by recording the body mass index (BMI) and explore the dietary habits, physical activities (PAs), and lifestyles of male students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University.

Materials and methods

A custom-designed self-administrative form and questionnaire were used in this study for data collection. The first part of the form was used to record the participants’ height and weight for the BMI. The participants were grouped as underweight (BMI < 18.5), normal weight (BMI = 18.5–24.9), overweight (BMI = 25–29.9), and obese (BMI > 30.0). The second part comprised questions related to the dietary habits, PAs, and lifestyles of the male dental students. Chi-squared test was used to generate the significance of each question at significance <0.05.

Results

A total of 211 male students (mean age 22.31 ± 2.10 years) participated in the study (response rate 78.1%). The findings revealed that 29 and 28% of the dental students were overweight and obese respectively. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the groups was found for the questions asked about time spent exercising per day (p = 0.003), time spent sporting per week (p = 0.003), and time spent watching television and internet surfing per day (p = 0.012).

Conclusion

The prevalence of overweight issues and obesity is high among the dental students compared with the general population of Saudi Arabia, and there is a need for intervention programs to combat obesity among the dental students. The awareness about PA, healthy diet/lifestyle, consequences of overweight and obesity on their health and profession must be increased among the dental students to avoid future complications.

Clinical significance

The impact of obesity on individuals’ oral health and its influence on dental treatment protocols and postoperative procedures has been well documented. Dental students are more prone to obesity due to their lifestyle with less PA and disordered eating habits and, thereby, are prone to obesity-related health hazards.

How to cite this article

Habib SR, Alghofaily S, Alshamrani H, Alhammad A, Awan KH. Relationship of Body Mass Index with Diet, Physical Activities, and Lifestyles of Dental Students. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):899-904.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Basem N Alturki, Wjoud W Albishi, Fahad M Alsadi, Khaled M El-Tubaigy

Mechanical and Physical Properties of Two Different Resin-based Materials: A Comparative Study

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:905 - 910]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2147  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) of two different resin-based composite materials (nanofill composite and ormocer) and correlate it with some mechanical properties of these two restorative materials.

Materials and methods

Two different resin-based materials (Filtek Supreme XT and Admira) were tested. A total of 30 samples of each type of selected composite were prepared. Specimens were immersed in distilled water for 24 hours. Then, the specimens were subjected to DC, hardness, and diametral tensile strength (DTS) measurements. The data obtained were tabulated for statistical analysis. The t-test was used to detect the significant difference among the variables tested in this study. Furthermore, the interrelationship between the studied parameters was investigated using a simple correlation coefficient statistical test.

Results

Statistically significant differences were observed regarding DC, hardness, and DTS. Filtek Supreme XT presented the highest values. There was a positive correlation between DC and hardness. Also there was a correlation between DC and DTS, but it was not significant.

Conclusion

Under the tested experimental conditions, the DC of Filtek Supreme XT was higher than that of Accordingly, Filtek Supreme XT showed better mechanical properties.

Clinical significance

Filtek Supreme XT showed superior mechanical properties. Therefore, orthodontic bracket-based composite combinations may also be expected to perform well clinically over the lifetime of a bonded orthodontic appliance.

How to cite this article

Baeshen H, Alturki BN, Albishi WW, Alsadi FM, El-Tubaigy KM. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Two Different Resin-based Materials: A Comparative Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):905-910.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Shruti Dev, Mirna Garhnayak, Angurbala Dhal, Lokanath Garhnayak, Aswini K Kar

Assessment of Influence of Contact Time between Alginate and Type III Dental Stone on Properties of Cast Model: An in vitro Study

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:911 - 914]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2148  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Alginate is a versatile, irreversible hydrocolloid impression material, which is cost-effective and forms an essential component in dental practice. For elevating the hardness of the cast models, hardeners are combined with stone. Hence, we planned the present study to evaluate the impact of altering the time of contact between alginate and stone after various interim periods.

