The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2017 | December | Volume 18 | Issue 12

EDITORIAL

Alagirisamy Venkatesh, Jayanandan Muruganandhan

Ephebodontics: A Little-known Branch of Dentistry

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1097 - 1098]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2182  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Venkatesh A, Sujatha G, Muruganandhan J, Patil S, Raj AT. Ephebodontics: A Littleknown Branch of Dentistry. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18(12):1097-1098.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Loubna Shamseddine, Zeina Majzoub

Relative Translucency of a Multilayered Ultratranslucent Zirconia Material

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:8] [Pages No:1099 - 1106]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2183  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to compare the translucency parameter (TP) of ultratranslucent multilayered (UTML) zirconia according to thickness and layer level.

Materials and methods

Rectangles of UTML zirconia with four layers [dentin layer (DEL), first transitional layer (FTL), second transitional layer (STL), and enamel layer (ENL)] and four different thicknesses (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1 mm) were milled from blanks. Digital images were taken in a dark studio against white and black backgrounds under simulated daylight illumination and international commission on illumination (CIE) Lab* color values recorded using Photoshop Creative Cloud software. The TP was computed and compared according to thickness and layer level using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis for multiple comparisons. Significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results

In each thickness, TP values were similar between any two layers. The significant effect of thickness on the TP was observed only in the first two layers. In the DEL, translucency was significantly greater at 0.4 mm than all other thicknesses. In the FTL, differences were significant between 0.4 and 0.8 mm and between 0.4 and 1 mm.

Conclusion

The investigated zirconia does not seem to show gradational changes in relative translucency from dentin to enamel levels regardless of the thickness used. Thickness affected the TP only in the first two layers with better translucency at 0.4 mm.

Clinical significance

Since relative translucency does not seem to be significantly different between layers, clinicians can modify the apicocoronal positioning of the UTML layers within the restoration according to the desired Chroma without any implications on the clinically perceived translucency. While the thickness of 0.4 mm may be suggested for anterior esthetic veneers because of its higher translucency, the other thicknesses of 0.6 to 1 mm can be used to mask colored abutments in full contour restorations.

How to cite this article

Shamseddine L, Majzoub Z. Relative Translucency of a Multilayered Ultratranslucent Zirconia Material. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1099-1106.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Guilherme Ferreira Rego, Luis Felipe Jochims Schneider, Marcos Gabriel Vianna-de-Pinho, Marina Lermenn Vidal, Roberta Caroline Bruschi Alonso, Larissa Maria Cavalcante

Clinical Time Required and Internal Adaptation in Cavities restored with Bulk-fill Composites

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1107 - 1111]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2184  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to compare the restorative time required and the internal adaptation after thermomechanical aging of class I restorations using either the conventional incremental technique or bulk-fill technique.

Materials and methods

Cavities (Class I) were prepared on the occlusal surface of human third molars. 40 teeth were divided into four experimental groups according to the restorative technique (n = 10): G1 = 3 mm increment of Surefill SDR Flow + 1 mm Filtek P60; G2 = 3 mm increment of Filtek Bulk-Fill + 1 mm Filtek P60; G3 = Filtek P60 inserted with incremental technique; G4 = 3 mm increment of Filtek Z350 Flow XT + 1 mm increment of Filtek P60. The required restorative clinical time for each technique was marked. Specimens were submitted to thermomechanical loading (20,000 mechanical cycles—80 N/thermal cycling—5/55°C for 30 seconds). After, samples were sectioned, ratio of internal gaps to interface length (%) was recorded using dye-staining-gap technique. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (95% significance).

Results

There was no significant difference in gap formation and none of the groups was completely gap-free. However, a significant reduction on required restorative clinical time was observed for G1 (167 ± 7 seconds), G2 (169 ± 4 seconds), and G4 (169 ± 8 seconds) when compared with G3 (204 ± 8 seconds).

Conclusion

No significant difference in gap formation was found among bulk-fill and conventional incremental restorative technique tested; however, the use of a bulk-fill composite reduced 20% of the required restorative clinical time.

Clinical significance

None of the restorative techniques applied were able to prevent internal gap formation. The use of bulk-fill composite reduced the required clinical time to perform class I restorations.

How to cite this article

Vianna-de-Pinho MG, Rego GF, Vidal ML, Alonso RCB, Schneider LFJ, Cavalcante LM. Clinical Time Required and Internal Adaptation in Cavities restored with Bulkfill Composites. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1107-1111.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

A Nishad, NS Sreesan, Joseph Joy, Lakshmi Lakshmanan, Joyce Thomas, VA Anjali

Impact of Mouthwashes on Antibacterial Activity of Subjects with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1112 - 1116]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2185  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The study aimed to assess the impact of mouthwashes on antibacterial activity of individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances.

