The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2017 | November | Volume 18 | Issue 11

EDITORIAL

Nilookumari Choudhary

Is the Pen really Mightier than the Scalpel?

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:2] [Pages No:987 - 988]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2161  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Sarode GS, Choudhary N, Sarode SC, Patil S. Is the Pen really Mightier than the Scalpel? J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):987-988.

LETTER

Krishnamurthy Bonanthaya, Nakul Uppal

Triclosan: Hazards of Overuse are not limited to Antibiotics

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:2] [Pages No:989 - 990]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2162  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Uppal N, Bonanthaya K. Triclosan: Hazards of Overuse are not limited to Antibiotics. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):989-990.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Thamer Alkhadra

Prevalence of Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status among Juvenile Prisoners in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:5] [Pages No:991 - 995]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2163  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status among juvenile prisoners in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Materials and methods

A total of 105 prisoners aged between 12 and 17 years of age from the Juvenile Detention Center were included in the study. Any prisoner with systemic illness and being noncooperative were excluded from the study. Clinical examinations were performed under an artificial light source using a disposable mouth mirror and explorer while seated on a portable chair. The dental caries experience was measured as the number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) using DMFT score. The oral hygiene index (OHI) was assessed by the Greene and Vermillion method. The data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.

Results

The mean age of the sample was 16.33 years, with 74.3% of the prisoners in the 16 to 17-year-old group. The dental caries index measured by calculating the mean DMFT of the juvenile prisoners increased with age. The DMFT scores of 9.09 (4.388) for 78 juvenile prisoners aged 16 to 17 years followed by 9.00 (2.925) for 19 prisoners aged 14 to 15 years and 7.13 (1.808) for 8 prisoners aged 12 to 13 years were observed. The oral hygiene status of the prisoners showed that more than half of the juvenile prisoners included in the study had poor (53.3%) oral hygiene and less than half had fair (45.7%) oral hygiene and only one participant demonstrated good oral hygiene.

Conclusion

The juvenile prisoners had high prevalence of dental caries and fair-to-bad oral hygiene, indicating poor oral health status. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the need for special attention from the concerned health authorities, voluntary organizations, and surrounding dental colleges in meeting the oral health needs of this group.

Clinical significance

The study provides an important database for decision makers to take on the challenge of reducing dental caries among juvenile prisoners.

How to cite this article

Alkhadra T. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status among Juvenile Prisoners in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):991-995.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Cecy Martins Silva, Yasmin SB de Lima Gomes, Larissa D Alexandrino, Cristiane de M Alencar, Eliane B Alves, Kelson CF Faial

In situ Effect of Nanohydroxyapatite Paste in Enamel Teeth Bleaching

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:8] [Pages No:996 - 1003]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2164  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Evaluate in situ the effect of nanohydroxyapatite paste (nano-HAP) before bleaching with hydrogen peroxide 35% (HP35%) by ion chromatography (IC) Knoop hardness number (KHN) and tristimulus colorimetry (TC).

Materials and methods

A total of 60 fragments were obtained from third molars included (3 mm × 3 mm × 3 mm) and the specimens were divided into three groups (n = 20): Gas chromatography (CG) (negative control group) = no bleaching; HP35% (positive control group) = HP35% whitening (whiteness HP35%); nano-HAP = application for 10 minutes before bleaching treatment + HP35%. The specimens were fixed to the volunteers’ molars. The KHN and TC were measured before and after bleaching. For IC, the dentin layer was removed, leaving the enamel that was crushed, and autoclaved for chemical quantification (calcium, fluorine, and phosphorus). The results of KHN and TC were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test (p < 0.05).

Results

The HP35% group showed reduction of the Ca, F, and P ions. The initial and final KHN mean of the CG and nano-HAP did not differ statistically; however, the group of HP35% did differ statistically. The mean ∆E of the HP35% and nano-HAP groups did not differ statistically from each other. However, they differed from the CG.

Conclusion

The nano-HAP paste preserved the KHN, promoted the lower loss of Ca and P ions and an increase of F ions when compared with the CG, but did not influence the effectiveness of the bleaching treatment.

Clinical significance

Nano-HA is a biomaterial that has shown positive results in the prevention of deleterious effects on the enamel by the action of the office bleaching treatment.