Materials and methods

The present study included the assessment of impact of time of contact between alginate and stone by the construction of 90 casts using a cylinder model. Two bisecting lines were marked and were named as y and y'. These lines were used for testing the dimensional stability. Using chemically cured acrylic resin, the construction of ten special trays was done. All the impression casts were randomly divided into two study groups, with 45 casts in each group.group I: control group, casts were removed after 60 minutes; group II: study group, casts were removed after 9 hours. A digital caliper was used for measuring the dimensional stability of the cast. All the data were collected and analyzed.

Results

In the specimens of the control group (group I) and the study group (group II), the mean dimensions from y to y' were found to be 17.54 and 17.95 respectively. The mean reading of hardness in the control group and study group was found to be 0.59 and 0.20 respectively. In groups I and II, the number of specimens showing clarity of two lines (X and X”) was 0 and 5 respectively.

Conclusion

There was no change in the dimensional stability of the dental stone model when the contact time was increased.

Clinical significance

Within certain limits, the contact time between alginate and stone can be altered without significantly altering the properties of the cast.

How to cite this article

Dev S, Kar AK, Garhnayak M, Garhnayak L, Dhal A. Assessment of Influence of Contact Time between Alginate and Type III Dental Stone on Properties of Cast Model: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):911-914.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ilser Turkyilmaz, Damian L Black, Chol H Chong

Evaluation of the Sealing Capability of the Internal Conical Connections of Implants with Titanium and Zirconia Abutments

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:8] [Pages No:915 - 922]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2149  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this in vitro investigation was to evaluate the sealing capability of the conical implant–abutment interfaces under different abutment screw torque values using titanium and zirconia abutments with Morse taper designs.

Materials and methods

A total of 42 dental implants (n = 21 for titanium abutments and n = 21 for zirconia abutments) were inoculated internally with three bacteria. These assemblies were divided into four test groups (n = 10) based on screw fixation torques of 35 or 20 Ncm and placed in sterile broth; the remaining abutments were used as positive controls and torqued to 10 Ncm. Microleakage was quantified by enumerating the bacteria from the colony-forming units. An analysis of variance for the estimates of bacteria enumerated and microgaps was used with a post hoc analysis as indicated. A p-value of 0.05 was used as the level of significance.

Results

There was no statistically significant difference in microleakage among the four test groups; there were no significant effects of screw torque or abutment type on the bacteria enumerated. There was a significantly smaller mean microgap with the zirconia abutments.

Conclusion

The results of this study indicated no statistically significant difference in the sealing capabilities between titanium and zirconia abutments, having internal conical connections, after increasing the abutment screw torque.

Clinical significance

It is important for clinicians to follow the guidelines suggested by the implant companies to avoid biomechanical complications over time.

How to cite this article

Black DL, Turkyilmaz I, Lien W, Chong CH. Evaluation of the Sealing Capability of the Internal Conical Connections of Implants with Titanium and Zirconia Abutments. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):915-922.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mirna Garhnayak, Angurbala Dhal, Lokanath Garhnayak, Aswini K Kar, Thatapudi Shankar

Comparison of Hypersensitivity in Metal Ceramic Crowns cemented with Zinc Phosphate and Self-adhesive Resin: A Prospective Study

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:923 - 926]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2150  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Luting agents used to fix artificial prostheses, such as fixed partial denture (FPD) to tooth are basically viscous in nature and show chemical reaction for fixation. Postcementation hypersensitivity is a frequent complaint of patients. The present study was conducted to compare postcementation hypersensitivity with zinc phosphate and self-adhesive resin in complete coverage crown.

Materials and methods

This study included 30 patients in which 60 porcelein fused to metal crowns was placed. Two metal crowns were placed in each patient in nonantagonistic contralateral quadrants. First crown was cemented with zinc phosphate cement, while the other was cemented with self-adhesive resin. Hypersensitivity was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) score and by clinical test. For clinical evaluation of sensitivity, hot and cold water was applied to the cervical margin of restoration for 5 seconds and response was recorded.

Results

This study consisted of 30 patients in which 60 crowns were given. There was no statistical difference in VAS score of mastication in zinc phosphate cement recorded at baseline, 1 week, 4 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years (p > 0.05). Cold response also did not show a significant difference at six time points. Warm response showed slight decrease in subsequent time points but was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). Similarly, with selfadhesive resin cement, VAS score during mastication, hot and cold response was statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05).