Materials and methods

A total of 60 individuals were considered in the study. Sixty (20 each group) nonextraction class I individuals were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Group I: Experimental group [chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash], group II: Experimental group (neem mouthwash), group III: Control group (distilled water). All the clinical examinations were done at baseline and 30th day respectively, after the start of orthodontic treatment. The mean differences between the different experimental groups were calculated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.

Results

There was no statistical significance at baseline mean plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) scores, and Streptococcus mutans (SM) colony count between groups. The PI and GI scores among CHX and neem mouthwash groups (p = 0.002, p = 0.032 respectively) were significantly reduced after intervention and also the SM colonies count was reduced in CHX and neem mouthwash groups and there was significant difference between the groups.

Conclusion

As both mouthwashes showed significant effectiveness on antibacterial activity in individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances, neem mouthwash can be used as an alternative to CHX.

Clinical significance

It is better to have a sound knowledge regarding the use of mouthwash in long term as fixed orthodontics are associated with accumulation of SM, enamel demineralization, and an increased number of carious lesions, predominantly in sites adjacent to bracket.

How to cite this article

Nishad A, Sreesan NS, Joy J, Lakshmanan L, Thomas J, Anjali VA. Impact of Mouthwashes on Antibacterial Activity of Subjects with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1112-1116.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Alberto Busa, Gianluigi Caccianiga

Use of a Partial-thickness Flap for Guided Bone Regeneration in the Upper Jaw

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1117 - 1121]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2186  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Guided bone regeneration (GBR) aims to restore adequate bone volume for the placement of implants in an ideal location. In this article, we analyze different surgical techniques for tissue management during GBR and a modified partialthickness surgical approach.

Materials and methods

In a year's time span, five patients were enrolled in the study: Four women and one man (aged 44–59 years). In four patients, a GBR with simultaneous implant placement was adopted, whereas in another patient, a delayed implant placement was done. The flap was of full thickness and overturned on the side palatal with the aim of a retractor, thus exposing the bone crest. The graft material was covered and protected with a resorbable collagen membrane (Geistlich Bio- Gide®, Switzerland). The periosteal layer of the flap was then positioned above the resorbable membrane without traction. The sutures as vertical mattress were then positioned. Each patient received an intramuscular betamethasone dose (4 mg/50 kg) and antibiotic therapy for 7 days (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid 1 gm every 12 hours) and was instructed to maintain oral hygiene and appropriate wound cleaning. The patients were recalled at different times to monitor the healing.

Results

No cases of tissue dehiscence were observed during the period of wound healing. One patient, however, showed a delayed exposure 4 months after surgery. This occurrence was managed without complications for the patient.

Conclusion

The design of proposed flap seems to be effective in controlling the risk of dehiscence during the healing time in the GBR. The vascular supply was rarely compromised. The results we obtained are encouraging even if further studies on this technique are needed.

Clinical significance

Lateral partial-thickness flaps seem to be effective in controlling tissue tension and consequently the risk of dehiscence. The incision vestibularly performed should favor the soft tissue healing.

How to cite this article

Porcaro G, Busa A, Bianco E, Caccianiga G, Maddalone M. Use of a Partial-thickness Flap for Guided Bone Regeneration in the Upper Jaw. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1117-1121.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Frederico S Lages, Carolina P Rivera, Ana P de Souza Faloni

Evaluation of Short and Regular Implants after Prosthesis Placement in the Mandible: A Nonrandomized Controlled Clinical Trial

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:8] [Pages No:1122 - 1129]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2187  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this nonrandomized controlled preliminary clinical trial was to compare treatment using short and conventional implants in the posterior region of the mandible after prosthesis installation by means of clinical, resonance frequency, and radiographic analyses.

Materials and methods

A total of 10 patients with 40 dental implants already installed were included in this study. Four implants were installed for each subject, in which the length of the implants (short and conventional) was distributed according to the reminiscent alveolar bone in the left and right side of the mandible. All implants received splinted prosthesis after the osseointegration period. Analyses were performed immediately after prosthesis installation (T1), and 3 (T2) and 6 months (T3) after prosthesis placement.