How to cite this article

Gomes YSBL, Alexandrino LD, Alencar CDM, Alves EB, Faial KCF, Silva CM. In situ Effect of Nanohydroxyapatite Paste in Enamel Teeth Bleaching. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):996-1003.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

A Aravind, Kiran Mathai, Swathy Anand, Praveen Dinatius, Anandhu V Krishnan, Meera Mathai

Antimicrobial Effect of Ginger, Garlic, Honey, and Lemon Extracts on Streptococcus mutans

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1004 - 1008]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2165  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lemon, ginger, garlic, and honey extracts on Streptococcus mutans.

Materials and methods

Commercially obtained honey, ginger, garlic, and lemon were included in the study to evaluate its efficacy in isolation and in combination against S. mutans. The efficacies of extracts were tested using well diffusion method, and its effect was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition around the well. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was carried out individually and compared considering triplicates of all the extracts.

Results

When individual comparison of the extracts was made, garlic showed greatest antimicrobial activity with a mean zone of inhibition (34.9 ± 0.58 mm) and honey showed least antimicrobial activity (0.5 ± 0.6 mm). When combinations of extracts were tested against S. mutans, lemon and garlic combination showed the greatest zone of inhibition (27.6 ± 0.43 mm) compared with other combinations, and ginger + lemon combinations showed the least zone of inhibition (12.6 ± 0.43 mm).

Conclusion

This study concluded that garlic showed a greatest antimicrobial effect against S. mutans when compared with preparations individually and garlic and lemon showed greatest zone of inhibition in combination than other preparations.

Clinical significance

Antibiotics and other chemical agents are mainly used to treat the common dental infections. However, due to the excessive use, it can result in antibiotic resistance. Hence, herbal medicines with medicinal values should be replaced with conventional methods.

How to cite this article

Mathai K, Anand S, Aravind A, Dinatius P, Krishnan AV, Mathai M. Antimicrobial Effect of Ginger, Garlic, Honey, and Lemon Extracts on Streptococcus mutans. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1004-1008.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Kailash C Dash, Abikshyeet Panda, Lipsa Bhuyan, Bikramaditya Ghosh, Imon Pal

Dissolution of Enamel on Exposure to Various Commercial Beverages Available in India

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1009 - 1013]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2166  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The study was aimed to estimate the pH of the commonly available soft drinks in the Indian market and to assess the detrimental effects of the juices and beverages on the tooth surface by measuring the weight loss of the tooth sample.

Materials and methods

The study was done with eight different types of commercially available carbonated drink and fruit juices available in the Indian market among which six were carbonated drinks and two were juices. Carbonated drinks experimented were Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Fanta, Mirinda, 7Up and Sprite, and two fruit juices were Tropicana orange juice and real orange juice. Ten different bottles from each category were obtained, and the pH was estimated. Each of the beverages was divided into batch of 10 containers containing the tooth sample. Weight of all samples was measured at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours with subsequently changing each solution at an interval of 24 hours.

Results

The mean pH of the beverages was found ranging from 2.13 ± 0.02 in Pepsi to 3.41 ± 0.02 in Tropicana on opening. The mean pH of water was found to be 6.98 ± 0.01. Among carbonated drinks, the mean weight loss after 24 hours was highest in Coca-Cola and least in 7Up. Tropicana fruit juice had a higher tooth loss than real orange juices. When compared with water, the tooth loss was significantly higher in Coca-Cola after all specified time (hours).

Conclusion

The pH of both carbonated drinks and fruit juices was below the critical pH. The weight loss was also seen after every 24 hours in all the carbonated drinks and beverages. The study showed that these commercial beverages are harmful to the tooth structures, and hence, the health professionals a major role in educating the population about its effects and advising them to use these products precisely.

Clinical significance

The change in lifestyle has increased the demand of soft drinks and artificial juice in Indian market. The use of these carbonated drinks and fruit juices causes damage to the tooth structure in all ages, especially in young mass. Our study provides an idea about the deleterious effects of these commercial drinks on dental hard tissues.

How to cite this article

Panda A, Ghosh B, Pal I, Kumar V, Bhuyan L, Dash KC. Dissolution of Enamel on Exposure to Various Commercial Beverages Available in India. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1009-1013.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mahdi Rahbar, Hosein Eslami, Hossein Babaei, Parisa Falsafi, Fereshteh Najar-Karimi, Solmaz Pourzare-Mehrbani

Evaluation of the Antifungal Effect of Chicory Extracts on Candida Glabrata and Candida Krusei in a Laboratory Environment

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1014 - 1020]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2167  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This research has evaluated the extract's antifungal effects on Candida glabrata and Candida krusei in a laboratory environment.

