The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Register      Login

Table of Content

2017 | August | Volume 18 | Issue 8

EDITORIAL

P-hacking

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:2] [Pages No:633 - 634]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2097  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Raj AT, Patil S, Sarode S, Sarode G. P-hacking. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):633-634.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa, Pedro L Rosalen, Jozinete V Pereira, Erika P Alves, Rennaly de F Lima, Carolina M de Almeida, Irlan A Freires, Ana LTG Ruiz, Ana F Granville-Garcia, Gustavo P Godoy

Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activity of Bauhinia forficata Link and Cnidoscolus quercifolius Extracts commonly Used in Folk Medicine

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:6] [Pages No:635 - 640]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2098  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Bauhinia forficata and Cnidoscolus quercifolius plants are commonly used in folk medicine. However, few studies have investigated their therapeutic potential.

Aim

Herein, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of B. forficata and C. quercifolius extracts against microorganisms of clinical relevance and their antiproliferative potential against tumor cells.

Materials and methods

The following tests were performed: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), inhibition of biofilm adhesion, and effects on cell morphology. Antiproliferative tests were carried out with human keratinocytes and six tumor lines.

Results

Bauhinia forficata showed antimicrobial activity only against C. albicans with MIC of 15.62 μg/mL and MFC higher than 2000 μg/mL. It also inhibited biofilm adhesion and caused alterations in cell morphology. Cnidoscolus quercifolius showed no significant activity (MIC > 2.0 mg/mL) against the strains. Bauhinia forficata and C. quercifolius extracts showed cytostatic activity against the tumor cells.

Conclusion

Bauhinia forficata has promising anti-Candida activity and should be further investigated for its therapeutic potential.

Clinical significance

The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of infectious processes has an important nowadays, due to the limitations of the use of synthetic antibiotics available, related specifically to the microbial resistance emergence.

How to cite this article

Alves EP, de F Lima R, de Almeida CM, Freires IA, Rosalen PL, Ruiz ALTG, Granville-Garcia AF, Godoy GP, Pereira JV, de Brito Costa EMM. Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activity of Bauhinia forficata Link and Cnidoscolus quercifolius Extracts commonly Used in Folk Medicine. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):635-640.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Babacar Faye, Wendpoulomdé AD Kaboré, Valérie Chevalier, Yolande Gnagne-Koffi, Carole DW Ouédraogo, Diouma Ndiaye

A Survey of Endodontic Practices among Dentists in Burkina Faso

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:6] [Pages No:641 - 646]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2099  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Dental surgeons must be aware of the most appropriate endodontic treatments and how to properly conduct them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of dental surgeons in Burkina Faso in terms of endodontic treatment procedures.

Materials and methods

This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed during the regular annual conference of the National Board of Dental Surgeons of Burkina Faso, held on February 27 and 28, 2015 in Ouagadougou, through a questionnaire.

Results

A total of 33 practitioners took part (52.4% of the dental surgeons of Burkina Faso) in the study. The majority of them (90.9%) used sodium hypochlorite as their preferred irrigation solution. Nearly half of the dental surgeons (48.5%) did not know how to use a permeabilization file, and most did not make use of nickel–titanium (NiTi) mechanized instruments (78.8%) or rubber dams (93.9%). Approximately two-thirds of participants did not perform file-in-place radiography (66.7%) or control radiography of the canal obturation (63.6%). The adjusted single-cone technique was the most commonly used (87.9%).

Conclusion

This study highlights that the majority of dental surgeons in Burkina Faso are not using the currently recommended endodontic procedures to perform obturations.

Clinical significance

Dental surgeons in Burkina Faso must commit to regularly upgrading their knowledge and techniques.

How to cite this article

Kaboré WAD, Chevalier V, Gnagne- Koffi Y, Ouédraogo CDW, Ndiaye D, Faye B. A Survey of Endodontic Practices among Dentists in Burkina Faso. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):641-646.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Yasser Alfawaz

Impact of Polishing Systems on the Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Nanocomposites

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:647 - 651]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2100  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this article is to evaluate the influence of finishing and polishing techniques on the surface roughness and microhardness of two composite resins with two different types of polishing systems.

Materials and methods

A total of 30 disk-shaped specimens of nanocomposite Filtek™ Z350 and Ceram-X® were prepared. They were divided into three groups. The control group (n = 10) received no finishing and polishing. The remaining specimens were divided into two groups, and they received polishing and finishing either with PoGo or Sof-Lex system. After the polishing procedures, average surface roughness (Ra) was assessed with a surface profilometer. The microhardness was determined using a Vickers hardness test. The data were tabulated and analyzed.