Results

The 6-month survival and success rates were 100% for the short and conventional implants. Probing depths (PDs) after 6 months did not show statistical differences between short and conventional implants. All groups showed mean implant stability quotient (ISQ) values above 60 in all periods evaluated, demonstrating great implant stability, and no differences were found between groups at T3. Radiographic measurements showed an increased bone loss for conventional implants compared with short implants in all the three periods evaluated.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that treatment of resorbed posterior regions in the mandible with shorter dental implants is as reliable as treatment with conventional implants after 6 months of splinted prosthesis installation.

Clinical significance

Short implants might be considered a predictable treatment alternative to bone augmentation or extensive surgical techniques in regions of restricted vertical bone height in the posterior region of the mandible.

How to cite this article

de Molon RS, Lages FS, Rivera CP, de Souza Faloni AP, Margonar R, Queiroz TP. Evaluation of Short and Regular Implants after Prosthesis Placement in the Mandible: A Nonrandomized Controlled Clinical Trial. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1122-1129.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vimal Remy, Vineesh Krishnan, Tisson V Job, Madhavankutty S Ravisankar, CV Renjith Raj, Seena John

Assessment of Marginal Adaptation and Sealing Ability of Root Canal Sealers: An in vitro Study

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1130 - 1134]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2188  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study aims to compare the marginal adaptation and sealing ability [mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-Fillapex, AH Plus, Endofill sealers] of root canal sealers.

Materials and methods

In the present study, the inclusion criteria include 45 single-rooted extracted mandibular premolar teeth, with single canal and complete root formation. The sectioning of the samples was done at the cementoenamel junction using a low-speed diamond disc. Step-back technique was used to prepare root canals manually. The MTA-Fillapex, AH Plus, and Endofill sealers were the three experimental sealer groups to which 45 teeth were distributed. Under scanning electron microscope (SEM), marginal gap at sealer and root dentin interface were examined at coronal and apical halves of root canal.

Results

Among the three maximum marginal adaptations were seen with AH Plus sealer (4.10 ± 0.10) which is followed by Endofill sealer (1.44 ± 0.18) and MTA-Fillapex sealer (0.80 ± 0.22). Between the coronal and apical marginal adaptation, significant statistical difference (p = 0.001) was seen in AH Plus sealer. When a Mann–Whitney U-test was done on MTA-Fillapex sealer vs AH Plus sealer and AH Plus sealer vs Endofill sealer, there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) found between the above two groups at coronal and apical third.

Conclusion

The present study proves that AH Plus sealer has a better marginal adaptation when compared with other sealers used.

Clinical significance

For sealing space of crown wall and main cone in root canal treatment, sealers play an important role. The other advantages of sealers are that they are used to fill voids and irregularities in root channel, secondary, lateral channels, and space between applied gutta-percha cones and also act as tripper during filling.

How to cite this article

Remy V, Krishnan V, Job TV, Ravisankar MS, Raj CVR, John S. Assessment of Marginal Adaptation and Sealing Ability of Root Canal Sealers: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1130-1134.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Prem P Kar, Sandhya A Khasnis, Krisnamurthy H Kidiyoor

Comparative Evaluation of Cleaning Efficacy using Four Novel Nickel–titanium Rotary Instruments: An in vitro Scanning Electron Microscope Study

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:9] [Pages No:1135 - 1143]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2189  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of the study was to compare the cleaning efficacy (debris and smear layer removal) of two multifile rotary systems (MTwo and Silk) and two single-file rotary systems (F6 Skytaper and NeoNiTi).

Materials and methods

Eighty mesial canals of mandibular first molars were cleaned and shaped using four nickel–titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments to size # 25 and 3% NaOCl and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Samples were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 20) according to instrumentation: Group I, Mtwo; group II, Silk; group III, F6 Skytaper; group IV, NeoNiTi. Samples were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM) for debris and smear layer removal in coronal, middle, and apical thirds of each root canal.

Results

F6 skytaper and Mtwo groups showed significantly higher debris removal than Silk and NeoNiTi groups in apical third of root canal as well as when compared with NeoNiTi group in middle third. F6 Skytaper group showed significantly higher debris and smear layer removal than Silk group in coronal third. There was statistically significant difference among all thirds of root canal in terms of debris removal in Silk and NeoNiTi groups. There was statistically significant difference among all thirds of root canal in F6 Skytaper and NeoNiTi groups in terms of smear layer removal.

Conclusion

F6 Skytaper single-file rotary instrumentation showed the maximum cleaning efficacy followed by Mtwo multifile rotary instrumentation in all thirds of root canal.

Clinical significance

F6 Skytaper rotary instrument is most efficient followed by Mtwo rotary instrument among all rotary instruments.