Conclusion

Postcementation hypersensitivity is a frequent complaint that patient may experience. However, we found no statistically significant difference in both cements tested.

Clinical significance

Postcementation hypersensitivity is an unpleasant sensation experienced by patients. This may affect the success of any prosthesis. Thus, selection of luting agent for cementation plays an important role to eliminate this symptom.

How to cite this article

Shankar T, Garhnayak M, Garhnayak L, Dhal A, Kar AK. Comparison of Hypersensitivity in Metal Ceramic Crowns cemented with Zinc Phosphate and Selfadhesive Resin: A Prospective Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):923-926.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Azam S Madani, Mohammadreza Nakhaei, Malihe Alami, Hamidreza Rajati Haghi, Saied Mostafa Moazzami

Post-insertion Posterior Single-implant Occlusion Changes at Different Intervals: A T-Scan Computerized Occlusal Analysis

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:927 - 932]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2151  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the postinsertion posterior single-implant occlusion changes at 3- and 6-month intervals using T-Scan computerized occlusal analysis.

Materials and methods

A total of 21 patients received single implant, opposed by natural dentition, in posterior regions of the maxilla or mandible (13 premolar, 8 molar) and were finally restored with cemented-retained metal–ceramic crowns. The occlusal contacts were equilibrated according to the implantprotective occlusion concept to develop light contact with heavy occlusion and no contact with light occlusion in maximum intercuspation. The percentage of force applied to the implant crowns (POFI) and contralateral teeth (POFT) was evaluated using T-Scan computerized occlusal analysis at prosthesis insertion, 3- and 6-month follow-up appointments. The data were statistically analyzed using Friedman test and Wilcoxon post hoc test (α = 0.05).

Results

The POFI values at the 6- and 3-month follow-up appointments were significantly higher than those at prostheses insertion (p = 0.001 and p = 0.005 respectively). In addition, there were significant differences between the POFI at 3- and 6-month follow-up (p = 0.020). However, the POFT values at 3- and 6-month follow-up appointments were significantly lower than those at baseline (p<0.001).

Conclusion

The intensity of occlusal contacts of implantsupported prostheses opposed by natural dentition increased after prosthesis insertion. Placement of single posterior implant-supported restoration decreased the percentage of occlusal force applied to contralateral arch.

Clinical significance

A periodic occlusal adjustment of implant-supported prostheses is necessary to prevent potential overloading from the movement of opposing natural dentition.

How to cite this article

Madani AS, Nakhaei M, Alami M, Haghi HR, Moazzami SM. Post-insertion Posterior Singleimplant Occlusion Changes at Different Intervals: A T-Scan Computerized Occlusal Analysis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):927-932.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anusha Bitra, B Jhansi Rani, Anuj S Parihar, Gopinath P Vynath, Shekhar Grover

Gingival Crevicular Fluid Turnover Markers in Premenopausal vs Postmenopausal Women receiving Orthodontic Treatment

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:933 - 936]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2152  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Orthodontic treatment is one of the commonly used dental treatments. Orthodontic forces act on the bone by modulating the biomolecules, chiefly the osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteopontin (OPN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK), and RANK ligand (RANKL) (OPG ligand). Hormonal changes are known to cause marked alteration in the levels of these biomolecules. Hence, we planned this study to evaluate the response of bone biomarkers in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in postmenopausal women undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy.

Materials and methods

This study included assessment of 50 subjects who underwent orthodontic treatment from June 2012 to July 2016. All the patients were divided into two study groups with 25 patients in each group: premenopausal group and postmenopausal group. Similar orthodontic wires were used for controlling the forces applied in subjects of both the study groups and their GCF levels of RANKL, and OPN was assessed at baseline and 24 hours after the activation of orthodontic forces. All the results were compiled, assessed, and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 16.0. Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and Mann–Whitney U test were used for the assessment of the level of significance.

Results

The mean values of RANKL and OPN in the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups were found to be 241.52 and 317.15 pg/µL respectively. The mean values of RANKL at baseline in the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups were found to be 7.15 and 3.84 pg/µL respectively. Nonsignificant results were obtained while comparing mean OPN and RANKL level alteration in between the two study groups.