Results

The smoothest surfaces were noticed with the control group (Mylar strips) in both composite materials tested. The PoGo one-step polishing system showed significantly better surface roughness compared with the Sof-Lex polishing system. The microhardness did not show any significant variations after finishing and polishing.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the use of PoGo® onestep polishing system resulted in smoother surface with both composite materials studied compared with the Sof-Lex system. The finishing and polishing system had little influence on the surface microhardness.

Clinical significance

The finishing procedure and polishing system can affect the physical properties and performance of resin composites.

How to cite this article

Alfawaz Y. Impact of Polishing Systems on the Surface Roughness and Microhardness of Nanocomposites. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):647-651.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Kamran Habib Awan, Emad M Hadlaq, Ziyad T Faraj, Fahad M Al Gamdi, Faisal A Al Obathani, Mashael F Abuabat

Early Screening of Diabetes and Hypertension in Primary Care Dental Clinics at King Saud University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:8] [Pages No:652 - 659]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2101  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are the leading chronic diseases in Saudi Arabia; 23.1% of the Saudi population are diabetic and 25.5% are hypertensive. This cross-sectional study was made on dental setting to determine the effectiveness of screening of diabetes and hypertension in dental clinics.

Materials and methods

This study was carried out in the primary care dental clinics at the Dental College in King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Before starting any treatment, a face-to-face interview was administered to collect a brief medical history and personal data followed by measurement of body mass index (BMI). After that, blood pressure level reading was obtained using electrical sphygmomanometer. Finally, a glucose level reading was obtained from capillary blood from the patient's third fingertip using glucose reader.

Results

Our study included 283 participants, 118 of whom were females (41.7%). Our study showed that a significant amount of the participants are at risk of having hypertension (44.8%). In addition, a significant number (10.2%) of the participants are at risk of having diabetes. Furthermore, 35.7% of the sample had obesity as a risk factor for diabetes and hypertension.

Conclusion

The dental team can play an important role in screening of diabetes, hypertension, and other chronic diseases. In Saudi Arabia, public awareness of the chronic diseases is still critically insufficient.

Clinical significance

Our study showed the importance of the screening even for patients with negative history of diabetes or hypertension.

How to cite this article

Hadlaq EM, Faraj ZT, Al Gamdi FM, Al Obathani FA, Abuabat MF, Awan KH. Early Screening of Diabetes and Hypertension in Primary Care Dental Clinics at King Saud University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):652-659.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

UB Rajasekaran, Shailesh Sandbhor, M Mohamed Ramees, Esther A Abraham

An in vitro Evaluation of Friction Characteristics of Conventional Stainless Steel and Self-ligating Stainless Steel Brackets with different Dimensions of Archwires in Various Bracket–archwire Combination

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:660 - 664]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2102  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The purpose of this research is to compare the frictional attributes of stainless steel conventional brackets and selfligating stainless steel brackets with different dimensions of archwires.

Materials and methods

The test was carried with two sets of maxillary brackets: (1) Conventional stainless steel (Victory Series), (2) stainless steel self-ligating (SmartClip) without first premolar brackets. Stainless steel, nickel–titanium (NiTi), and beta-Ti which are the types of orthodontic wire alloys were tested in this study. To monitor the frictional force, a universal testing machine (Instron 33R 4467) that comprises 10 kg tension load cell was assigned on a range of 1 kg and determined from 0 to 2 kg, which allows moving of an archwire along the brackets. One-way analysis of variance was used to test the difference between groups. To analyze the statistical difference between the two groups, Student's t-test was used.

Results

For Victory Series in static friction, p-value was 0.946 and for kinetic friction it was 0.944; at the same time for SmartClip, the p value for static and kinetic frictional resistance was 0.497 and 0.518 respectively. Hence, there was no statistically significant difference between the NiTi and stainless steel archwires.

Conclusion

It is concluded that when compared with conventional brackets with stainless steel ligatures, self-ligating brackets can produce significantly less friction during sliding. Beta-Ti archwires expressed high amount of frictional resistance and the stainless steel archwires comprise low frictional resistance among all the archwire materials.

Clinical significance

In orthodontics, frictional resistance has always had a major role. Its ability to impair tooth movement leads to the need for higher forces to move the teeth and it extends the treatment time which results in loss of posterior anchorage. Friction in orthodontics is related with sliding mechanics when a wire is moving through one or a series of bracket slots.