How to cite this article

Kar PP, Khasnis SA, Kidiyoor KH. Comparative Evaluation of Cleaning Efficacy using Four Novel Nickel-titanium Rotary Instruments: An in vitro Scanning Electron Microscope Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1135-1143.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Gururaghavendran Rajesh, Almas Binnal, Mithun BH Pai, Vijayendranath Nayak, Ashwini Rao

General Dental Practitioners as Potential Responders to Disaster Scenario in a Highly Disaster-prone Area: An Explorative Study

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:9] [Pages No:1144 - 1152]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2190  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study is to obtain insights pertaining to disaster management among Indian general dental practitioners (GDPs).

Materials and methods

All GDPs in Mangaluru city, Karnataka, India, were included in the present study. Their willingness to participate in disaster management and their objective knowledge, attitude, behavior, and perceived effectiveness related to disaster management were assessed by a structured, pretested, self-administered questionnaire. Demographic information was also collected.

Results

Overall, 101 GDPs volunteered for the study, and 96.04% of respondents were willing to participate in disaster management. Mean knowledge, attitude, behavior, and perceived effectiveness scores were 52.65, 79.60, 41.55, and 64.20% respectively. Religion (odds ratio [OR] = –0.194, p = 0.022), marital status (OR = –0.222, p = 0.040), attachment to college (OR = –0.256, p = 0.037), familiarity with standard operating procedures (SOP; OR = –0.502, p = 0.000), and knowledge (OR = 0.265, p = 0.003) were significant predictors of behavior.

Conclusion

The GDPs reported knowledge and behavior scores which were low, while their attitude and willingness to participate were high. Demographic determinants might be critical indicators in disaster management scenario among GDPs.

Clinical significance

The present study has crucial implications for policymakers and curriculum changes to integrate dentists effectively into disaster response teams. As responsible members of the society, the dental fraternity has critical contributions to make toward disaster mitigation. Integration of GDPs in a multidisciplinary team managing disasters might be crucial, especially in highly disaster-prone areas, such as India, with a definite paucity of resources.

How to cite this article

Rajesh G, Binnal A, Pai MBH, Nayak V, Shenoy R, Rao A. General Dental Practitioners as Potential Responders to Disaster Scenario in a Highly Disasterprone Area: An Explorative Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1144-1152.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Meena Kulkarni, Sanjay G Thete, Atul P Nikam, Dhiraj Umbare, Sushant Satdive

Oral Manifestation in Patients diagnosed with Dermatological Diseases

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1153 - 1158]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2191  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study aimed to estimate the frequency of oral lesions in dermatological diseased patients attending the outpatient department of Pravara Rural Medical and Dental College and Hospital, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India, and the Department of Dermatology at Medical College, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in Loni from October 2013 to January 2014. A total of 310 patients (mean age 37.2 ± 16 years, 61.2% males) completed an oral examination and a personal interview. Oral lesions were recorded. Biopsy and smear were used as adjuvant techniques for confirmation. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 15.0.1).

Results

Of 310 cases (n = 310) observed for skin lesions, 99 cases were psoriasis (31.93%) and 68 cases were lichen planus (LP; 21.9%), followed by herpes zoster in 44 cases (14.1%), herpes simplex in 13 cases (4.1%), pemphigus vulgaris (PV) in 15 cases (4.8%), erythema multiforme (EM) in 8 cases (2.5%), bullous pemphigoid (BP) in 4 cases (1.2%), chicken pox in 3 cases (0.9%), eczema in 52 cases (16.7%), and nutritional deficiency and candidiasis in 2 cases (Table 1).

Conclusion

The dermatologic diseases studied frequently occur in the oral cavity. Among them, psoriasis was the most common dermatological disease, and LP frequently showed.

Clinical significance

This study also depicts that diagnosis and management of these oral lesions should also be carried out by oral clinicians so as to improve the oral health functioning during the course of the disease. The intraoral examination should be incorporated to the routine of dermatologic assistance as the oral manifestations can represent preliminary signs or can coexist with the diseases.

How to cite this article

Thete SG, Kulkarni M, Nikam AP, Mantri T, Umbare D, Satdive S, Kulkarni D. Oral Manifestation in Patients diagnosed with Dermatological Diseases. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1153-1158.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Reddy Priyadarshini, Yasangi M Kumar, K Shanthi Priya, Chunchuvyshnavi , Harika Yerrapragada

Effect of Temperature on Film Thickness of Two Types of Commonly used Luting Cements

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1159 - 1163]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2192  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of temperature change on film thickness of both types of cements.

