The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2018 | January | Volume 19 | Issue 1

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Shankargouda Patil, T Srinivasa Prasad

Three-dimensional Printing in Reconstructive Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1 - 2]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2203  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Vanderlei S Bagnato, Mateus R Tonetto, Álvaro Borges, Maciel E da Silva Junior, Marcelo F de Andrade, Rosane de FZ Lizarelli, Flavio Simaes

Effect of the Curing Temperature of Dental Composites evaluated with a Fluorescent Dye

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:10] [Pages No:3 - 12]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2204  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: With the development of the light-emitting diode (LED) to photo-activate composite resin, greater intensities could be reached without greater elevation of temperature in the mass of the composite resin and in the dental structure arisen from the irradiance in comparison to halogen equipments. This new scenario created a necessity to investigate the influence of temperature over the composite polymerization. Materials and methods: Several curing temperatures (Tcure— 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100°C) were used to polymerize a composite resin (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) for 40 and 60 s, using the halogen equipment Gnatus Optilight Digital (halogen) and two LEDs that use a new technology to assembly the diodes: LEC 1000 and bright LEC (MM Optics) (LED 1 and LED 2 respectively). The influence of curing temperature, added by the other variables studied, was evaluated using a methodology developed and improved at IFSC/USP, in which the penetration of a fluorescent dye in the body of the photopolymerized composite resin was quantified using fluorescence spectroscopy. Results: According to the final data submitted to an analysis of variance, the presence of two groups of results could be verified: Between 0 and 25°C, both had a great percentage of the dye penetration compared with other Tcure with a variation in penetration from 69.26 ± 8.19% to 90.99 ± 3.38%. In this analysis, the effects of time and temperature were highly notable (p < 0.05) and the lesser value of dye penetration took place at 60 s of photoactivation This penetration was, in average, smaller with the Tcure of 25°C. The results showed that there was an interaction between the equipment and time and between time and temperature; the other group is regarding the Tcure was from 50, 75, and 100°C, despite the p = 0.05, the effect of temperature was notable. The penetration of the dye ranged from 8.87 ± 3.55 to 39.47 ± 8.9%. The effects of equipment and time were highly notable. The penetration with the time of 60 s was in average smaller. Except with the equipment LED 1, the percentages of the dye penetration were greater with the Tcure of 100°C. The smallest average was the Tcure of 50°C and 60 s of photoactivation. Conclusion: Based on the available data regarding the influence of curing temperature on the polymerization process of composite resins, was possible to concluded that small increments of heat increased the degree of conversion. We can assume that the energy supply through the generation of heat by the photopolymerizing devices can function as a heating medium for the reagent system by reducing its viscosity and increasing the mobility and agitation of its components. Clinical significance: The dentist must be aware of the effects that exist between the activation devices on the light output and their heat transmission to the composite and the tooth itself. This heat transmission might create a polymer with better characteristics.



Ali Alrahlah

Diametral Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength, and Surface Microhardness of Bioactive Bulk Fill Restorative

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:13 - 19]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2205  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim was to perform comparative analysis of bioactive, contemporary bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBCs) and conventional glass-ionomer materials for flexural strength (FS), diametral tensile strength (DTS), and Vickers hardness number (VHN) in the presence of thermocycling. Materials and methods: Five restorative materials [Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill; smart dentin replacement (SDR) Flowable Material; Bioactive restorative material (ACTIVA Bulk Fill); Ketac Universal Aplicap; and GC Fuji II] were evaluated for DTS, FS, and VHN. Half the samples in each material group were thermocycled. The DTS was performed under compressive load at a cross-head speed of 1.0 mm/min. The FS was assessed by three-point bending test at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The VHN was determined using a Vickers diamond indenter at 50 gf load for 15 seconds. Differences in FS, DTS, and VHN were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc tests at α = 0.05 level of significance. Results: N-Ceram, ACTIVA, and SDR demonstrated the highest and comparable (p > 0.05) FS. The SDR had the highest DTS value (141.28 ± 0.94), followed by N-Ceram (136.61 ± 1.56) and ACTIVA (129.05 ± 1.78). Ketac had the highest VHN value before and after thermocycling. Conclusion: ACTIVA showed mechanical properties (FS and DTS) comparable with bulk-fill resin composite materials. ACTIVA showed potential for durability, as VHN was comparable post-thermocycling. Clinical significance: Bioactive materials showed acceptable DTS and FS values. However, hardness was compromised compared with included materials. ACTIVA Bulk Fill shows potential for dentin replacement but it needs to be covered with a surface-resistant restorative material. Further studies to improve surface characteristics of ACTIVA Bulk Fill are recommended.