How to cite this article

Sridharan K, Sandbhor S, Rajasekaran UB, Sam G, Ramees MM, Abraham EA. An in vitro Evaluation of Friction Characteristics of Conventional Stainless Steel and Selfligating Stainless Steel Brackets with different Dimensions of Archwires in Various Bracket–archwire Combination. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):660-664.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Megha Gupta, Jasjit Sahota, Aditya Bhatia, Vishal Singh, Juhi Soni, Richa Soni

Reliability of Orthopantomography and Cone-beam Computed Tomography in Presurgical Implant Planning: A Clinical Study

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:665 - 669]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2103  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Preoperative diagnosis and treatment planning are fundamental requirements to ensure success rate of implant. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides all three dimensions and has been proved as a tool for radiology, especially in the success of implant. This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability of orthopantomography (OPG) and CBCT in presurgical implant planning.

Materials and methods

The study was conducted on 110 partially or completely edentulous adult patients (male 50 and female 60). Patient information regarding name, age, gender, and so forth was recorded. Thorough clinical examination was done to locate the edentulous site for the placement of implant. All patients were subjected to OPG and CBCT.

The OPG was taken with digital panoramic unit (Planmeca) operating at 120 kVp, 2 mA, and exposure time of 17 seconds. The CBCT was taken using NewTom machine with field of view 11 × 8 cm and resolution of 0.3 × 0.3 × 0.3 mm operating at 120 kVp at 5 mA. NNT software with slice thickness of 0.1 mm was used in this study.

Measurement of bone height and distance from anatomical structures was done on OPG, whereas bone height and bone width were measured on CBCT scan in all three planes, such as coronal plane, sagittal plane, and axial plane. The measurement was done by two experienced observers.

Results

The present study comprised 110 patients (male 50 and female 60). About 102 (16.7%) implants were placed in anterior region, and 508 (83.3%) implants were placed in posterior region. Implant site was incisor region (55), canine (30), premolar (250), and molar (275). The difference was significant (p < 0.01). Variations are usually observed in presurgical planning with CBCT and OPG. The length and width of implant remained unchanged in 90 and 85% of the cases respectively. In 8% of cases, OPG revealed more length of implant than CBCT, whereas only in 2% cases CBCT revealed more length of implant than OPG. The difference was significant (p < 0.05). When we compared the diameter, OPG revealed more diameter in 10% of cases, whereas CBCT only revealed 5% of cases. The difference was significant (p < 0.05). Observer found CBCT as effective in 95% of cases and ineffective in only 5% of cases, whereas OPG was effective in 78% of cases and ineffective in 22% of cases. The different was significant (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

The CBCT being three-dimensional provides detailed information that two-dimensional radiographs cannot offer, which aids in precision to further improve the entire implant process.

Clinical significance

In recent times, implant has become the treatment of choice for edentulous patients. The CBCT has increased the success rate of implant due to its high resolution, ability to demonstrate anatomical structures more effectively than other radiographic diagnostic tools.

How to cite this article

Sahota J, Bhatia A, Gupta M, Singh V, Soni J, Soni R. Reliability of Orthopantomography and Conebeam Computed Tomography in Presurgical Implant Planning: A Clinical Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):665-669.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Naveen Gupta, Rajat R Khajuria, Rishav Singh, Pranamee Barua, Nausheen Hajira

Comparison of Film Thickness of Two Commercial Brands of Glass Ionomer Cement and One Dual-cured Composite: An in vitro Study

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:670 - 674]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2104  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The present study is undertaken to examine the film thickness of three most commonly used luting cements and to determine their usage as a luting agent.

Materials and methods

This study was carried out strictly according to the guidelines of American Dental Association (ADS) specification no. 8. Two glass slabs of 5 cm in length and 2 cm in width were used. One glass slab was kept over the other glass slab and the space between the two glass slabs was measured using metallurgical microscope at the power of 10×. Two brands of glass ionomer cement (GIC) and one dualcured resin cement were used in this study. The test cement is sandwiched between two glass slabs. A static load of 15 kg was applied using universal testing machine on the glass slabs for 1 hour and the space present between the two glass slabs was measured using metallurgical microscope at the power of 10×.

Results

Greatest film thickness was found in group III (Paracore) followed by group II (micron) and lowest in group I (GC luting and lining cement). All the tested samples can be used for luting purposes.

Conclusion

Greatest film thickness was observed in Paracore followed by micron and lowest in GC luting and lining cement. This suggests that the 25 to 27°C is ideal for mixing of the cement when used for luting consistency. The cement with film thickness more than 30 µm should never be used for luting purposes.

Clinical significance

The dentist should choose the luting cement with utmost care noting the film thickness and bond strength of the cement. The cement with low exothermic heat production and good bond strength should be encouraged.