Materials and methods

In this research, to evaluate the antifungal effect and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination of chicory extract, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) was used. Candida glabrata and C. krusei funguses were procured from the Tehran Pasteur Institute; they were grown in the relative growing environment according to the required conditions. Also for further assurance about the macrodilution method reality, the agar well diffusion method was used. Finally, the obtained results were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software.

Results

The MIC for the chicory extract was 50 μg/mL for C. krusei and 100 μg/mL for C. glabrata. On the contrary, in the evaluation of different concentrations of the chicory extract by the agar well diffusion method, C. krusei's lack of growth in similar concentrations was greater than that of C. glabrata. As a result, the findings related to both the methods of agar well diffusion and MIC prevention concentration maximization proved that C. krusei sensitivity to the chicory extract is more compared with the sensitivity of C. glabrata.

Conclusion

Chicory extract has the benefits of low price, accessibility, and proper taste as compared with nystatin. It also has fewer side effects, and after a clinical test, it could be considered a proper candidate as an antifungal drug against infections caused by C. krusei and C. glabrata.

Clinical significance

The results obtained from this research have shown that chicory extract has antifungal features and is the best choice as an antifungal drug because of its low price, accessibility, and proper taste as compared with nystatin.

How to cite this article

Eslami H, Babaei H, Falsafi P, Rahbar M, Najar-Karimi F, Pourzare-Mehrbani S. Evaluation of the Antifungal Effect of Chicory Extracts on Candida Glabrata and Candida Krusei in a Laboratory Environment. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1014-1020.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

UB Rajasekaran, Madhavi Singh, Manish Goutam, Ashish Bhalla, Nikhil Grover, Ashok Galav

A Cross-sectional Study to assess the Perception of Psychosocial Elements among Pediatric Patients visiting Dental Clinics

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1021 - 1024]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2168  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Children with high dental fear and perception usually encounter high prevalence of dental caries. Data showed that individuals with dental fear will probably defer dental appointments which may result in the formation of a setup of an endless loop of dental fear. Present study was aimed to assess different psychosocial parameters among pediatric patients visiting dental clinics.

Materials and methods

In the present cross-sectional study, the data of 200 schoolchildren were collected and analyzed by means of a questionnaire. Evaluation of the oral health status was done by experienced pedodontists. All the answers were recorded and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Results

Nearly 120 were regular attendees while remaining 80 were found to be irregular attendees. Significant difference was observed while comparing the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index, decayed teeth, dental fear, cognitive vulnerability, and dental prevention belief between the regular and irregular group. Significant correlation was observed between higher number of decayed teeth and increasing level of dental fear.

Conclusion

Various psychosocial parameters, by affecting the dental visits, are associated with outcome of oral health measures.

Clinical significance

Special attention should be paid to the pediatric patients with such kind of behavior so that their psychosocial attitude could be modified in favor of dental treatment.

How to cite this article

Bhalla A, Rajasekaran UB, Singh M, Goutam M, Grover N, Galav A. A Cross-sectional Study to assess the Perception of Psychosocial Elements among Pediatric Patients visiting Dental Clinics. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1021-1024.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Madhavi Singh, Kavitha G, Pallavi K Kakade, Mahesh Ahire, Melvin Augustine, Kinjal D Jain

Assessment of Alteration in Capnometry Monitoring during Intravenous Sedation with Midazolam for Oral Surgical Procedures

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1025 - 1028]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2169  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Capnography is routinely used for monitoring of patients subjected to sedation for different surgical procedures. There is still paucity of data highlighting the capnographic assessment of patients on midazolam sedation undergoing oral surgical procedures. Hence, we planned the present study to assess the alterations occurring in the end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) values monitored during intravenous (IV) sedation with midazolam during various oral surgical procedures.

Materials and methods

The present study included assessment of alteration in ETCO2 values occurring during oral surgical procedure. After meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 40 participants were included in the present study. Pulse oximeter with capnograph (EmcoMeditek Pvt., Ltd., India) device was used for assessment of respiratory rate (RR) and ETCO2 values. The mean of 12 readings over a period of 1 minute before the starting of first infusion was referred to as baseline time. By evaluating the first four readings at an interval of 15 seconds during the 1st minute of infusion, we obtained the 1 minute average reading. All the data were compiled and recorded and assessed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Results

A total of 40 participants were included, out of which, 20 were males and 20 were females. At the baseline time, mean value of ETCO2 was 31 mm Hg, while mean value of oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 36%. Out of total 40 participants, 15 showed the presence of respiratory depression. Out of these 15 participants, ETCO2 changes from baseline were observed in 13 participants.