Conclusion

The mean alterations in the GCF levels of bone biomarkers are similar for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

Clinical significance

For women with either premenopausal or postmenopausal status, orthodontic treatment appears to be equally safer.

How to cite this article

Bitra A, Rani BJ, Agarkar SS, Parihar AS, Vynath GP, Grover S. Gingival Crevicular Fluid Turnover Markers in Premenopausal vs Postmenopausal Women receiving Orthodontic Treatment. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):933-936.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Khalid H Al-Samadani

Influence of Energy Beverages on the Surface Texture of Glass Ionomer Restorative Materials

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:937 - 942]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2153  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background and objective

The objective of the study was to find whether energy beverages have an erosive effect, leading to a risk in the clinical performance of glass ionomer restorative materials.

Aim

This study evaluated the influence of energy beverages on the surface texture of glass ionomer restorative materials.

Materials and methods

Glass ionomer materials used were Ionofil Plus AC, GC EQUIA, and Ketac Molar; energy beverages are Code Red, Red Bull, and Power Horse. Specimens prepared were discs of 8 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness; specimens from each material were evaluated following aging with Code Red, Red Bull, and Power Horse energy beverages. Distilled water was used as a control. The surface roughness (Ra) was assessed by surface scanning interferometry. The surface roughness values (∆Ra and Ra) were measured for each specimen. The data were analyzed statistically using multiple repeated measures [analysis of variance (ANOVA)] and paired data t-test (p < 0.05 was considered as the significance level).

Results

The surface roughness (∆Ra and Ra) values before and after aging using Code Red, Red Bull, and Power Horse energy beverages differ significantly for all the materials regardless of the immersion time (p < 0.05). All the materials showed roughness changes after immersion periods of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that all energy beverage solutions used in this study had an adverse effect on the surface roughness degradation of the tested glass ionomers with increasing immersion time.

Clinical significance

Energy beverages have an erosive effect on glass ionomer, which influences the clinical importance of the material; it also has anticarious property because it releases the fluoride.

How to cite this article

Al-Samadani KH. Influence of Energy Beverages on the Surface Texture of Glass Ionomer Restorative Materials. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):937-942.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mitesh D Kathariya, Anjum AJ Farooqui, Sayeedalaeque Bangi, Yogita J Khalekar, Neha D Nikumbh, Keeran B Jadhav

Study to assess Activity and Concentration of Gammaglutamyl Transpeptidase in Precancerous and Cancer Patients and Its Comparison with Controls

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:943 - 946]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2154  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of the study is to highlight the use of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) as salivary enzyme tumor marker and assess the activity and concentration of GGT in precancerous and cancer patients and compare it with the normal control.

Materials and methods

Individuals in the age group of above 20 years were included in the study. In this study, salivary GGT was analyzed in 75 cases. The selected patients were divided into three main groups as group I (controls with normal health), group II (patients with precancerous lesions and conditions), and group III (patients with oral cancer lesions). All the selected individuals were analyzed for salivary GGT.

Results

A significant difference was observed between control and precancerous groups with GGT values at 5% level of significance. The mean GGT value is significantly higher in precancerous group as compared with control group (p < 0.05). A significant difference was observed between control and cancerous groups with GGT values at 5% level of significance. The mean GGT value is significantly higher in cancerous group as compared with control group (p < 0.05). A significant difference was observed between precancerous and cancerous groups with GGT values at 5% level of significance. The mean GGT value is significantly higher in cancerous group as compared with precancerous group (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

There is a remarkable increase in salivary GGT activity in both precancerous and cancerous conditions. The increased activity was more marked in cancerous conditions than in precancerous conditions. The GGT levels were two- to threefold increased in precancerous conditions as compared with control group. This finding was statistically significant and also suggested the strong correlation between GGT levels and presence of precancerous conditions.

Clinical significance

Integration of all these observation strengthens our thinking that elevation of salivary GTT in precancerous and cancerous conditions can be a reliable biomarker in early detection and prevention of oral malignancy.