How to cite this article

Khajuria RR, Singh R, Barua P, Hajira N, Gupta N, Thakkar RR. Comparison of Film Thickness of Two Commercial Brands of Glass Ionomer Cement and One Dualcured Composite: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):670-674.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vinny Bhasin, Swati J Pustake, Viprat Joshi, Anil Tiwari, Meenakshi Bhasin, Ramandeep S Punia

Assessment of Changes in Nickel and Chromium Levels in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:675 - 678]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2105  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Various components of appliances used in fixed orthodontic treatment are fabricated from materials that are highly resistant in nature and have high strength and biocompatibility. Corrosion of materials occurs inside the oral cavity due to numerous environmental or oral factors that act on them. These factors include temperature, pH variation, salivary conditions, mechanical loads, microbiological and enzymatic activity, and various food components. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is the material obtained from the gingival sulcus and might act as a potential source for various biomarkers in the orthodontic setup because inflammatory-induced response is directly related to orthodontic forces in GCF. In the light of above-mentioned data, we planned this study to assess and evaluate the changes occurring in nickel and chromium levels in the GCF during fixed orthodontic treatment.

Materials and methods

This study included assessment of 30 patients who underwent fixed orthodontic treatment. Three samples were taken from the GCF of the patients giving a total of 90 samples. The samples were collected at the following time intervals: At baseline (pretreatment time), 1 month after the start of orthodontic treatment, and at 6 months after the commencement of orthodontic treatment. Cellulose strips were used for isolation of the tooth region. For GCF collection, a standardized cellulose acetate absorbent strip was used. Placement of the strips was done in the sulcus for 60 seconds for the collection of the samples. Refrigeration of the specimen bottles was done for a minimum of 7 days and was then sent to a laboratory where specimens were transferred for atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software.

Results

At 1 month, the mean value of nickel and chromium in GCF was found to be 4.5 and 4.9 μg/gm of GCF respectively. While comparing the mean nickel levels between 1 and 6 months and between baseline and 6 months, significant results were obtained. Significant results were also obtained while comparing the mean values of chromium in GCF between baseline and 6 months and between 1 and 6 months. Gingival health index of the patients was found to be associated with increased inflammation with the progression of time of orthodontic treatment.

Conclusion

Levels of nickel and chromium might show considerable elevation in the GCF with time along with an increase in the severity of inflammation in the gingival health in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.

Clinical significance

Regular oral prophylaxis of the patients undergoing orthodontic treatment should be done to avoid toxicities caused by the release of nickel and chromium and for maintenance of good oral hygiene and oral health.

How to cite this article

Bhasin V, Pustake SJ, Joshi V, Tiwari A, Bhasin M, Punia RS. Assessment of Changes in Nickel and Chromium Levels in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):675-678.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Nitin Gautam, Aditi Sharma, Unjum Bashir, Sisir Rapolu, Nallamilli Mamatha, Siripurapu Sravani

Effect of Different Dentifrices on the Surface Roughness of Acrylic Resins: An in vitro Study

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:679 - 682]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2106  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study was undertaken to study the effect of three most commonly used dentifrices for denture cleaning and to find out any positive association between number of strokes by toothbrush and surface roughness of acrylic resin.

Materials and methods

About 40 acrylic rectangular blocks with high finish were polished until surface roughness was calculated as 0 µm. The materials tested were distilled water as a control group, Patanjali Dant Kanti, Colgate Total Cream, and Cleansodent as dentifrices. Stroking was done with dentifrices, and surface roughness readings were recorded at 1,000, 9,000, and 18,000 strokes.

Results

Patanjali Dant Kanti was found to have maximum abrasive potential followed by Colgate Total Cream, followed by Cleansodent and least by distilled water.

Conclusion

Surface roughness was found to be directly proportional to the type, size, and fineness of the abrasive component used; the professional denture cleanser (Cleansodent) has less abrasive potential than the regular toothpastes. Among those tested, the highest abrasive potential was found in Patanjali Dant Kanti and lowest by Cleansodent (denture cleanser).

Clinical significance

The patient as well as dentist should choose the dentifrice with utmost care noting the size and type of abrasives used. Washing the dentures normally with water without toothbrush daily and cleaning of dentures once in 10 to 15 days with a soft toothbrush and professional denture cleanser should be the line of maintenance of dentures.

How to cite this article

Gautam N, Sharma A, Bashir U, Rapolu S, Mamatha N, Sravani S. Effect of Different Dentifrices on the Surface Roughness of Acrylic Resins: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):679-682.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Deepak Mehta, Nishant Gupta, Rohit M Shetty, Adarsh N Bhat, Gopalakrishna Srivatsa, Ipsha Singh

Comparison between Color Spaces of Vita Lumin Shade Guide with Natural Teeth in Bengaluru Population using Spectrocolorimeter: An in vivo Study

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:683 - 687]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2107  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study is to compare the color space of Vita Lumin shade guide (SG) with the natural teeth of the local population.