Conclusion

No oxygen should be delivered, unless until required, to the healthy participants undergoing dental sedation procedures, for marinating the sensitivity of pulse oximetry during assessment of respiratory depression.

Clinical significance

In patients undergoing sedation procedures, various monitoring techniques should be employed as respiratory depression is a commonly encountered risk factor.

How to cite this article

G Kavitha, Kakade PK, Singh M, Ahire M, Augustine M, Jain KD. Assessment of Alteration in Capnometry Monitoring during Intravenous Sedation with Midazolam for Oral Surgical Procedures. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1025-1028.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mukesh Gupta, Hina Ahmed, Shikhar P Chauhan, Dheeraj Sharma, Bhanu Chugh

Evaluation and Comparison between Formocresol and Sodium Hypochlorite as Pulpotomy Medicament: A Randomized Study

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1029 - 1033]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2170  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Pulpotomy is the most common treatment to preserve vitality of cariously exposed molars. Various pulpotomy medicaments used should be antimicrobial, should help in healing without damaging surrounding tissue, and should not affect eruption of permanent teeth. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate and compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of formocresol (FC) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in primary molars. The aim of this randomized study was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rate of FC and 5% NaOCl as a pulpotomy medicament in primary molars.

Materials and methods

Forty children aged 4 to 9 years with primary carious molar were selected and randomly assigned into two groups: FC and NaOCl. Pulpotomy procedure was then performed followed by restoration with stainless steel crowns. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was done at an interval of 3 to 6 months.

Results

Clinical success rate at 3 and 6 months was 100% for both groups. Radiographic success rate for FC was 95% at 3 months and 90% at 6 months, whereas for NaOCl, it was 90% at 3 months and 85% at 6 months.

Conclusion

Based on this study, result of 5% NaOCl and FC showed no significant difference in their success rate. Hence, NaOCl can be used as pulpotomy medicament; however, further clinical trials with long follow-up period are required.

Clinical significance

Sodium hypochlorite is a potential clinical substitute of FC for vital pulpotomy treatment in primary teeth because of its exceptional biological compatibility and to evade carcinogenic effect of FC.

How to cite this article

Chauhan SP, Gupta M, Ahmed H, Tongya R, Sharma D, Chugh B. Evaluation and Comparison between Formocresol and Sodium Hypochlorite as Pulpotomy Medicament: A Randomized Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1029-1033.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mohammad H Ahangar-Atashi, Fatemeh Dabaghi-Tabriz, Sina Ahangar-Atashi, Mahdi Rahbar

Prevalence of Dental Malocclusions in Patients admitted to the Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Tabriz, in 2016

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1034 - 1039]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2171  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study is aimed at investigating the prevalence of disorders among patients referred to Tabriz Dental School in 2016.

Materials and methods

This research was conducted in a cross-section method and taken from all patients admitted during this period. Classification of dental occlusion in patients was based on Angle's definition, skeletal classification was based on Steiner's analysis, and overjet and overbite values and other patient-related information were imported from the records in the extractive sector and in specific forms. After reviewing the data, the forms of individual patients were inputted into the computer and analyzed.

Results

In terms of dental condition, the prevalence of malocclusion CL.I, malocclusion CL.II, and malocclusion CL.III was respectively, 50, 36.8, and 13.2%. In terms of overjet condition, 13.9% of patients had normal overjet, 67.1% had increased overjet, 8.9% had reduced overjet, and 10.1% had reversed overjet. In terms of overbite, 17.7% of patients had normal overbite, 53.2% had increased overbite, 8.9% had decreased overbite, 15.2% had open bite, and 5.1% had deep bite. Skeletally, 24.1% of patients had skeletal abnormalities CL.I, 62% had skeletal deformities CL.II, and 13.9% had skeletal CL.III.

Conclusion

The most common dental malocclusion among patients was related to CL.I and the most common skeletal malocclusion was related to CL.II, and malocclusions of CL.III had the least prevalence both dentally and skeletally. There was no significant relationship between dental and skeletal malocclusions and also between different malocclusions and gender.

Clinical significance

Knowledge of the prevalence of different types of dental and jaw anomalies is considered as the first step in the evaluation and treatment of these disorders. It is worth mentioning that the results of the study can be used in treatment planning required in the province and even in the country.