How to cite this article

Farooqui AAJ, Thete SG, Bangi S, Khalekar YJ, Nikumbh ND, Jadhav KB, Kathariya MD. Study to assess Activity and Concentration of Gamma-glutamyl Transpeptidase in Precancerous and Cancer Patients and Its Comparison with Controls. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):943-946.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Joao Cardoso Ferreira, Patrícia T Pires, Álvaro F de Azevedo, Sofia Arantes-Oliveira, Mário J Silva, Paulo R de Melo

Morphology of the Dentin–resin Interface yielded by Two-step Etch-and-rinse Adhesives with Different Solvents

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:12] [Pages No:947 - 958]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2155  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The study aimed to analyze the morphology of the dentin–resin interface yielded by two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive systems with different solvents and compositions.

Materials and methods

A total of 32 dentine disks were prepared and randomly assigned to four groups of one-bottle etchand-rinse adhesive systems containing different solvents: group I, Adper Scotchbond-1XT™ (ethanol/water); group II, XP-Bond™ (tertiary butanol); group III, Prime and Bond NT® (acetone); and group IV, One Coat bond® (5% water). Adhesive systems were applied onto dentin disks, which were then thermal cycled, divided into two hemi-disks (n = 16), and prepared for field-emission scanning electron microscopy to examine the dentin–resin interdiffusion zone. Microphotographs were scanned and data were processed. Data were compared with analysis of variance multivariant test after Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Shapiro–Wilk tests using Statistic Package for the Social Sciences.

Results

The adhesive layer thickness average found was group I: 45.9 ± 13.41 μm, group II: 20.6 ± 16.32 μm, group III: 17.7 ± 11.75 μm, and group IV: 50.7 ± 27.81 μm. Significant differences were found between groups I and IV and groups II and III (p<0.000).

Groups I (3.23 ± 0.53 μm) and II (3.13 ± 0.73 μm) yielded significantly thicker hybrid layers than groups III (2.53 ± 0.50 μm) and IV (1.84 ± 0.27 μm) (p<0.003). Group III presented a less homogeneous hybrid layer, with some gaps. Tag length average was greater in groups II (111.0 ± 36.92 μm) and IV (128.9 ± 78.38 μm) than in groups I (61.5 ± 18.10 μm) and III (68.6 ± 15.84 μm) (p<0.008).

Conclusion

Adhesives systems with different solvents led to significant differences in the dentin–resin interface morphology. Solvents role in adhesives bond strength should be considered together with the other adhesive system components.

Clinical significance

The adhesive containing tertiary butanol, in addition, seems to originate a good-quality hybrid layer and long, entangled tags and also appears to have greater ability to originate microtags, which may indicate higher bond strength.

How to cite this article

Ferreira JC, Pires PT, de Azevedo ÁF, Arantes-Oliveira S, Silva MJ, de Melo PR. Morphology of the Dentin–resin Interface yielded by Two-step Etch-and-rinse Adhesives with Different Solvents. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):947-958.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Thamer Alkhadra

Characteristic of Malocclusion among Saudi Special Need Group Children

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:5] [Pages No:959 - 963]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2156  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

The present study analyzed the characteristics of malocclusions, occlusal traits among Special Health care Needs (SHCN) children with Down syndrome (DS) and autism disorder (AD) in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Materials and methods

A total of 100 DS and 100 AD children from five rehabilitation centers in and around Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were included in the study. Any children with history of ongoing medical treatment, extraction, or orthodontic treatment were excluded from the study. Out of the 200 patients examined, 131 were males and 69 were females and the age of the children ranged from 6 to 14 years. The children were examined for malocclusion characteristics using the Angle's classification of malocclusion, and also other occlusal traits, such as overjet, overbite, cross bite, and open bite were also determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 to generate descriptive statistics for each variable.

Results

The analyzed data of the right and left permanent molar relation showed higher incidence of class III malocclusion (66%) in DS children as compared with (3–4%) AD children. The AD children presented with higher percentage of class I malocclusion (40–41%) as compared with (10–14%) DS children. During examination of the primary molars, the analyzed data showed that left primary molar had more mesial shift in AD children as compared with DS children.

Conclusion

Down syndrome children had high incidence of class III malocclusion and autistic children had high incidence of class I malocclusion. Overall, the DS children were more prone to malocclusion.