Materials and methods

A total of 100 maxillary central incisors (100 patients) were subjected to color measurement with a spectrocolorimeter. For each tooth, L*, a*, b* values were recorded. All the shade tabs of Vita Lumin SG were analyzed with a spectrocolorimeter to define the color space covered by the Vita Lumin SG. The L*a*b* values of natural teeth were plotted on separate scattered diagrams and compared.

Results

About two out of three attributes (luminance and blue spectrum) of the local population of Bengaluru displayed a broader range than those available in Vita Lumin SG.

Conclusion

The local population requires an SG with an extended range, covering a higher luminance spectrum and broader blue spectrum.

Clinical significance

Esthetic restorations require accurate shade matching with the adjacent natural teeth, SGs being the mean of shade selection and communication should be comparable to the natural teeth.

How to cite this article

Shetty RM, Bhat AN, Gupta N, Mehta D, Srivatsa G, Singh I. Comparison between Color Spaces of Vita Lumin Shade Guide with Natural Teeth in Bengaluru Population using Spectrocolorimeter: An in vivo Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):683-687.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Soussan Irani, Forough Foroughi

Histologic Variants of Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst: A Study of 52 Cases

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:7] [Pages No:688 - 694]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2108  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study aimed at evaluating histological features of 52 cases of calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC), which is an uncommon benign odontogenic lesion. The World Health Organization (WHO) classified COC as a neoplasm and used the term calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) for benign cystic type and the dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) for the benign solid-type lesions. There is no agreement regarding COC classification.

Materials and methods

A total of 52 cases of COC were selected and reviewed from the archive of the Pathology Department of Taleghani Educational Hospital, Tehran, Iran. To better understand the pathogenesis of COC, the cases were classified.

Results

There were 52 cases (31 males and 21 females). The lesion was found in all age groups, and patients’ age from 8 to 61 years. Nineteen cases affected the maxilla, and 33 cases affected the mandible. Except two cases, all were intraosseous lesions. Radiographically, 30 cases showed a unilocular radiolucent area, and 22 cases showed a mixed radiolucent/ radiopaque region. Histopathologically, 43 cases were cystic type and 9 cases were neoplastic.

Conclusion

There are two different histopathological entities. In view of these findings, it is very difficult to determine every lesion that has a cystic architecture is truly cystic or is a neoplastic one in nature. It is believed that the solid variants may be neoplastic.

Clinical significance

A better understanding of the histological type of the lesion can provide a classification across patients. This can help in treatment planning to improve patient outcomes.

How to cite this article

Irani S, Foroughi F. Histologic Variants of Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst: A Study of 52 Cases. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):688-694.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

KSA Anzil, Arshad Mohammed, Archana A Thomas, Shann Paul, M Shahul, K Kasim

Tobacco Abuse and Associated Oral Lesions among Interstate Migrant Construction Workers

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:695 - 699]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2109  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral mucosal lesions among construction workers of Cochin, Kerala, India.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional study was carried at various construction sites of Cochin and 2,163 workers were selected using multistage sampling method and were interviewed and examined. Information regarding demographic details, form, type, frequency of tobacco use, earlier attempt to quit, and willingness to quit tobacco use was obtained using predesigned questionnaire. The oral health status was recorded on the World Health Organization oral health assessment form 1997, and the examination was carried out under natural light using mouth mirrors and probe. Data thus collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) statistical software package. Chisquare test was applied.

Results

Among the 2,163 workers, 1,952 were tobacco users and 211 were nonusers. Among the users, 1,021 use smokeless form, 372 use smoked form, and 559 use both. Premalignant lesions/conditions were more commonly seen with tobacco habit, with leukoplakia (14.75%) being the most common followed by oral submucous fibrosis in 201 (9.3%), candidiasis in 123 (5.7%), ulceration in 131 (6.05%), abscess in 59 (2.73%), smokers palate in 58 (2.68%), lichen planus in 21 (0.97%), and malignant tumor in 2 (0.1%).

Conclusion

Commonness of abusive habits and oral premalignant lesions or conditions was considerable among the workers. Control and early diagnosis through workplace screening are the major backbones for the control of oral cancer.

Clinical significance

Building workers are unprotected from various health hazards at workplace. Lack of access to health services makes the situation unsatisfactory. Poor literacy and low socioeconomic status have resulted in practice of tobacco, smoking, and chewing in the majority of them. Hence, it is our responsibility to find and guide them with a proper oral health education.