Materials and methods

Totally, 60 samples were prepared with 10 in each subgroup, thus comprising 30 in each group. Materials tested were glass ionomer cement (GIC) type I and zinc phosphate type I. Samples were manipulated with manufacturer's instructions and tested according to American Dental Association (ADA) guidelines.

Results

The mean values of film thickness were recorded for both groups I and II. In intragroup comparison of group 1, subgroup III (26.560 ± 0.489 µm) was found to have the highest film thickness followed by subgroup II (24.182 ± 0.576 µm) and the lowest in subgroup I (20.209 ± 0.493 µm). In intragroup comparison of group II, the film thickness recorded in subgroup III (25.215 ± 0.661 µm) was the highest followed by subgroup II (21.471 ± 0.771 µm) and the least in subgroup I (17.951 ± 0.654 µm; p < 0.01). In intergroup comparison of groups I and II, group II (21.545 ± 0.841) was found to have less film thickness than group I (23.650 ± 0.271). The results were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.01).

Conclusion

Both zinc phosphate and GICs can be used satisfactorily for luting purpose. The temperature fluctuations have a direct influence on the film thickness. Zinc phosphate has less film thickness than GIC.

Clinical significance

Zinc phosphate should be preferred over GIC in clinical practice, and more stress should be given in mechanical preparation of crowns for better retentive quality of prosthesis.

How to cite this article

Kumar MP, Priyadarshini R, Kumar YM, Priya KS, Chunchuvyshnavi, Yerrapragada H. Effect of Temperature on Film Thickness of Two Types of Commonly used Luting Cements. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1159-1163.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Hanadi Lingawi, Yahia Maher, Ibtesam Afifi

Impact of Educational Intervention for Hand Hygiene on Dental Students’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Bacterial Contamination Level on Hands

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:9] [Pages No:1164 - 1172]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2193  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the educational intervention for hand hygiene (HH) on knowledge, attitude, and mean colony-forming bacterial counts and type of bacteria on hands of undergraduate dental students.

Materials and methods

A total of 86 dental students from different clinical grades were included in the study. They were divided into two groups, group I (55 students) received onetime educational session for HH at the start of the academic year and group II (31 students) received an extra reenforcement session 6 months later. After 2 weeks of reenforcement session, a self-administrated questionnaire was directed to all participants assessing their knowledge and attitude about HH. Fingertip prints of the five fingers of the dominant hand from every participant were pressed onto blood agar plates in triplets at the same clinical session, before and after HH. Bacterial colony-forming units (CFUs) on each plate were recorded and identified microbiologically.

Results

The overall scores of knowledge and attitude showed higher levels in group II than in group I with nonsignificant differences between both groups as regards knowledge and significant differences (p < 0.05) as regards attitude. Mean CFUs showed extremely significant differences (p ≤ 0.000) between 2nd and 3rd counts and between 1st and 2nd counts except for students of group I where the difference was only significant (p ≤ 0.05). Normal bacterial flora was identified in 94.9% of the plates (92.2% coagulase-negative Staphylococci and 2.7% Micrococcus). Potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from the other plates were Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas spp., and spore-forming aerobic nonhemolytic Bacilli.

Conclusion

Reenforcement session had a positive impact on HH knowledge, attitude, and reduction of bacterial CFUs.

Clinical significance

Continuous education with frequent training sessions is recommended to reinforce HH compliance and reduce cross-contamination.

How to cite this article

Lingawi H, Maher Y, Afifi I. Impact of Educational Intervention for Hand Hygiene on Dental Students’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Bacterial Contamination Level on Hands. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1164-1172.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Prashant Rao, Aparna Paliwal, Shekhar Grover, Sandeep Gupta, Nidhi Choudaha

Assessment of Proliferative Potential of Odontogenic Keratocyst and Dentigerous Cyst using Podoplanin: An Immunohistochemical Study

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1173 - 1176]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2194  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Odontogenic cysts are commonly encountered lesions among head and neck pathologies. Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) has unique features of recurrence and local aggressiveness. Podoplanin (PDP) is a lymphatic endothelial marker and is shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues. Hence, we planned to assess the significance of PDP in OKC and dentigerous cyst (DC).

Materials and methods

The present study included assessment of immunoexpression of PDP in OKC and DC. Twenty specimens each of OKC and DC were included in the present study and were stained with D2-40 antibody. All the sections were analyzed and were categorized as negative staining, weakly positive staining, and strongly positive staining. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Results

We detected PDP-positive staining in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of the cells of basal cell layer and suprabasal cell layers. In DC cases, we observed positive staining only in cases associated with inflammation.