How to cite this article

Ahangar-Atashi MH, Dabaghi-Tabriz F, Ahangar-Atashi S, Rahbar M. Prevalence of Dental Malocclusions in Patients admitted to the Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Tabriz, in 2016. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1034-1039.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Bhagyashree Thakur, Ajinkya M Pawar, Anda Kfir, Prasanna Neelakantan

Extrusion of Debris from Primary Molar Root Canals following Instrumentation with Traditional and New File Systems

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1040 - 1044]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2172  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

To assess the amount of debris extruded apically during instrumentation of distal canals of extracted primary molars by three instrument systems [ProTaper Universal (PTU), ProTaper NEXT (PTN), and self-adjusting file (SAF)] compared with conventional stainless steel hand K-files (HF, control).

Materials and methods

Primary mandibular molars (n = 120) with a single distal canal were selected and randomly divided into four groups (n = 30) for root canal instrumentation using group I, HF (to size 0.30/0.02 taper), group II, PTU (to size F3), group III, PTN (to size X3), and group IV, SAF. Debris extruded during instrumentation was collected in preweighed Eppendorf tubes, stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days and then weighed. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Turkey's post hoc test (p = 0.05).

Results

All the groups resulted in extrusion of debris. There was statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) in the debris extrusion between the three groups: HF (0.00133 ± 0.00012), PTU (0.00109 ± 0.00005), PTN (0.00052 ± 0.00008), and SAF (0.00026 ± 0.00004).

Conclusion

Instrumentation with SAF resulted in the least debris extrusion when used for shaping root canals of primary molar teeth.

Clinical significance

Debris extrusion in primary teeth poses an adverse effect on the stem cells and may also alter the permanent dental germ. Debris extrusion is rarely reported for primary teeth and it is important for the clinician to know which endodontic instrumentation leads to less extrusion of debris.

How to cite this article

Thakur B, Pawar AM, Kfir A, Neelakantan P. Extrusion of Debris from Primary Molar Root Canals following Instrumentation with Traditional and New File Systems. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1040-1044.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Maryam Forghani, Hamid Jafarzadeh, Jamileh Ghoddusi, Amir Maghsudlu, Amirhossein Jafarian

Histological Evaluation of the Effect of Platelet-rich Plasma on Pulp Regeneration in Nonvital Open Apex Teeth: An Animal Study

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1045 - 1050]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2173  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which is a concentration of growth factors found in platelets, may be a suitable material for pulp regeneration. The aim of this animal study was a histological evaluation of PRP on pulp regeneration in nonvital teeth with immature apices.

Materials and methods

A total of 40 premolar dogs’ teeth were chosen for this study. After general anesthesia, the teeth were exposed, and subsequently, pulps were removed and the cavities were opened to the oral cavity. After 2 weeks, root canals were irrigated and disinfected with sodium hypochlorite with noninstrumentation technique, and triple antibiotic paste was placed inside the canals. Cavities were sealed with a temporary restoration. About 4 weeks later, canals were irrigated again and the teeth were randomly divided into three groups. Bleeding was evoked with overinstrumentation, then experimental materials for each group [PRP, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and parafilm respectively] were placed over the bleeding, and orifices were sealed with MTA and glass ionomer. After 3 months, dogs were sacrificed and the teeth were separated from the jaws and sections prepared for histological evaluation.

Results

Regeneration was shown in 44.7% of the samples. About 47.3% of the samples in the MTA group and 42.1% of the samples in the PRP group showed regeneration; however, no regeneration was observed in the parafilm group. Chi-square test showed no significant difference between groups I and II. The soft regenerative tissue included pulp-like tissue and vessels. Mineralized regenerative tissue included cementumlike, periodontal ligament-like, and bone-like tissues. No normal pulp and nerve tissue were observed.

Conclusion

Both PRP and MTA may be ideal scaffolds to accelerate the regeneration process.

Clinical significance

Pulp repair in immature permanent teeth with weak roots has a better outcome than replacement of the pulp with gutta-percha or biomaterials.

