The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2018 | August | Volume 19 | Issue 8

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New Directions for Oral Submucous Fibrosis Research: Whole Evaluation for Holistic Rehabilitation!

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:3] [Pages No:901 - 903]

Keywords: Betel-quid, Meditation, Mind, Quality-of-life.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2354  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) associated with prolonged betel-quid (BQ) use. It affects both physiological and psychological dimensions, leading to a significant morbidity. Some challenges in OSF research include: Assessment and correction of: (i) Quality of life, (ii) burning sensation, and (iii) nutritional deficiency. There are numerous medical treatments for OSF, but most of them fail to offer complete rehabilitation. This is because some underpinnings of this condition like “mental factors” that contribute to habit continuation at root level, “poor quality of life,” and “nutritional deficiencies” are still uncorrected. We believe that OSF must be managed at the “mind and body” level to accomplish holistic rehabilitation. Herein, we briefly describe the general condition of OSF patients, and highlight the possibility of a novel telomere-based assessment of psychosocial stress, and support use of meditation to counter excessive “telomere shortening” which is linked to oral cancer. We also expand the current view on “burning sensation” in OSF from an entire physical concept to a possibility of mental factors, and finally recommend rich, micronutrient supplementation (through diet) to counter free radical production within the hypoxic oral epithelium.



Matheus C Bandeca, Mateus R Tonetto, Suellen L Lima, Thiago M Pereira, Alvaro H Borges, Fabio C Tirintan, Cyntia Rde A Estrela, Jefferson D de Oliveira, Rodrigo Guapo-Pavarina, Fábio LM Pedro

Antimicrobial Potential of Laser Diode in Infected Dentin

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:6] [Pages No:904 - 909]

Keywords: Dentin, Enterococcus faecalis, Phototherapy.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2355  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of diode laser, associated or not with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods: Eighty dentin blocks were obtained from single-rooted human teeth and sterilized. Seventy were inoculated with 0.01 mL of fresh bacterial inoculum (within 24 hours of preparation from pure culture) standardized to 1 McFarland turbidity. Contaminated blocks were incubated for 7 days at 37°C in humid conditions. Ten uncontaminated samples were incubated at 37°C during the contamination period to serve as a negative control group, while 10 of the infected specimens served as a positive control group. The dentin blocks were randomly divided into eight experimental groups (n = 10 each) according to the method of decontamination: 2.5% NaOCl alone; 2.5% NaOCl + photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methylene blue/660 nm laser at 18 J for 180 seconds; 2.5% NaOCl + PDT with methylene blue/660 nm laser at 8 J for 80 seconds; methylene blue alone; PDT alone with methylene blue/660 nm laser at 18 J for 180 seconds; PDT alone with methylene blue/660 nm laser at 8 J laser for 80 seconds; positive control group; and negative control group. Microbial growth was evaluated by culture medium turbidity and microbial concentration was analyzed by UV spectrophotometry (adjusted to read at wavelength l = 600 nM). Results: Root canals treated with laser alone at 18 J for 180 seconds had higher bacterial contamination compared with groups in which NaOCl was used, with or without laser irradiation at 18 J for 180 seconds (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Photodynamic therapy with a 660 nm diode laser effectively reduced E. faecalis contamination. These findings can guide development of further studies in search of better alternatives for endodontic treatment. Clinical relevance: Chemical and mechanical root canal preparation plays an essential role in reducing microbial burden. However, microorganisms present in areas not mechanically reachable by endodontic instruments. As an alternative to fix this problem, the laser can be applied.