Conclusion

Podoplanin does play a significant role in enhancing the local invasive and neoplastic properties of OKC.

Clinical significance

Podoplanin expression in OKC is potentially associated with moderate invasive nature of the neighboring structures.

How to cite this article

Gupta S, Paliwal A, Choudaha N, Gupta A, Rao P, Grover S. Assessment of Proliferative Potential of Odontogenic Keratocyst and Dentigerous Cyst using Podoplanin: An Immunohistochemical Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1173-1176.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Priyanka Gupta, Amil Sharma, Vivek K Pathak, Saurabh Mankeliya, Shivanshu Bhardwaj, Poorvasha Dhanare

Intricate Estimation and Assessment of Surface Conditioning of Posts to improve Interfacial Adhesion in Post–core Restorations: An in vitro Study

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1177 - 1180]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2195  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Post and core restorations are routinely used for restoring grossly decayed tooth structures. Various chemical agents are known to affect the interfacial adhesions between the post and the core. Hence, we planned the present study to evaluate the effect of various post-surface treatments on the interfacial strength between the posts and composite materials that are used for building up the core portion.

Materials and methods

The present study included assessment of the effect of surface conditioning of posts on the interfacial adhesion in post–core restorations. A total of 80 clear post-tapers were included and were divided broadly into four study groups based on the type of chemical testing protocols used. Various chemical treatments included alkaline potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, and phosphoric acid. The fourth group was the control group. The composite core material was used for building up the core. Testing of the tensile load was done on a universal testing machine. All the results were analyzed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Results

The highest bond strength was observed in the study group treated with alkaline potassium permanganate, while the lowest was observed in the control group followed by the hydrogen peroxide group. While comparing the mean bond strength in between various study groups, significant results were obtained.

Conclusion

Chemical treatment protocol significantly alters the mean bond strength of the post and core restoration.

Clinical significance

Potassium permanganate significantly increases the bond strength between the fiber post and core restoration.

How to cite this article

Gupta P, Sharma A, Pathak VK, Mankeliya S, Bhardwaj S, Dhanare P. Intricate Estimation and Assessment of Surface Conditioning of Posts to improve Interfacial Adhesion in Post–core Restorations: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1177-1180.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Manish Goutam, Divya Iska, Madhvi Singh, Rajkiran Chitumalla, Sai C Bala Balasubramanian

In vitro Assessment of Influence of Various Bleaching Protocols on the Strength of Ceramic Orthodontic Brackets bonded to Bleached Tooth Surface: A Comparative Study

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1181 - 1184]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2196  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Esthetics is one of the common issues because of which patients consult dental orthodontic treatment. Two ways of tooth bleaching are available these days, which includes in-office bleach and home bleach. Various bleaching protocols are available these days for treating the tooth surfaces. Hence, we planned the present study for investigating the impact of various intracoronal bleaching protocols on shear bond strength of ceramic brackets bonded to tooth surface after bleaching.

Materials and methods

The present study included assessment of 100 extracted maxillary central incisors with the integrated buccal surface. A resin block was made and individual teeth were embedded in each block. Root canal therapy procedure was performed in all the teeth, after which 2 mm short of tooth apex up to the level of cementoenamel junction, removal of the root canal filling was done. All the samples were broadly divided into four study groups with 25 samples in each group. Bleaching procedure was carried in all the samples intracoronally followed by testing of shear bond strength using universal force testing machine. Following the modified adhesive remnant index (AI), assessment of remaining adhesive on the brackets was done. All the results were compiled and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 17.0.

Results

In the control group, mean shear bond strength was found to be 17.9 MPa. While comparing the carbamide peroxide (CP) group with sodium perborate study group, we observed a statistically significant difference. Nonsignificant results were obtained while comparing the shear bond strength in between sodium perborate group and hydrogen peroxide (HP) group.

Conclusion

Intracoronal bleaching does affect the shear bond strength of ceramic brackets. Sodium perborate bleaching influences shear bond strength more strongly than other bleaching agents such as CP and HP.

Clinical significance

In patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, HP is a preferred agent where bleaching has to be followed by orthodontic bonding to the tooth surface.

How to cite this article

Iska D, Devanna R, Singh M, Chitumalla R, Balasubramanian SCB, Goutam M. In vitro Assessment of Influence of Various Bleaching Protocols on the Strength of Ceramic Orthodontic Brackets bonded to Bleached Tooth Surface: A Comparative Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12): 1181-1184.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

NR Pramodh, Ravi Naik, CS Mahesh, Manju R Kumari

Comparative Evaluation of Tensile Strength in Die Stone Incorporated with Sodium and Calcium Hypochlorite as Disinfectants: An in vitro Study

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1185 - 1189]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2197  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of die stone incorporated with sodium and calcium hypochlorite as disinfectants.