Rishabh Gupta, Gowdara Shivaprakash, Mala R Manohar, Sonali Sonali

Study Model-based Evaluation of Built-in Tip, Torque, and In–out Characteristics of a Third-generation Preadjusted Edgewise Appliance

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:10] [Pages No:20 - 29]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2206  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of MBT™ preadjusted edgewise appliance (PEA) in terms of achieving the optimal expression of its built-in characteristics of tip, torque, and in–out. Materials and methods: Pretreatment and posttreatment study models of 20 subjects who received full fixed appliance treatment involving four first premolar extractions using the MBT™ appliance were measured for tip, torque, and in–out using the method described by Andrews. Treatment changes were analyzed statistically, and the posttreatment measurements were compared with the MBT™ specifications as well as Andrews’ values for the above-mentioned parameters. Results: Except for the maxillary canines and second premolars, the built-in tip of MBT™ appliance was nearly fully expressed, though there was some lack of correlation with Andrews’ values. Despite the fact that the full amount of torque built into the MBT™ appliance was not expressed, torque measurements for all teeth except the maxillary second premolars and the first molars showed either no statistically significant difference or were significantly higher than Andrews’ values for these teeth. In–out readings were lower than both MBT™ and Andrews’ values, but the relative order of crown prominences was similar. Conclusion and clinical significance: The MBT™ appliance is thus effective in ensuring a successful treatment result, though individual adjustments may be necessary for optimal tooth positioning at the end of the treatment, as with any preadjusted appliance.



Andreany M Cavalli, Flavia M Florio

Children’s Menu Diversity: Influence on Fluoride Absorption and Excretion

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:30 - 36]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2207  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the influence of children’s menu diversity on the absorption and excretion of fluoride. Materials and methods: The experimental, longitudinal, quantitative study was carried out in a city without fluoridation in water supply. A total of 16 adult volunteers (>63.9 kg) participated in the study who, after a 12-hour fast, ingested two types of children’s meals, whose quantity and diversity were determined after weighing the meals best consumed by children at a kindergarten in Campinas, São Paulo: Simple child meal (SCM; n = 8) and hearty child meal (HCM; n = 8). The fluoride gel residual after professional application (12,300 ppm, 30.75 mg F, pH = 4.65) was simulated 15 minutes after feeding. Saliva samples (in time intervals of 0, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 hours after ingestion of the fluorine solution) and urine of the volunteers were analyzed at 24 hours. Fluoride concentrations were determined using a selective ion electrode. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance for repeated measurements (PROC MIXED)/Tukey–Kramer. Results: The concentrations of fluoride in saliva at 0 and 15 minutes and after 6 hours were the same between groups (p > 0.05). From 30 minutes to 4 hours after ingestion, the SCM group showed a higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva, which has a higher absorption (p < 0.05). The fluoride concentration in the urine did not differ between groups at both collection times (p > 0.05), and for both, the fluoride concentration in the urine increased in the final measurement (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The children’s menu diversity influenced the absorption of fluoride so that the topical application of fluoride should be performed in infants fed preferably after the fuller diet and following the established guidelines to ensure the safety of the procedure. Clinical significance: Knowledge of the influence of the children’s menu diversity on fluoride metabolism after professional application is important so that the actions of fluoride therapy may be planned in a safer manner and be based on the reality of the universe of children.



Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez, Isabella A Gomes, Hevylla GGS Mendes, Etevaldo M Maia Filho, Claudia de C Rizzi, Mario G Nina, Cecilia P Turssi, Ana JC Vasconcelos

Effect of Dental Prophylaxis Techniques on the Surface Roughness of Resin Composites

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:37 - 41]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2208  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of dental prophylaxis techniques on surface roughness of composite resins. Materials and methods: A total of 36 nanohybrid resin composite test specimens were fabricated and divided into three groups (n = 12). They were kept in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and submitted to the finishing and polishing technique. For the prophylactic techniques, in group G1, a mixture of pumice stone and distilled water was used with the aid of a rubber cup; in group G2, Herjos-F prophy paste was used with a rubber cup; and in group G3, a bicarbonate jet spray was used. Afterward, all the samples were repolished using the Soflex pop-on disks. A roughness meter was used to measure surface roughness at three points in time: Before the prophylactic techniques (1st evaluation), afterward (2nd evaluation), and following repeat polishing (3rd evaluation). Results: It was found that roughness values changed significantly between the 1st and 2nd evaluations (p < 0.05) and between the 2nd and 3rd evaluations (p < 0.05), showing that the change in roughness depended on the type of prophylactic treatment. Roughness was significantly higher after the bicarbonate jet (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Prophylaxis using the sodium bicarbonate jet significantly altered the roughness of nanoparticle-reinforced resin. Clinical significance: Dental prophylaxis is the most common practice employed to remove bacterial plaque and other coatings. However, one side effect of the cleaning may be a rougher surface subject to degradation and staining. The correct use of prophylactic devices and avoiding prolonged use on resin restorations reduce surface roughness.



Sameer Ahsan, Shrikanth Muralidharan, Arun Kumar Acharya, Shanthi Margabandhu, Sufiyan Kalekhan

Prevalence of Periodontitis and Soft Tissue Lesions among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:42 - 46]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2209  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: In countries where human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is widespread and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) medications are too expensive, or patients are failing HAART, oral disease management and risk remain an important issue. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and periodontitis among the HIV-positive adult patients and assess the association of these lesions with age, sex, duration of HIV, time on ART, dietary habits, and oral hygiene habits. Materials and methods: Sample size was 170. Demographic data of the patients along with community periodontal index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LA) were recorded. Oral soft tissue lesions, such as ulcerations, sores, erosions, and fissures were also recorded. The study was carried out in Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India. Convenience sampling design was followed. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 (Chicago, USA) was used for data analysis. Chi-square test was carried out; p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was no association between the oral mucosal conditions and the age and the adverse habits, such as tobacco and alcohol, CD4 count, and the time duration of HIV and ART among these patients. A higher percentage of people with 4 to 5 mm of pockets was seen with those who cleaned their teeth with a finger, which was statistically significant. Clinical significance: The present study highlights the poor condition of the oral health of these patients and their unmet dental needs.



Bahman Derakhshan, Farhad Hajizadeh, Zahra Abbasi

Effect of Topical Honey on Mandibular Bone Defect Healing in Rats

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:47 - 51]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2210  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


pharmacological effects, from wound dressing to anticancerogenic and from anti-inflammatory to antibacterial activities. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of honey on healing of mandibular bone defects in a rat model. Materials and methods: This animal study was performed on 24 wild-type Wistar rats. Following shaving, disinfection, and extraoral incision, a 2 × 2 mm defect was created at mandibular angle. In the experimental group, the defect was filled with sterile honey, while it was left unfilled in the control group. The rats were sacrificed after 2 and 4 weeks and defects were assessed histologically. The results were compared using Mann–Whitney U-test (α = 0.05). Results: After 2 weeks, five samples of the experimental group were in mineralization phase, while all samples of the control group were in the vascularization phase (p = 0.015). After 4 weeks, the defects were filled in four samples of the experimental group, while all samples of the control group were in the mineralization stage (p = 0.002). Histomorphometric assessment revealed that the mean new bone formation in the experimental group was significantly more than the control group, both after 2 and 4 weeks (p = 0.041). Conclusion: The results showed that honey could accentuate bone healing of mandibular small defects in rats. Clinical significance: Honey might have potential in repair of human alveolar bone defects.