Clinical significance

This study provides database for health professionals in Saudi Arabia in regard to malocclusion of autistics and DS patients.

How to cite this article

Alkhadra T. Characteristic of Malocclusion among Saudi Special Need Group Children. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):959-963.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ashish Sharma, Kumar G Chhabra, Chaya Chhabra, J Jyothirmai Reddy, Shravani G Deolia, Yogesh Mittal

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reaction reporting among Dental Students in a Teaching Hospital, Jodhpur, India: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:6] [Pages No:964 - 969]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2157  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

This is a cross-sectional knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAPs) study on pharmacovigilance (PV) and adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting among dental students in a teaching hospital in India.

Aim

The aim of this study was to assess the KAP of dental students regarding PV, ADR reporting, and barriers toward the same.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional survey using a selfadministered, investigator-developed, close-ended questionnaire was conducted in an academic dental hospital in India. All prescribers including third year students, final year students, and house surgeons of the same institute were included for assessment of KAP regarding PV using 16, 8, and 8 items respectively. Data regarding barriers toward ADR reporting and demographics were also collected. Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test were applied followed by post hoc test.

Results

A total of 241 of 275 respondents participated in the study with a response rate of 87.5%. Overall, 64% reported that they had no idea about the term PV. Age was significantly associated with knowledge (p = 0.045) and attitude (p = 0.016). Barriers contributing to underreporting were difficulty in deciding whether or not an ADR has occurred (52.0%), concerns that the report may be wrong (37%), lack of confidence to discuss ADR with colleagues (29%), and almost no financial benefits (24%).

Conclusion

Participants had a comparatively favorable attitude toward PV, but their knowledge and practice need considerable improvements. This study highlights the need for appropriate dental curriculum changes and further multicentric studies to shed more light on important issues of PV among dentists in India.

Clinical significance

This study explores dentists’ knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding PV, which could help to improve patient's safety and care. The favorable attitude of dentists is an indication that PV could be added in depth in the curriculum and in general practice. Information on barriers for reporting the ADRs could help to find possible solutions for removing the barriers precisely.

How to cite this article

Chhabra KG, Sharma A, Chhabra C, Reddy JJ, Deolia SG, Mittal Y. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reaction reporting among Dental Students in a Teaching Hospital, Jodhpur, India: A Cross-sectional Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):964-969.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Zoubeida Al Yahfoufi

Prevalence of Periodontal Destruction and Putative Periodontal Pathogens in the Same Lebanese Family

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:7] [Pages No:970 - 976]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2158  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Periodontal diseases are associated with microorganisms rich in Gram-negative species. Several studies have indicated the presence of few a periodontopathic microorganisms in the same family. A parent with severe adult periodontitis, who is infected with bacteria associated with periodontal disease, may function as a source of infection. Their children may be at a greater risk to become colonized with bacteria. The purpose of this investigation was (1) to explore the presence of three bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG), Prevotella intermedia (PI), and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA) in the same Lebanese family and (2) to study the clinical destruction in the same family and their relations as members of this family due to the presence of PG.

Materials and methods

A total of 10 families were screened; only 5 (13 females and 5 males) were selected for this study, and at least one member of the family had untreated periodontal disease, chronic or aggressive. Every participant signed an informed consent form. A total of 18 available deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples were taken to analyze the presence of three periodontal bacteria.

Statistics

Multiple logistic regression was used for the exact methods.

Results

All 18 patients showed a positive result for PI. Also, PG. was recognized in 15 patients while AA was not detected in any of the subjects. All couples suffered from periodontitis, chronic or aggressive forms, five children suffered from gingivitis, three children had no clinical manifestation, and only one suffered from localized aggressive periodontitis.

The statistical analysis showed with each 1 year of increase in age, the odds of having periodontal disease multiply by 1.39, i.e., age as a risk factor for periodontal disease due to the presence of PG and sharing the same plate.

Conclusion

This investigation demonstrates a high prevalence of periodontal microorganisms in children and young adults of Lebanese periodontitis parents and a microbiological similarity between the children and their mothers. All these factors could be a high risk of developing periodontal disease in the future.