How to cite this article

Ghoddusi J, Maghsudlu A, Jafarzadeh H, Jafarian A, Forghani M. Histological Evaluation of the Effect of Platelet-rich Plasma on Pulp Regeneration in Nonvital Open Apex Teeth: An Animal Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1045-1050.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Matheus Coelho Bandeca, Milton C Kuga, Keren CF Jordão-Basso, Mateus R Tonetto, Marina OG Galloza, Samuel O Costa, Fabio C Tirintan, Kátia C Keine

Effects of the Ratio between Pigment and Bleaching Gel on the Fracture Resistance and Dentin Microhardness of endodontically treated Teeth

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1051 - 1055]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2174  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bleaching gel using 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP), associated with red carmine pigment (RC), in the 3:1 or 1:1 ratio, on fracture resistance and dentin microhardness of endodontically treated teeth.

Materials and methods

A total of 40 lower incisors were endodontically treated and divided into four groups (n = 10), according to the bleaching protocol: G1 (HP3), 35% HP + RC (3:1); G2 (HP1), 35% HP + RC (1:1); G3 (positive), 38% HP; and G4 (negative), unbleached. Four dental bleaching sessions were performed. The dental crowns were restored after the last session and submitted to the fracture resistance test. Totally, 60 specimens from the endodontically treated lower incisor crowns were prepared to evaluate the effects on dentin microhardness. The analysis was measured (in Knoop) prior to and after the last dental bleaching session using similar bleaching protocols.

Results

G2 presented the lowest fracture resistance (p < 0.05). The other groups were similar to each other (p > 0.05). No difference was observed in the reduction of dentin microhardness among the groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusion

A 1:1 ratio (bleaching gel:pigment) caused a significant fracture resistance reduction in relation to the other protocols. No effect on the dentin microhardness reduction was observed.

Clinical significance

The pigment addition to the bleaching agent accelerates the bleaching chemical reaction. However, no studies have evaluated the ideal proportion to optimize tooth bleaching.

How to cite this article

Galloza MOG, Jordão-Basso KCF, Bandeca MC, Costa SO, Borges AH, Tonetto MR, Tirintan FC, Keine KC, Kuga MC. Effects of the Ratio between Pigment and Bleaching Gel on the Fracture Resistance and Dentin Microhardness of endodontically treated Teeth. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1051-1055.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ipsita Sharma, Deepa Venkatesh, Geetanjali Bawa, Syed Vaseemuddin, Amit Joseph, Jimmy K Sangtani

Epidemiological and Clinicopathological Analysis of 92 Odontogenic Tumors: A 5-year Retrospective Study

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1056 - 1060]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2175  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are a heterogeneous group of lesions that are derived from odontogenic apparatus comprised of odontogenic epithelium, ectomesenchyme, and/or mesenchymal elements. The OTs show marked geographical variation. This study was conducted to analyze the epidemiology and clinicopathological presentation of OTs based on age, sex, and site.

Materials and methods

This study was conducted in Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology. Records were reviewed retrospectively for all the lesions of oral cavity from January 2010 to December 2015. A total of 92 lesions were found to be OTs and were classified into benign and malignant tumors. They were further subdivided into three subtypes based on the types of odontogenic tissues involved. These were epithelial OTs (EOTs), mixed OTs (MIXOTs), and mesenchymal OTs (MOTs).

Results

Of 92 OTs, 84 were benign (males 48, females 36) and 8 were malignant (male 2, females 6). The most common benign tumor was ameloblastoma (AME) (20), followed by keratocystic OT (KCOT) (17), calcifying EOT (CEOT) (14), compound odontome (OD-Cd) (12), complex odontome (OD-Cx) (10), odontogenic fibroma (OF) (5), odontogenic myxoma (OM) (4), and cementoblastoma (CB) (2). The most common malignant tumor was primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) (3) followed by fibrosarcoma (FS) (3) and ameloblastic carcinoma (AC).

Conclusion

Author concluded that there was geographic and demographic variation in distribution of OTs, which may be attributed to socioeconomic and genetic factors.

Clinical significance

Literature showing prevalence of OTs in India is negligible. By this article, we have analyzed the frequency of various OTs according to sex, age, and site. A comprehensive record of OTs should be started so that pathologists and surgeons would be able to acquire the information about the tumor for reference in the future.

How to cite this article

Sharma I, Venkatesh D, Bawa G, Vaseemuddin S, Joseph A, Sangtani JK. Epidemiological and Clinicopathological Analysis of 92 Odontogenic Tumors: A 5-year Retrospective Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1056-1060.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ajay Nagpal, Ranjith Madhavan, Navia George, Niharika R Thummala, SV Ravi

Self-disinfecting Alginate vs Conventional Alginate: Effect on Surface Hardness of Gypsum Cast—An in vitro Study

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1061 - 1064]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2176  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

For the construction of any dental prosthesis, accurate impressions are necessary. Hence, we undertook the present study to evaluate and compare the surface hardness of gypsum casts poured from impressions made using conventional alginate and self-disinfecting alginate.