How to cite this article

Ali AKS, Mohammed A, Thomas AA, Paul S, Shahul M, Kasim K. Tobacco Abuse and Associated Oral Lesions among Interstate Migrant Construction Workers. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):695-699.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

T Shankar, Snigdha Gowd, Suravi Chatterjee, Pritam Mohanty, Nivedita Sahoo, Srinivas Baratam

Gingival Zenith Positions and Levels of Maxillary Anterior Dentition in Cases of Bimaxillary Protrusion: A Morphometric Analysis

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:700 - 704]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2110  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To investigate the two clinical parameters, such as gingival zenith positions (GZPs) and gingival zenith levels (GZLs), of maxillary anterior dentition in bimaxillary protrusion cases and collate it with severiety of crown inclination.

Materials and methods

Gingival zenith position and GZL in 40 healthy patients (29 females and 11 males) with an average age of 21.5 years were assessed. Inclusion criteria involved absence of periodontal diseases, Angle's class I molar relationship, and upper anterior proclination within 25 to 45° based on Steiner's analysis; exclusion criteria included spacing, crowding, anterior restoration and teeth with incisor attrition or rotation.

The GZP was evaluated using digital calipers from voxelbased morphometry (VBM), and GZL was assessed from the tangent drawn from GZP of central incisor and canines to the linear vertical distance of GZP of lateral incisor.

Results

All the central incisors showed a GZP distal to VBM with a mean average of 1 mm. Severe proclination between 40 and 45° showed a statistically significant variation. Lateral incisors displayed a mean of 0.5 mm deviation of GZP from the vertically bisected midline. In 80% of canine population, GZP was centralized.

Conclusion

We conclude that the degree of proclination of maxillary anterior dentition was correlated to the gingival contour in bimaxillary cases. The investigation revealed that there is a variation in the location of GZP as the severity of proclination increases.

Clinical significance

This study highlights the importance of microesthetics in fixed orthodontic treatment. The gingival contour should be unaltered while retraction during management of bimaxillary protrusion.

How to cite this article

Gowd S, Shankar T, Chatterjee S, Mohanty P, Sahoo N, Baratam S. Gingival Zenith Positions and Levels of Maxillary Anterior Dentition in Cases of Bimaxillary Protrusion: A Morphometric Analysis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):700-704.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mehmet Oztel, Wojciech M Bilski, Arthur Bilski

Risk Factors associated with Dental Implant Failure: A Study of 302 Implants placed in a Regional Center

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:705 - 709]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2111  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this research is to determine which risk factors are associated with dental implant failure and survival.

Materials and methods

Data pertaining to patients who received one or more dental implants from 2011 to 2013 in a regional center were retrospectively reviewed. This included a total of 302 Biomet 3i NanoTite Tapered Certain implants placed in 177 patients. All patients were followed up until the end of 2015.

Results

This study found an overall success rate of 95%. Statistically significant factors that were found to affect implant survival were implant length, surgical technique, and presence of diabetes mellitus DM. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), implant site, smoking, and variable operators were not found to have any significant implant on implant survival.

Conclusion

This study has demonstrated that the incidence of implant failure and its complications is affected by a number of important factors that clinicians should consider when assessing patients. A follow-up study with a larger sample size, longer follow-up period, and details of the type of prosthetic rehabilitation would be beneficial in producing more definitive conclusions which may improve clinical practice.

Clinical significance

Dental implants play an important role in modern-day dental rehabilitation. It is vital that clinicians understand the impact of variable risk factors on implant survival. This study will add to the growing literature on the subject.

How to cite this article

Oztel M, Bilski WM, Bilski A. Risk Factors associated with Dental Implant Failure: A Study of 302 Implants placed in a Regional Center. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):705-709.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sukhpreet Mangat, Rakesh Thukral, Anvesha Ganguly, Harleen Bali, Shekhar Grover

Pentraxin-3 Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid during Canine Retraction with Nickel–Titanium Coil Spring and Active Tieback

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:710 - 713]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2112  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Orthodontic treatment is routinely carried out in patients with the purpose of correcting various forms of dental malocclusions. Retraction of the canines can be achieved either individually or along with incisor. Pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) is regarded as the true independent indicator of disease activity. Hence, we undertook the present study to assess and compare the level of PTX-3 in patients undergoing canine retraction with active tieback and Nickel–Titanium (NiTi) coil spring.

Materials and methods

The present study included assessment of 25 patients that underwent canine retraction as a part of fixed orthodontic treatment. In the maxillary right and left quadrant, active tieback and NiTi coil spring were used respectively. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected 1 hour prior to the commencement of orthodontic canine retraction procedure followed by collection at following time intervals: 1 hour, 1, 7, and 14 days after the start of canine retraction procedure. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used for analysis of the samples as per manufacturer's instructions. All the data were recorded and compiled. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software.