Clinical significance

This article shows that vertical transmission of microorganisms is a possible risk factor for developing periodontal disease in the offspring.

How to cite this article

Al Yahfoufi Z. Prevalence of Periodontal Destruction and Putative Periodontal Pathogens in the Same Lebanese Family. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):970-976.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vinny Bhasin, Madhavi Singh, Manish Goutam, Shuchi Singh, Adamya S Nigam, Aditya Joshi

Comparative Evaluation of Myeloperoxidase Enzymatic Activity in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Subjects having Orthodontic Treatment by Different Aligning Arch Wires

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:4] [Pages No:977 - 980]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2159  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

There exist a number of factors that affect the outcome of orthodontic treatment. These factors can be assessed by various gingival markers. One such maker is myeloperoxidase (MPO). Hence, we planned the present study to assess and compare the MPO activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment by different aligning arch wires.

Materials and methods

The present study included assessment of patients who underwent orthodontic treatment for crowding of anterior teeth. Diagnostic cast models of all the subjects were made for recording the irregularity index. All the subjects were randomly divided into three study groups with 15 patients in each group based on the type of nickel–titanium (NiTi) arch wires used. A collection of GCF samples was done in all the patients at various time intervals and it was sent to the laboratory for assessment of MPO activity. Activity of the MPO enzyme was expressed in terms of number of units per 100 µL. All the results obtained were compiled and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Results

We observed that nonsignificant results were obtained while comparing the mean age and mean gingival score in all the study groups. However, significant results were obtained on comparing the mean MPO enzymatic activity in all the study groups at different time intervals.

Conclusion

Both superelastic NiTi and heat-activated NiTi generate optimal forces, which are necessary for higher metabolic response of the periodontal ligament.

Clinical significance

In the intimal stages of orthodontic treatment, both superelastic NiTi and heat-activated NiTi wires are superior in leveling and aligning the crowded teeth.

How to cite this article

Bhasin V, Singh M, Goutam M, Singh S, Nigam AS, Joshi A. Comparative Evaluation of Myeloperoxidase Enzymatic Activity in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Subjects having Orthodontic Treatment by Different Aligning Arch Wires. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):977-980.

CASE REPORT

Samantha D Seitz, Thanhphuong N Dinh, Thomas YH Yoon

Melanotic Macule in Conjunction with a Giant Cell Fibroma

[Year:2017] [Month:October] [Volume:18] [Number:10] [Pages:5] [Pages No:981 - 985]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2160  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of this study is to describe a case of a melanotic macule found in conjunction with a giant cell fibroma (GCF). For oral pigmented lesions without an identifiable etiologic factor, critical factors in determining the differential diagnosis are clinical history, symmetry, and uniformity of the lesions. Potential differential diagnosis includes racial pigmentation, endocrine disturbance, Peutz–Jeghers syndrome, trauma, hemochromatosis, oral malignant melanoma, or idiopathic etiology and melanotic macules. Melanotic macules are the most common solitary pigmented melanocytic lesions in the oral mucosa, corresponding to 86.1% of melanocytic lesions of the mouth. Giant cell fibromas are reactive connective tissue lesions in the oral cavity. They were first described as a distinct entity in 1974 by Weathers and Callihan and make up around 5 to 10% of all oral mucosa fibrous lesions. They are commonly mistaken for other growths, such as pyogenic granuloma and fibroma, and diagnosis is accurately based on its distinctive histopathology.

This article presents the clinicopathologic findings of a 15-year-old Hispanic male presenting for biopsy of a melanotic macule on the mandibular anterior buccal gingiva. Histologic evaluation of the specimen revealed that the lesion also contained a GCF. Pathologic lesions of the mouth should be carefully diagnosed. Conventionally, histologic evaluation is the gold standard to produce a final diagnosis. As evidenced in this article, multiple lesions may exist in a site and may be mistakenly diagnosed as a single entity.

Clinical significance

While each lesion has been reported individually, in reviewing the literature, no cases were reported in which both histopathologic findings of GCF and melanotic macule were present within the same lesion.

How to cite this article

Seitz SD, Dinh TN, Yoon TYH. Melanotic Macule in Conjunction with a Giant Cell Fibroma. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(10):981-985.

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