Materials and methods

Two commercially available type IV die stone (Kalrock: Kalabhai Karson Pvt., Ltd and Pearlstone: Asian Chemicals) and two commercially available disinfectant solutions (sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite: Beachem Laboratory Chemical Private Limited, Chennai and Leo Chem Private Limited, Bengaluru) were used in this study, and the tensile strength was measured using Lloyd's Universal Testing Machine.

Results

The results show that incorporating the disinfecting solutions decreases the tensile strength of both products. The effect of decreasing tensile strength on type IV gypsum product is seen more in calcium hypochlorite when compared with sodium hypochlorite disinfecting solution, and the tensile strength of Kalrock specimens is higher than Pearlstone specimens after disinfecting with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite solution. The statistical results also show significant results in all the groups when compared with the control group.

Conclusion

The incorporation of sodium and calcium hypochlorite disinfecting solutions is not an encouraging method for both die materials as it reduces the tensile strength of type IV gypsum product. Tensile strength of Kalstone® die material is superior than Pearlstone® die material after mixing with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite.

Clinical significance

According to the recommendations of Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, disinfecting the whole cast without or minimal changes in physical and mechanical properties was the motto of the study. The tensile strength in type IV gypsum product plays a most important role in retrieval of cast from impression, especially in narrow tooth preparation. This study reveals that incorporating method of disinfecting solutions is not recommended as it reduces the tensile strength.

How to cite this article

Pramodh NR, Kumar CNV, Pradeep MR, Naik R, Mahesh CS, Kumari MR. Comparative Evaluation of Tensile Strength in Die Stone Incorporated with Sodium and Calcium Hypochlorite as Disinfectants: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1185-1189.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mitesh D Kathariya, Swapnil K Patil, Madhura Fatangare, Rutuj G Jadhav, Gaurav R Shinde, Siddhi S Pawar

Caries Preventive Effect of Sodium Fluoride Varnish on Deciduous Dentition: A Clinical Trial

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1190 - 1193]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2198  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of intensive application of sodium fluoride varnish in reducing caries incidence among children aged 6 to 7 years.

Materials and methods

The study was a randomized controlled trial conducted among 6- to 7-year-old children of Sangamner, Maharashtra, India. Nearly 200 randomly selected children were randomized into two groups: Control group and intervention (varnish) group. Dental examination to record the caries experiences was conducted at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. The fluoride varnish was applied for three times in a week for a period of 1 year. Mean decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) were compared between and within groups using t-test.

Results

Out of 200 participants, there were 3 dropouts for control group and 4 for intervention group. Nearly 55% study participants were males and remaining were females. There was a statistically significant difference between the baseline and follow-up caries levels in varnish group for deciduous dentition. Mean caries reduction in this study was 26%.

Conclusion

After 1 year of study, we found significant caries reversal in deciduous dentition among the 6- to 7-year-olds after intensive fluoride application. Such a regimen can be advocated to encourage the practitioners and the caregivers alike for early caries prevention.

Clinical significance

Intensive fluoride application (three times a week) once a year was found to be effective in reducing the incidence of detectable carious lesions and can be advocated to the dental professionals to be incorporated in their routine preventive clinical practice.

How to cite this article

Patil SK, Fatangare M, Jadhav RG, Shinde GR, Pawar SS, Kathariya MD. Caries Preventive Effect of Sodium Fluoride Varnish on Deciduous Dentition: A Clinical Trial. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1190-1193.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Kamala Rajendra, Sadananda M Purnachandra, Parthkumar C Patel, Jochima Cota, Venkat R Singh, Ankur Vatsal

A Clinical and Microbiological Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori in Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1194 - 1197]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2199  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of Helicobacter pylori in recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) with or without peptic ulcer.

Materials and methods

A total of 42 patients were selected for the present study from outpatient Department of Oral Medicine, and divided into control (group I) and test groups (groups II, III). A total number of 15 patients suffering from RAS based on history and clinical examination was selected as group II. A total number of 12 patients suffering concomitantly from RAS and duodenal ulcer based on history and clinical examination were selected as group III. A total number of 15 healthy subjects were selected as controls in group I. All selected subjects belonged to the age group of 16 to 45 years. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software version 19 of IBM, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Results

Among all three groups, 54.8% was negative and 45.2% was positive for H. pylori. No significant relation was established between H. pylori and RAS.