Anand K Vallabhdas, Pradeep Kabbinale, Rajaram Nayak, Manju Rajakumari, Thulasidharan Shilpa

Evaluation of Hybrid Layer and Bonding Interface after Water Storage with and without the Usage of 2% Chlorhexidine: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:52 - 59]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2211  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Restorative dentists employ different bonding systems between the resin and the dentin and other dentinal tissues to achieve the goal of micromechanical retention. Studies have shown that the bond between composite and dentin degrades over time because of the action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) on collagen fibrils left unprotected by acid etching. The MMPs may be partially responsible for hybrid layer degradation. Since chlorhexidine (CHX) inhibits MMPs, we hypothesized that CHX would decelerate the loss of resin–dentin bonds. Hence, this in vitro study is intended to evaluate the effects of 2% CHX on hybrid layer and bonding interface. Materials and methods: Totally, 40 freshly extracted molars were randomly divided into four experimental groups. In all 40 specimens, class II cavities were prepared to a depth of 1 mm below the dentinoenamel junction with no axial wall, but the elimination of the proximal enamel ridge. The teeth were then randomly divided into four experimental groups, i.e., All Bond 2 without 2% CHX (group I), All Bond 2 with 2% CHX (group II), One Coat 7.0 without 2% CHX (group III), and One Coat 7.0 with 2% CHX (group IV). All the specimens were derooted and sectioned mesiodistally into two halves and placed under water at 37°C for 3 months and observed under scanning electron microscope for the hybrid layer and resin tag formation. Results: Groups I and II showed statistically significant difference when the presence/absence of resin tags was compared. When groups III and IV were compared for the presence/absence of hybrid layer and resin tags, the results were statistically significant. Conclusion: Between all the four experimental groups, irrespective of the bonding systems used, we concluded that groups with 2% CHX usage showed promising results with presence/ absence of hybrid layer and resin tags formation. Clinical significance: Studies suggest that the bond between composite and dentin degrades over time because of the action of MMPs on collagen fibrils left unprotected by acid etching. Measures should be taken to prevent this from happening and thus allow bond between composite and dentin last longer.



Maryam Kuzekanani, Jahangir Haghani, Laurence J Walsh, Mohammad AM Estabragh

Pulp Stones, Prevalence and Distribution in an Iranian Population

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:60 - 65]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2212  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study determined the prevalence and distribution of pulp stones in the permanent dentition of an adult population using their periapical radiographs. Materials and methods: The study followed a cross-sectional design. A total of 800 periapical radiographs collected from 412 patients attending dental clinics in Kerman, Islamic Republic of Iran, were examined using magnification. Results: Pulp stones were present in 9.6% of all permanent teeth examined, being most common in maxillary first and second molars, followed by mandibular first and second molars. They were present in 31.5% of all adult patients, with a significantly increased prevalence in females compared with males (40.5 vs 23.9%, chi-squared test p < 0.001). There was also an increased prevalence with age. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, clinicians should expect to encounter pulp stones most commonly in the pulp chambers of maxillary first and second molars, particularly in older female patients. Clinical significance: Pulp stones depending on their size and location can pose challenges to endodontic treatment. They obstruct access to the canal orifices and thus complicate endodontic treatment. Knowing where and when pulp stones are likely to occur improves the quality of root canal treatments. Keywords: Calcification, Endodontics, Prevalence, Pulp stones.