Marcelo K Suzuki, Danielle AR Martins, Marília T Costa, Andreia C Ferreira, Flavio AC Ferreira

Ions release Evaluation and Changes in Mini-implant Orthodontic Surface

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:8] [Pages No:910 - 917]

Keywords: Artificial saliva, Dental implants, Immersion, In vitro techniques, Ions, Laboratory research.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2356  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate, in vitro, the mini-implant surface changes and the release of ions after immersion in artificial saliva during follow-up of 60 and 120 days. Materials and methods: As for the surface features, examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), before and after immersion in artificial saliva, there was a rough and uneven surface, suggestive of corrosion areas for the two trademarks evaluated after 120 days of immersion. The extracts generated in artificial saliva analysis were submitted to energy dispersive spectroscopy to identify the solid corrosion products produced on the surfaces of miniscrews. Results: Both SIN miniscrews and Neodent brands were observed to release minimal quantities of silver ions, chromium, iron, nickel, titanium, and vanadium. Regarding titanium, this index varied from 88.84% in the control group of Neodent brand, and 91.29% in the control group of SIN brand. For the aluminum content, the quantities ranged from 4.91% in group immersed for 60 days in Neodent brand to 8.71% for the SIN control group. Considering vanadium, the index ranged from 2.65% in the group immersed for 120 days to 4.53% in the control group, both for Neodent brand. Statistically significant differences in iron ion were observed between the control group and the miniscrews brand SIN after 60 and 120 days and for Neodent after 60 days of immersion. The titanium ions suffered statistically significant decrease for both brands after 120 days of storage when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The studied miniscrews showed results consistent with the biosafety of alloys for use, in vivo. Clinical significance: The knowledge of the physical/chemical state of corrosion products released in the oral cavity is very important for the toxicological assessment of metal alloys used in dental miniscrews.



Abdullah A Al-Harthi, Mohammed H Aljoudi, Mulham N Almaliki, Khalid A El-Banna

Laboratory Study of Micro-shear Bond Strength of Two Resin Cements to Leucite Ceramics using Different Ceramic Primers

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:7] [Pages No:918 - 924]

Keywords: Bond strength, Ceramic primer, Micro-shear, Resin cement, Self-etch primer, Silane.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2357  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the effect of Monobond Etch & Prime on the micro-shear bond strength (MSBS) of resin cements to leucite surface and to compare the MSBS of two different resin cements to conditioned leucite surfaces with different primer systems. Materials and methods: Twenty-one leucite ceramic disks (10 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness) were divided into three groups (n = 7). Group I: 9.6% hydrofluoric (HF) acid and Monobond S (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein), then conventional resin cement was applied. Group II: Monobond Etch & Prime (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein), then conventional resin cement was applied. Group III: 9.6% HF acid and with Monobond N (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein), then adhesive resin cement was applied. The assigned resin cement was applied in each disk through five plastic tubes with an inner diameter of 1.6 and 1.9 mm height, and then light cured. Micro-shear bond strength was determined by pulling out the resin cement using universal testing machine (Instron®, USA). Results: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t-test were used to determine statistical difference (á = 0.05) between each two groups. The results showed that group III had the highest MSBS values (7.32 ± 2.47) followed by group II (6.24 ± 2.16), whereas group I had the lowest MSBS values (5.7 ± 2.7). Nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference between the results of all the groups. Conclusion: Monobond Etch & Prime has shown comparable results to the most popular combination of HF acid and silane. The combination of HF acid and Monobond N and self-adhesive resin cement has shown the best MSBS results, though not statistically significant. Clinical significance: The clinicians can use simplified ceramic primer technique (Monobond Etch & Prime) which has comparable MSBS to the most popular combination of HF acid and silane.



Edy Machmud

Effectiveness of Roselle Effervescent Tablets as Traditional Medicinal Plants in preventing Growth of Candida albicans Colonies and Streptococcus mutans

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:925 - 928]