Results

Nonsignificant difference was observed in the values of PTX-3 at baseline and 1 hour. While comparing the mean PTX-3 values between different time intervals in both the study groups, significant difference was observed.

Conclusion

In comparison to the active tieback, NiTi coil exhibited faster space closure rate.

Clinical significance

In patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, PTX-3 is associated with periodontal remodeling under the effect of orthodontic forces.

How to cite this article

Thukral R, Mangat S, Ganguly A, Agarkar SS, Bali H, Grover S. Pentraxin-3 Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid during Canine Retraction with Nickel–Titanium Coil Spring and Active Tieback. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18(8):710-713.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sudhanshu Saxena, Snigdha Gowd, Thatapudi Shankar, Vinay Suresan, Sneha Mantri, Prateek Mishra, Pragya Panday

Denture Hygiene Knowledge and Practices among Complete Denture Wearers attending a Postgraduate Dental Institute

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:8] [Pages No:714 - 721]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2113  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims

The aim of this study was to assess the denture hygiene knowledge and practices among patients using complete dentures attending a postgraduate dental hospital in Jabalpur city. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between hygiene knowledge and practices to the denture wearer's gender, education, and income.

Materials and methods

A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving the complete denture patients attending the Department of Prosthodontics. The study subjects were randomly selected by recruiting old dentures wearers visiting the Department of Prosthodontics for a recall visit or for new dentures on the odd dates of the month. All subjects signed an informed consent before filling the questionnaire. The institutional review committee approved the study. Descriptive statistics included computation of frequencies and percentages. Nonparametric test, namely, chi-square test, was used for further data analysis; p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

A total of 530 individuals were approached for participation in our survey, 30 (5.66%) subjects declined to participate. The results showed that 195 (39%) subjects were wearing the same dentures for more than 5 years. In this study, 51 (10.2%) subjects reported never having been advised by their dentists as to how to clean their dentures. Among all the subjects interviewed, 264 (52.8%) reported to clean the oral tissues daily. This study disclosed that 66 (13.2%) of the subjects usually slept with their dentures. Maximum subjects in illiterate group had experienced bad breath sometimes when compared with subjects in postgraduate group (χ2 = 47.452, p < 0.001). There was a significant difference for method of denture cleaning according to gender (χ2 = 101.076, p < 0.001).

Conclusion

The majority of the denture wearers have limited knowledge of denture cleansing and oral hygiene practices. Hygiene habits and practices may not always present a positive correlation with the gender, educational level, and income of the subjects.

Clinical significance

Periodic recall for evaluation of denture and mucosal surfaces along with reinforcement of denture hygiene instructions will go a long way in helping the patients reap maximum benefits out of their prostheses.

How to cite this article

Shankar T, Gowd S, Suresan V, Mantri S, Saxena S, Mishra P, Panday P. Denture Hygiene Knowledge and Practices among Complete Denture Wearers attending a Postgraduate Dental Institute. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):714-721.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Pavan G Kulkarni, Pavan Palakurthy, Rateesh K Nandan, T Madhusudan Rao, D Shyam P Reddy, Keerthi Muddana

Cytological Changes in Normal Oral Mucosa of Individuals with Tobacco Habits: A Cytomorphometric Study

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:6] [Pages No:722 - 727]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2114  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Oral cancer is one of the six most common cancers in the world, and globally more than 50% of head and neck cancers occur in Asia, remarkably in India. Overall, 200,000 cases of head and neck cancers occur each year in India, among which 80,000 are oral cancers. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a causative role of tobacco use in the evolution of oral potentially malignant and malignant disorders.

Aims and objectives

The aim of the study is to evaluate independently and compare the cytological effects of smoking, tobacco chewing, and smoking in conjunction with tobacco chewing on oral mucosa by cytomorphometric analysis.

Materials and methods

The study included a total of 120 individuals subdivided into four groups, each group with 30 individuals. Group I was tobacco smokers, group II tobacco chewers, and group III both tobacco smokers and chewers. Group IV comprised 30 individuals without tobacco habit. Smears were prepared from buccal mucosa of both the study and control groups using a cytobrush and stained using Papanicolaou staining. The cells were quantified using image analysis software.

Results

The results of the study showed alterations in the nuclear and cellular parameters in the study groups when compared with control groups and were statistically significant (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

The present study explains the significance of early identification of cellular changes in individuals with tobacco habits who require early intercession even without any visible oral mucosal changes. The study emphasizes that exfoliative cytology and cytomorphometry aid as a valuable tool to evaluate the effect of tobacco on oral mucosa.