Materials and methods

A total of 30 impressions of stainless steel die were made, out of which 15 impressions were made with conventional alginate and 15 were made with selfdisinfecting alginate and poured using Type III dental stone. Thirty stone specimens were subjected for hardness testing. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test to compare the mean surface hardness.

Results

Difference in surface hardness was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05).

Conclusion

Surface hardness of gypsum casts poured using impressions made from self-disinfecting alginate and conventional alginates were comparable.

Clinical significance

Self-disinfecting alginates may be employed in clinical practice as safe and effective materials to overcome the infection control issues without compromising on the properties of the material.

How to cite this article

Madhavan R, George N, Thummala NR, Ravi SV, Nagpal A. Self-disinfecting Alginate vs Conventional Alginate: Effect on Surface Hardness of Gypsum Cast—An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1061-1064.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sahil Mogla, Amit Bhagat, Litik Mittal, Tawanpreet Kaur, Munish Dheeraj, Gursimran Marwah

Impact of Root Dentin Thickness on the in vitro Compressive Strength of Teeth treated with Recent Post and Core Systems

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1065 - 1070]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2177  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Endodontically treated teeth dry with time, and its dentin undergoes changes making the teeth brittle and friable. The main function of a post is to strengthen or reinforce a weakened root. However, doing a post and core frequently requires the removal of sound tooth tissue. Recent materials introduced in the market for post and cores have been promising.

Aim

The aim of this study is to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated extracted permanent teeth with variable remaining root dentin thickness after post space preparation.

Materials and methods

A total of 270 freshly extracted permanent maxillary central incisors with fully formed apices were selected, decoronated at cementoenamel junction, and divided into three main groups according to remaining root dentin thickness, determined using a Vernier caliper into 0.5, 1, and 1.50 mm after post space preparation. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (subgroup a: Custom-made cobalt–chromium alloy post and core; subgroup b: Prefabricated glass fiber post and composite core; and subgroup c: EverStick fiber post). Each specimen was subjected to compressive load using universal testing machine. The force required to fracture was recorded and data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.

Results

Analysis of variance revealed that compressive strength of the tooth is significantly affected by the increase in the remaining dentin thickness after post space preparation (p < 0.05). Furthermore, teeth with custom fabricated posts showed a significantly higher compressive strength (p < 0.05) than prefabricated glass fiber post and EverStick fiber post groups except the group with minimum remaining dentin thickness.

Conclusion

The present in vitro study revealed that compressive strength of the post and core systems is directly related to the amount of healthy remaining dentin thickness. Hence, efforts to maximize the preservation of natural dentin should be taken during post space preparation.

How to cite this article

Bhagat A, Mittal L, Mogla S, Kaur T, Dheeraj M, Marwah G. Impact of Root Dentin Thickness on the in vitro Compressive Strength of Teeth treated with Recent Post and Core Systems. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1065-1070.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Rahul Gaikwad, Rahul Bhowate, Payal Bajad, Shailesh Gondivkar

Potential Predictor of Tobacco Cessation among Factory Workers: A Baseline Data of Worksite Tobacco Cessation Programs in the Central Part of India

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1071 - 1077]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2178  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Our study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of tobacco use among factory workers and identify the predicting factors for quitting tobacco use.

Materials and methods

In this cross-sectional study, a total of 640 factory workers were included and divided into the quitter group and who had never quit the tobacco habit in the past. Data were collected by standardized and validated questionnaire pro forma, which comprised the demographic profile, smoking history, and Fagerström scale to check the nicotine dependence. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and Chi-squares test, whereas logistic regression was used to predict the factor for quitting the tobacco habit. All tests were applied using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0.

Results

The mean age among the quitters was comparatively low than the never-quit group. Out of 640 participants, the majority of quitters and those who never quit were found to consume smokeless tobacco (232 [93.5]; 288 [73.5]). As per logistic regression analysis, gender of participants, age of starting tobacco use, and frequency of tobacco use can be considered as good predictors to quit smoking/chewing tobacco.

Conclusion

The present study found that participants in the quitter group were less dependent on tobacco, and these participants were more likely to quit smoking if behavioral support was provided at the early days of the quitting attempt.