Conclusion

In the present study, there was no association of H. pylori in patients with RAS and in patients with RAS along with gastric ulcers.

Clinical significance

This clinical study evaluated the relation of H. pylori in RAS patients.

How to cite this article

Rajendra K, Purnachandra SM, Patel PC, Cota J, Singh VR, Vatsal A. A Clinical and Microbiological Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori in Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1194-1197.

CASE REPORT

Luiz R Paranhos, Gladistone C Meros, Aline Shoji, Selly Suzuki, Rodrigo Manfroi, Jonathas Claus, Aguinaldo Garcez

An Alternative Approach for Space Opening in a Bilateral Maxillary Lateral Incisor Agenesis Patient using Miniplates

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:8] [Pages No:1198 - 1205]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2200  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This case report aimed to present an orthodontic mechanic alternative for space opening in a patient missing maxillary lateral incisors, using miniplates as anchorage, associated with self-ligating brackets.

Background

Dental agenesis affects the population causing esthetic and functional damages. The prevalence of missing maxillary lateral incisors should be considered for its significant rate and negative impact on smile esthetics.

Case report

This treatment was chosen based on the presence of balanced facial pattern, large canine anatomy, the need to improve dental occlusion to prevent further wear, and patient's esthetic complaint. To obtain the results, upper third molars were extracted, and two miniplates were installed to distalize the upper arch with no need for patient compliance or auxiliary devices. Self-ligating brackets were used to reduce friction on posterior teeth, thus facilitating movement with light force application. At the end of 19 months, the patient presented with class I good overbite and overjet, and adequate space for implant and prosthetics; also, good facial esthetic was maintained.

Conclusion

When indicated, space opening may provide excellent esthetics and functional results, and even more predictable results when skeletal anchorage miniplates are used to distalize all posterior teeth.

Clinical significance

Considering the high level of esthetic and functional compromise caused by dental agenesis, the technique hereby described represents a viable mechanic alternative within orthodontic possibilities.

How to cite this article

Meros GC, Shoji A, Suzuki S, Paranhos LR, Manfroi R, Claus J, Garcez A. An Alternative Approach for Space Opening in a Bilateral Maxillary Lateral Incisor Agenesis Patient using Miniplates. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1198-1205.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Mohnish Muchhal, Lav K Niraj, Devanshu Chaudhary, Irfan Ali, Kuldeep Dhama, Basavaraj Patthi

Spanning the Horizon of Accuracy of Different Intraoral Radiographic Modalities: A Systematic Review

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1206 - 1212]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2201  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study was conducted with an aim to systematically review the literature for assessing the accuracy of intraoral radiographs in detection of dental caries.

Introduction

Despite the advancements in oral disease science, dental caries continues to be a worldwide health concern, affecting humans of all ages. Correct diagnosis of caries is critical both in clinical practice as well as in epidemiology and radiography are worthwhile adjunct for a thorough examination.

Results

A literature review was performed in PubMed Central and Cochrane library, Embase, and Google Scholar, and these databases were searched up to 2016. The primary outcome measure was to assess the accuracy of intraoral radiographs in the detection of dental caries based on sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity for conventional radiographs for the detection of lesions in enamel (16–68%) and dentin (16–96%) was found to be superior as compared with other modalities of digital radiography, whereas the specificity of digital radiography was found to be superior in detection of lesion in enamel (77–96%) and dentin (84–100%) when compared with conventional radiography. Sensitivity of conventional radiographs was noted to be superior as compared with digital radiography, whereas in terms of specificity, digital was found to be superior to conventional radiographs.

Conclusion

Although there was no significant difference between digital and conventional radiography in the diagnosis of caries, conventional radiographs were able to detect carious lesion, in general, but for lesion to be detected precisely, digital was found to be superior.

Clinical significance

As digital radiography produces lower ionizing radiation, dental professionals should employ this method in their routine dental practice for diagnosing and treating carious lesions.

How to cite this article

Muchhal M, Niraj LK, Chaudhary D. Ali I, Dhama K, Patthi B. Spanning the Horizon of Accuracy of Different Intraoral Radiographic Modalities: A Systematic Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1206-1212.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Raju Shashidara, Ebi Scindiya, Ann Tryphena

Grossing of Oral Pathologies—Revisited

[Year:2017] [Month:December] [Volume:18] [Number:12] [Pages:10] [Pages No:1213 - 1222]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2202  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Shashidara R, Patil S, Rao RS, Scindiya E, Tryphena A. Grossing of Oral Pathologies—Revisited. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(12):1213-1222.

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