Keywords: Candida albicans, Roselle effervescent tablets, Streptococcus mutans.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2358  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To analyze the effectiveness of roselle effervescent tablets inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans colonies on acrylic resin plate. Materials and methods: A total of 90 plates of acrylic resin with S. mutans and C. albicans suspensions were divided into three groups of immersion: The first group was soaked in a solution of roselle effervescent tablets 10%, the second group soaked in solution of sodium perborate effervescent tablets, and the third group soaked in a solution of pure effervescent tablets each with an interval of 5, 10, and 15 minutes. The number of colonies of S. mutans and C. albicans was calculated before and after immersion to determine the effectiveness of effervescent tablets. Data were analyzed using t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The roselle effervescent tablets 10% showed a significant difference before and after immersion, thus inhibiting the growth of S. mutans and C. albicans colonies (p < 0.05). Roselle effervescent tablets 10% in immersion time 5, 10, and 15 minutes did not show any significant difference. The effectiveness of roselle effervescent tablets 10% did not show any significant differences with sodium perborate effervescent tablets. Conclusion: Roselle effervescent tablets are effective in preventing S. mutans and C. albicans colonies like effectiveness with sodium perborate effervescent tablets. Clinical significance: Roselle effervescent tablets 10% are effective in inhibiting the S. mutans and C. albicans colonies with immersion time of 5 minutes and have the same effectiveness with sodium perborate effervescent tablets.



Renu Batra, Sonali Kapoor, Shilpi R Daveshwar, Meena R Daveshwar, Vineet Agrawal

Effect of Radiotherapy on Cariogenic Organism Streptococcus sobrinus in Saliva in Head and Neck Cancer: A Clinical Study

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:929 - 932]

Keywords: Dental caries, Oral cancer, Polymerase chain reaction.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2359  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Aim of the study was to assess salivary Streptococcus sobrinus in head and neck cancer using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and methods: Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from head and neck cancer patient preradiotherapy. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from oral and laryngeal cancer patients after 6 weeks of radiotherapy (dose 60 Gy). The subjects were explained not to consume solids or liquids or carry out any dental hygiene activity 1 hour prior to saliva collection. Accumulated unstimulated saliva was collected in cylindrical tube through funnel. The collected saliva was then transferred to Eppendorf tube containing Tris–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (TE) buffer and was transported to lab for real-time PCR analysis. Results: Streptococcus sobrinus significantly increased postradiotherapy as compared with preradiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, we conclude that amount of S. sobrinus increases postradiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Clinical significance: As radiation therapy has harmful effects on hard and soft tissues of oral cavity, dentists should provide motivation for oral health care to the patients.



Matheus C Bandeca, Alvaro H Borges, Andreza MF Aranha, Carlos L Antunes, Carlo R de Musis, Evanice MM Vieira

Eruption of Impacted Teeth after Alveolar Bone Graft in Cleft Lip and Palate Region

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:933 - 936]

Keywords: Alveolar bone graft, Cleft lip and/or palate, Tooth eruption.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2360  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aimed to assess the eruption of impacted teeth in cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) after alveolar bone graft. Materials and methods: Research was carried out through a cross-sectional study at the Craniofacial Rehabilitation Center of the University General Hospital of the University of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Variables related to cleft, cleft side, gender, age, laterality of cleft, impacted teeth, and orthodontic traction were analyzed. Results: Forty-two patients treated at the institution from 2004 to 2011 were recruited. There were 54.76% males and 45.24% females. The age group between 9 and 11 years was most affected in 59.53% of cases. The unilateral cleft was the most prevalent (85.71%). A total of 57 impacted teeth were observed. Maxillary canine was the most prevalent impacted teeth (97.61%) and more frequent in transforamen incisor cleft (TIC) (76.3%). The orthodontic traction was needed in both maxillary canines and lateral incisor impacted teeth, 64.3 and 35.7% respectively. The orthodontic traction was needed only in TIC (p = 0.0101). Conclusion: The canine teeth were the most prevalent, mainly related to the TIC and all impacted teeth erupted spontaneously in the preforamen incisor cleft (PIC) after placement of the bone graft. Clinical significance: There was spontaneous eruption of impacted teeth after secondary alveolar bone graft in CLP.