Clinical significance

This study's result provides valuable insight into the current tobacco usage and potential predicting factors for quitting tobacco use among factory workers in India. These data can help in developing a policy for the implementation of tobacco cessation programs at the worksite.

How to cite this article

Gaikwad R, Bhowate R, Bajad P, Gadbail AR, Gondivkar S, Sarode SC, Sarode GS, Patil S. Potential Predictor of Tobacco Cessation among Factory Workers: A Baseline Data of Worksite Tobacco Cessation Programs in the Central Part of India. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1071-1077.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Seyed S Shayegh, Seyed MR Hakimaneh, Mohammad T Baghani, Shireen Shidfar, Farinaz K Kashi, Amirhosein Zamanian, Ali Arezoobakhsh

Effect of Interimplant Distance and Cyclic Loading on the Retention of Overdenture Attachments

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1078 - 1084]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2179  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of interimplant distance and cyclic loading on the retention of two locator attachment systems.

Materials and methods

A total of 72 acrylic resin blocks were fabricated and divided into six groups of six pairs each. Locators of DIO and 3i implant systems were positioned on analogs in three different interimplant distances (19, 23, and 29 mm). The blocks were attached to a universal testing machine, and 1,440 dislodging cycles by the force of 136 N were applied. After 0, 120, 360, 720, and 1,440 cycles, the retention was recorded. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in retention between the various combinations of the locator, interimplant distance, and cyclic loadings.

Results

Interimplant distance was significantly associated with retention, independent of the locator system used, and dislodgement force cycles. Mean retention was significantly higher under the 3i system relative to the DIO system (p < 0.0001). This association varied with both interimplant distance (p > 0.0001) and dislodgement force (p < 0.0001) as well as across the various combinations of distance and cycle (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion

Interimplant distances could affect the initial retention of locator attachments. There was little difference in retention between distances of 23 and 29 mm across all cycles when both locator systems were combined. Distance of 23mm was associated with superior retention in the DIO system. With regard to the speed of retention decrease, the 23 mm distance was associated with better performance.

Clinical significance

Interimplant distance could play a significant role in overdenture retention with locator attachments.

How to cite this article

Shayegh SS, Hakimaneh SMR, Baghani MT, Shidfar S, Kashi FK, Zamanian A, Arezoobakhsh A. Effect of Interimplant Distance and Cyclic Loading on the Retention of Overdenture Attachments. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1078-1084.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Monica J Mahajani, Varsha A Jadhao, Pooja S Wankhade, Emmanuel Samson, Vishwas D Acharya, Pawankumar D Tekale

Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Crevicular Fluid Interleukin-18 Level in Periodontal Health and Disease in Central Maharashtra (India) Population

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1085 - 1089]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2180  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The incidence and progression of the periodontal disease depend on periodontal microflora and the multifaceted response of the host, and these interactions are mediated by cytokines and chemokines. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 superfamily. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the periodontal therapy in IL-18 level in periodontal disease and health.

Materials and methods

Based on clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) patients were divided into three groups: Group I with healthy patients, group II with chronic periodontitis, and group III with posttreatment patients having periodontitis.

Results

Mean PI, PPD, CAL, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume were significantly higher in groups II and III compared with group I. However, there were no significant differences between GI in groups I, II, and III. The total amount of IL-18 in GCF was significantly higher in group II when compared with groups I and III (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

The present study confirmed that the IL-18 level in GCF was lower in healthy patients, higher in periodontally involved patients, and reduced at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks after nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

Clinical significance

The IL-18 might be hypothetically beneficial in distinguishing health from disease and monitoring periodontal disease activity.

How to cite this article

Mahajani MJ, Jadhao VA, Wankhade PS, Samson E, Acharya VD, Tekale PD. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Crevicular Fluid Interleukin-18 Level in Periodontal Health and Disease in Central Maharashtra (India) Population. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1085-1089.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Sukumaran Anil, Prasanna Neelakantan, Wadih Nassif

Evolution of Nickel–titanium Alloys in Endodontics

[Year:2017] [Month:November] [Volume:18] [Number:11] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1090 - 1096]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2181  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Clinical significance

Dentists are mostly clinicians rather than engineers. With the advances in instrumentation design and alloys, they have an obligation to deal more intimately with engineering consideration to not only take advantage of their possibilities but also acknowledge their limitations.

How to cite this article

Ounsi HF, Nassif W, Grandini S, Salameh Z, Neelakantan P, Anil S. Evolution of Nickel–titanium Alloys in Endodontics. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1090-1096.

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