Khurshid A Mattoo, Esam Halboub, Abdullah A Meshni, Saleh MH Alharisi, Ali E Shatifi, Saeed A Al Amriee, Nabiel AL Ghazali

Radiographic Evaluation of Post–core Restorations fabricated by Dental Students at Jazan University

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:66 - 72]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2213  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Post and core procedures are important clinical methods in routine dental practice. The present research aimed to radiographically assess the quality of post seating performed by undergraduate students at the College of Dentistry, Jazan University. Materials and methods: A total of 343 periapical X-rays of cemented posts (170 from males and 173 from females) were assessed. The assessment covered tooth type, arch, gender, type of post, length of post in relation to the crown and root lengths, the presence of any abnormality in post space, status of the remaining gutta-percha (GP), and the presence or absence of spaces between the end of post and GP. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program (version 21), and associations between variables were determined using chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests. Results: Maxillary teeth were the most frequently restored with posts, and the majority (41%) comprised incisors. Similarly, glass fiber post (69%) and taper-shaped posts (86%) were the most used posts. The majority of posts (81.6%) featured a width one-thirds that of the root. Lengths of posts were twice (58%) or equal to (51%) crown and root length respectively. More than 55% of cases presented 3 to 5 mm of GP at their apical portion, and 29% reached more than 5 mm. Approximately 5 to 8% of assessed cases revealed widening of periodontal ligaments,presence of periapical pathologies, and deviation of posts from the canal wall. Most cases (75%) showed the absence of space between GP and the post end. Conclusion: Qualities of assessed post and core restorations conducted by the 6th year dental students were clinically acceptable. Clinical significance: Periodic evaluation to determine the quality of delivered treatments is a vital cue for health service authorities. This evaluation will improve quality of services and treatments provided by dental students to their patients under the supervision of the faculty. Results obtained will also provide authorities with a clear feedback about academic infrastructure.



Mohammed Nahidh, Noor MH Garma, Esraa S Jasim

Assessment of Ions released from Three Types of Orthodontic Brackets immersed in Different Mouthwashes: An in vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:73 - 80]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2214  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Herbs are used widely in medicine. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ion release from gold-plated orthodontic bracket compared with other stainless steel brackets, and based on the findings of the study, the orthodontists can choose the most biocompatible brackets and mouthwashes useful in the clinical practice. Materials and methods: A total of 150 orthodontic brackets from Orthotechnology™ Company, USA (50 stainless steel one-piece brackets, 50 stainless steel two-piece brackets, and 50 gold brackets) were immersed in four mouthwashes in addition to distilled water. Ten of each type of brackets in every media were immersed under 37°C for 45 days. Ions released in these mouthwashes were measured, and comparisons among different bracket types and among various mouthwashes were done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and then with Games–Howell tests. Results: Increased amounts of ions released in herbal mouthwashes were recorded in gold and two-piece brackets in comparison with one-piece stainless steel brackets. Conclusion: Herbal mouthwashes must be used with caution as they showed an increased amount of ions released in comparison with chlorhexidine. One-piece stainless steel bracket system is the most compatible bracket type, as they released the least amount of ions. Clinical significance: One-piece stainless steel brackets are better than two-piece brackets in terms of ions released.



A Rabi, Rahul Maheshwari, Bhuvaneshwari Srinivasan, Lata P Warad, CC Suvarna, Kartik S Tank

Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Therapy after Extraction of Impacted Mandibular Third Molar: A Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:81 - 85]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2215  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy following extraction of an impacted mandibular third molar. Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on a total of 60 patients who were randomly assigned into three groups: Group I individuals were given 625 mg of combined amoxicillin and clavulanic acid tablet; 625 mg of combined amoxicillin and clavulanic acid tablet + 400 mg metronidazole tablet was given to group II individuals; whereas group III individuals were assigned no treatment. All the individuals underwent surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars under strict aseptic techniques, with minimal trauma to the surrounding tissues. Mouth opening in millimeters was recorded postoperatively using Vernier calipers on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th days. A 4-point visual analog scale (VAS) was used for assessing postoperative pain. Patient satisfaction was further assessed in a subjective manner using a graded scale from “very satisfied” to “very unsatisfied”. Results: The present study included individuals between the ages of 20 and 35 years. Group II individuals showed slightly better satisfaction than the other group individuals. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean age of groups. It was observed that on day 3, the number of individuals with severe pain was slightly reduced in the group I compared with group III individuals. On day 5, participants with no pain were significantly more in group II followed by group I. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference between the study groups with respect to mouth opening on days 3 and 5. Conclusion: It was concluded from this trial that the administration of postoperative antimicrobials showed no significant differences in the degree of postoperative complications that occur following the surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars. Clinical significance: Antimicrobial drugs are routinely used to reduce the chances of surgical site infection, either preoperatively or postoperatively. Therefore, the clinicians should have sound knowledge about choosing the better antimicrobial drug after the extraction of impacted third molars.