Clinical significance

Simple noninvasive techniques like exfoliative cytology can be employed as a chairside technique and in mass screening programs for identification of cellular changes in oral mucosa of individuals with tobacco habits. Thereby, it can be used as an early diagnostic tool for identification of potentially cancerous and cancerous lesions.

How to cite this article

Palakurthy P, Kulkarni PG, Nandan RK, Rao TM, Reddy DSP, Muddana K. Cytological Changes in Normal Oral Mucosa of Individuals with Tobacco Habits: A Cytomorphometric Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18(8):722-727.

CASE REPORT

Vivek Gurjar, Minal Gurjar, Channaveer Pattanshetti, Banashree Sankeshwari

Lingual Frenectomy in Joubert Syndrome

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:728 - 731]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2115  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

Our aim is to present a case of a rare disorder, such as Joubert syndrome (JS) which required oral surgical intervention under general anesthesia at a very young age to help in achieving normal developmental milestones.

Background

Ciliopathies are an emerging class of diseases of which JS is a significant member. There have been very few cases of JS with its distinguishing features which have been reported in recent literature.

Case report

We herewith present a case of JS who reported to our unit with a complaint of speech abnormality. Intraoral examination revealed a tongue-tie which was planned for surgical release. As any drugs that interfere with respiratory depression have to be used with utmost care, adequate precautions were taken in this case and the patient was treated under general anesthesia. The tongue-tie was released and associated hamartomatous outgrowths from the floor of the mouth were also excised. Appropriate postoperative care was taken and the patient was discharged.

Conclusion

The patient treated by us did not reveal any significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. Treatment of cases of JS required a team effort of multiple dental and medical specialists. Long-term follow-up of such patients is required so that they achieve normal chronological development.

Clinical significance

Joubert syndrome being a rare disorder requires special anesthetic care during any surgical procedure, especially that involving the oral cavity. The need and timing of surgical intervention in such cases should be carefully assessed and appropriate precautions should be taken.

How to cite this article

Gurjar V, Gurjar M, Pattanshetti C, Sankeshwari B. Lingual Frenectomy in Joubert Syndrome. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):728-731.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Abdulfatah Alazmah

Early Childhood Caries: A Review

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:6] [Pages No:732 - 737]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2116  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To review and update the current knowledge about early childhood caries (ECC) and its etiology, prevalence, risk factors, management, and preventive strategies.

Background

Early childhood caries is a disease affecting significantly both well-developed and industrial nations. The ECC can significantly affect the child's quality of life, as it may lead to infection, swelling, pain, and other symptoms. The ECC affects children after eruption of primary teeth until age of around 5 years.

Review results

The ECC affects all parts of the tooth including the smooth surface. Upper anterior teeth and primary molars are usually affected. The lower anterior teeth are less likely affected. The risk factors for ECC are diet, bacteria, and host susceptibility. The additional factors, such as presence of enamel defect and the feeding practices also contribute to the initiation and progress of ECC.

Conclusion

Dentists must focus on utilizing existing techniques to distinguish indications of right on time and propelled caries and give guidance on the best way to counteract and control caries in children. Approaches should be directed to preventive caries control strategies among children.

Clinical significance

Preventing and controlling the development of ECC among children is important to maintain effective eating, speech development, and formation of a positive self-image.

How to cite this article

Alazmah A. Early Childhood Caries: A Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):732-737.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Amit V Mahuli, Simpy A Mahuli

Institutional Ethics Committee Regulations and Current Updates in India

[Year:2017] [Month:August] [Volume:18] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:738 - 741]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2117  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

The aim of the review is to provide current updates on regulations for ethics committees and researchers in India.

Background

Ethical dilemmas in research since time immemorial have been a major concern for researchers worldwide. The question “what makes clinical research ethical” is significant and difficult to answer as multiple factors are involved.

Review results

The research involving human participants in clinical trials should follow the required rules, regulations, and guidelines in one's own country. It is a dynamic process, and updates have to be learned by researcher and committee members. The review highlights the ethical regulation from the Drug Controller General of India, Clinical Trial Registry of India, and Indian Council of Medical Research guidelines.

Conclusion

In this article, the updates on Indian scenario of the Ethical Committee and guidelines are compiled.

Clinical significance

The review comes handy for clinical researchers and ethics committee members in academic institutions to check on the current updates and keep abreast with the knowledge on regulations of ethics in India.

How to cite this article

Mahuli AV, Mahuli SA, Patil S, Bhandi S. Institutional Ethics Committee Regulations and Current Updates in India. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(8):738-741.

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.