Muteb S Alshammari, Ahad S Alshammari, Ammar A Siddiqui, Asaad J Mirza, Rashid I Mian

Patients’ Knowledge and Perceived Barriers toward Replacement of Missing Teeth among Respondents of Hail City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:86 - 90]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2216  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Teeth maintain the functionality and esthetic of oral cavity, they are also important for psychological and social well-being. This study aims to assess awareness of patients toward replacement of missing teeth. People with unrestored or missing teeth tend to have poor self-esteem and oral health-related quality of life; hence, their knowledge toward restoring and replacing teeth is an important aspect to be measured. Materials and methods: It was an observational study having a cross-sectional design. Face- and content-validated questionnaire was used as study tool. Nonprobability, convenient sampling technique was employed that yielded information from 183 respondents residing in various areas of Hail city. Data were collected after written informed consent. The study was approved by the University of Hail ethical committee. Results: Two hundred questionnaires were distributed, out of which 183 were returned. Regarding knowledge of restoring missing teeth, 145 (79.2%) respondents know that function and esthetic can be maintained by replacing missing teeth. Information about the availability of various types of prosthesis was mostly obtained by them through their dentist (70; 48.3%), while books/magazines/Internet was the second source (38; 26.2%) and 37 (25.5%) heard it from someone who has already undergone the replacement of teeth. Conclusion: The present study indicated that a good number of respondents have the knowledge of teeth replacement, and dentists were the most common source of information to the patients in terms of education about different treatment options. Clinical significance: Evaluate and plan treatment options based on patients’ expectations and perceptions.



Atul Bhardwaj, Baburajan Kandasamy, Navleen Kaur, Gulshan K Tomar, Litto Manual, Meghna Chauhan

Long-term Retrospective Study based on Implant Success Rate in Patients with Risk Factor: 15-year Follow-up

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:90 - 93]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2217  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The purpose of this retrospective study is to assess implant success rates with various risk factors. Materials and methods: Two hundred patients with a total of 650 implants were selected. Risk factors, such as smoking, antidepressants, bruxism, diabetes, and bone augmentation procedures were considered, and patients were followed up for a period of 8 to 15 years. Results: Of 650 implants placed, the success rate was 88%, i.e., a total of 572 implants were successful. A total of 78 implants were considered failure; and out of 78, twenty implants were surgically removed. Conclusion: Based on this study’s results, it is concluded that risk factors, such as smoking, bruxism, diabetes, and bone augmentation play an important role in success rate of dental implants. Clinical significance: Several factors, such as bruxism, diabetes, and supporting bone can play an important role in dental implant success.



Sheetal P Mhaske, Divya Iska, Rajesh Ambiti, Umang Jagga, Shruthi M Shanmukappa

Clinicomicrobiological Evaluation of 2% Chitosan Mouthwashes on Dental Plaque

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:94 - 97]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2218  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate microbiological and clinical effects of a chitosan chlorhexidine (CH) mouthrinse on plaque control. Materials and methods: Subjects were divided into three groups. Group I included 15 subjects who used 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), group II included 15 subjects who used 2% chitosan (CH) solution, and group III involves 15 subjects who used 0.2% chlorhexidine/2% CH combination. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and probing depth (PD) were recorded at the baseline, on day 0, and after 4 days. Supragingival plaque samples were subjected for microbiological evaluation. Statistical analysis was done using statistical software IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 21. Results: Plaque index was lowest in group I at day 0, while it was highest in group III. At day 4, PI was highest in group II, while lowest in group III. Gingival index was lowest in group I and highest in group II at day 0, and lowest in group I and highest in group III at day 4. There was no statistical difference in Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) count between groups at any time interval. Conclusion: Both chitosan and CH were found to be effective in controlling plaque. However, a combination of both provides even better results. Clinical significance: The present study showed that chitosan can be used as an antiplaque agent.



Guneet Guram, G Sujay Kumar, Arpita Kashyap, Shweta Raghav, Rishibha Bhardwaj, Arunesh Singh

Role of Text Message Reminder on Oral Hygiene Maintenance of Orthodontic Patients

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:98 - 101]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2219  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Fixed orthodontic treatment is frequently associated with increased plaque accumulation leading to gingivitis and white spot lesions (WSLs). Aim: This study evaluated the role of text message reminder on oral hygiene of orthodontic patients. Materials and methods: A total of 60 patients under fixed orthodontic treatment were randomly divided into two equal groups as control group and study (text message) group. Text message group received reminders about oral hygiene, while the control group did not receive any messages. Oral hygiene of both the groups was evaluated at baseline, 2, and 3 months using plaque indices (PIs) along with WSL status. Data were statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software, version 19, with chi-square test and t-test. Results: At the baseline, plaque score was higher in the study group over control group (p > 0.038), whereas it was decreased after 3 months in the test group (p > 0.001). For WSL, there was no significant difference at baseline, but it was significantly lower in study group (p > 0.003). Conclusion: Oral hygiene status improved with text message reminder.



Reem H Wahbi, Elfatih I Elamin

Impact of Removable Partial Denture on Quality-of-life of Sudanese Adults in Khartoum State

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:102 - 108]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2220  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


(QoL), impacting on aspects, such as nutritional intake, psychological status, self-image, and daily engaging in social interaction. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health-related QoL (OHRQoL) among adult Sudanese patients wearing removable partial dentures (RPDs) by utilizing oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14) to assess patient satisfaction with their dentures. Materials and methods: The study population included 370 adult patients wearing RPDs. Of these, 99 were males and 271 females with the age range of 35 to above 60 years. Selfreported questionnaires were distributed randomly to be completed by the participants from each health sector after having read a consent letter. Two measures interpreting the OHIP-14 scales (sum and prevalence) were utilized for data collection. The relationship of patients’ demographic characteristics, general and oral health status, and denture characteristics with their OHRQoL was investigated. The data were processed and analyzed by means of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: The means of OHIP-14 sum and OHIP-14 prevalence of partial denture wearers were 10.9 + 7.8 and 18.9% respectively. The most problematic aspects of OHIP-14 were functional limitation and psychological disability. On the contrary, the participants had little problem as a handicap and social disability aspects. The self-reported oral health, regular follow-up, denture satisfaction, duration of denture wearing use of the denture while eating, and frequency of denture cleaning positively contribute to oral health-related quality. Conclusion: Loss of teeth and use of RPD significantly affect patients’ oral health status and QoL. Patients who are satisfied with their dentures have a better QoL than their unsatisfied counterparts.



Guneet Guram, Umang Jagga, Arpita Kashyap, Kiran Keswani

Comparative Evaluation of Remineralizing Effect of Novamin and Tricalcium Phosphate on Artificial Caries: An in vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:109 - 112]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2221  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the remineralizing efficacy of novamin and tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Materials and methods: Nail varnish was coated to a total of 30 sound human premolars except for 5 mm × 5 mm window. Baseline microhardness was measured for all test samples. Artificial carious lesions were created for all teeth by subjecting them to demineralization process. Then microhardness of demineralized lesion was measured. Later artificial caries teeth were equally divided into two groups to treat with remineralization solution for 10 days; group I: novamin and group II: TCP. After 10 days of pH cycling, microhardness was measured. The data were statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software from Chicago SPSS Inc., version 21 and using analysis of variance (ANOVA) post hoc multiple comparisons test for intergroup and significant difference at p < 0.05. Results: In the present study, group I indicated a higher value for remineralization compared with group II (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study showed that both novamin and TCP were effective in remineralizing the carious lesions. Clinical significance: This study evaluates the remineralizing potential of novamin and TCP on initial carious lesions.



Pratim Talukdar, Rajkiran Chitumalla, Litto Manual, Gopal Krishna Choudhury, Santosh Kumar Rajalbandi, Mahinder Singh Chauhan

Disinfectant Efficacy of 0.525% Sodium Hypochlorite and Epimax on Alginate Impression Material

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:113 - 116]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2222  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Species of Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Actinomyces, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Candida are commonly seen in the oral cavity. Impression materials are commonly contaminated with microorganisms. The present study was conducted to assess the disinfection efficacy of Epimax and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite on alginate impression over a period of 10 minutes. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics in the year 2015. An alginate impression material was prepared. For each bacteria species, 15 samples were used. Out of 15 samples, 3 were used by 0.525% sodium hypochlorite for disinfection for 5 minutes and 3 others for 10 minutes. Similarly, 3 samples were used by Epimax for 5 minutes and other 3 for 10 minutes. Three samples were used as controls. Each sample was polluted with Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus strains. Results: There was no statistical difference in P. aeruginosa and C. albicans after 5 minutes, whereas S. aureus showed significant difference (p < 0.05). Epimax was found to be more effective in removing S. aureus as compared with other disinfectants. Both Epimax and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite did not show significant difference against P. aeruginosa and C. albicans, whereas significant difference was found between both agents against S. aureus (p < 0.05). It was seen that Epimax eliminated S. aureus after 5 minutes and P. aeruginosa after 10 minutes and 99.8% C. albicans after 10 minutes. About 0.525% sodium hypochlorite eliminated 99.1% of C. albicans after 10 minutes, whereas 98.5 and 99% of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were eliminated after 10 minutes respectively. Conclusion: Both Epimax and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite can disinfect the alginate impression material against C. albicans, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus strains. However, Epimax was found to be more effective against S. aureus as compared with 0.525% sodium hypochlorite. Clinical significance: Efficacy of disinfection of sodium hypochlorite and Epimax on alginate impression.



Takatsugu Yamamoto, Tomoko Ikawa, Yuko Shigeta, Shuji Shigemoto, Eriko Ando

Pre-endodontic Post and Core Technique for Endodontic and Prosthodontic Treatment

[Year:2018] [Month:January] [Volume:19] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:117 - 122]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2223  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Displacement of provisional fixed prostheses may result in undesirable and embarrassing outcomes in dental treatments, especially in endodontic treatment. Development of certain counter measures has been necessary to avoid such discomforts. Aim: The aim of this report was to propose a pre-endodontic post and core technique to achieve smooth progress of the treatment. Materials and methods: The patient was a 59-year-old male diagnosed with an infraocclusion caused by wear of his teeth. He received full mouth provisional fixed restorations for a complete oral rehabilitation. Displacement and fracture of the restorations frequently occurred during the observation period for the function of the restorations. Therefore, the pre-endodontic post and core technique was applied to the abutment teeth before their endodontic treatments were started. The technique consisted of three steps as follows: Step 1: Caries removal and dowel preparation were performed for the abutment teeth having apical periodontitis. Composite cores were indirectly fabricated, which had access holes for endodontic treatment. Step 2: The cores were bonded to the teeth. In endodontic treatment, rubber dam appliances were easily placed owing to the core, and proper tooth isolation was accomplished. Step 3: Fiberposts were bonded to the dowel holes through the access holes after the root canal filling. During endodontic treatment, displacement and/or fracture of the provisional restorations did not occur. Conclusion: The pre-endodontic post and core technique was effective in obtaining improved retention of provisional restoration, appropriate isolation for endodontic treatment, and sufficient retention of the post and core. Clinical significance: The pre-endodontic post and core technique is useful for avoiding the discomforts in dental treatments, namely, a smooth transition from endodontic to prosthodontic treatment can be achieved.


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