Gauri Krishnakumar, Dhananjaya Gaviappa, Shwetha Guruswamy

Anticaries Efficacy of Liquorice Lollipop: An ex vivo Study

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:6] [Pages No:937 - 942]

Keywords: Adolescent, Antibacterial, Anticarious, Herbal, Liquorice, Remineralizing, Scanning electron microscope analysis.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2361  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: To investigate the anti-bacterial efficacy of liquorice lollipop and also to investigate the remineralizing potential of the extract. Materials and methods: An interventional study was carried out on 20 volunteers aged between 18 and 21 years. Antibacterial efficacy was investigated by evaluating the bacterial counts of salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli before and after the consumption of liquorice lollipops for 10 days while the remineralization potential was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the enamel block embedded on a Hawley's appliance worn by volunteers for 14 days after consumption of the liquorice lollipop. Results: A reduction in the bacterial counts of S. mutans which was statistically significant was observed. However, Lactobacillus growth was not observed before or after use of liquorice lollipop. No structural or morphological changes were observed on the enamel surface through SEM imaging. Conclusion: Thus, liquorice lollipop was effective in reducing S. mutans but did not show to possess a remineralizing potential. Clinical significance: The unique approach of a lollipop delivery system to reduce S. mutans count in children is also observed to be palatable for children. This raises hopes of a simple and effective way to deliver a targeted intervention to young children who are at risk for dental caries.



Abdulelah M BinMahfooz, Osama A Qutub, Ghadeer I Basunbul, Khaled K El-Din Amin, Mosa M Altassan, Sahar MN Bukhary

Effects of using Antifungal Gel on Retentive Bond Strength of Two Forms of Denture Adhesives: An in vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:6] [Pages No:943 - 948]

Keywords: Antifungal denture adhesives, Antifungal miconazole nitrate, Denture adhesive retention, Snug denture cushion, Zinc-free PoliGrip cream.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2362  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study is to compare the bond strength to denture acrylics efficacy of miconazole gel against two denture adhesives with improved retentive properties (zincfree PoliGrip cream and Snug denture soft cushion). Materials and methods: Eight heat-cured acrylic samples were prepared measuring 0.7 cm × 1.4 cm flat tested surface. The two well-adapted tested surfaces were matched and fixed to Universal Testing Machine clamp. Vertical separating load was applied at a rate of 1 mm/min to yield the maximum load before denture adhesive failure occurs. These measurements were used to express the retention bond strength when improved denture adhesive material was applied alone in comparison with miconazole nitrate gel. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical analysis at p-value of < 0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in the mean tensile strength when the antifungal gel was opposed by the zinc-free PoliGrip cream. However, such a significant difference was not evident when the Snug denture cushion was opposed by the miconazole gel. Conclusion: The addition of antifungal gel to denture adhesives reduces retentive bond strength of denture adhesives to denture acrylics. However, if an antifungal gel has to be used, then a denture adhesive cushion soft plastic liner may provide a better retentive option than denture adhesive cream. Clinical significance: The incorporation of an antifungal agent into denture adhesives is required in many denture patients to suppress fugal growth and eliminate the undesirable health effects associated with such infections.



Sandeep Kumar, Nancy Singla, Shashikala Jain, Sunita Choudhary, Navleen Dandiwal, Kulashekar R Nandalur

Crestal Bone Changes around immediately loaded Single-piece Implants using Flap and Flapless Technique: A Radiographic Study

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:6] [Pages No:949 - 954]

Keywords: Bone loss, Dental implant, Flap, Flapless.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2363  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: With the trend shifting toward the minimally invasive surgeries in implant surgery, the flapless technique of implant placement is gaining popularity among the implantologists. This study was done to assess the crestal bone loss level in flap and flapless surgery at follow-up periods of 0, 1, and 3 months. Materials and methods: Patients presenting with missing teeth requiring dental implants for rehabilitation were included in the study. Implant placement was done in 10 patients with traditional flap technique, while in other 10 patients, flapless technique was performed after determining the availability of sufficient bone width with ridge mapping. Radiographical follow-up was done for 3 months at 0-, 1-, and 3-month intervals. Results: It was observed that for most of the flapless cases, the bone loss settled at 1st thread or just below the implant collar after 3 months. Conclusion: It was seen that crestal bone height was reduced in both flap and flapless techniques. On comparing the bone loss, the flapless approach showed statistically significant lesser reduction as determined by radiovisiography. Clinical significance: The study has been done to evaluate crestal bone level using flap and flapless technique. It was seen that reduction of crestal bone height was seen in both flapless and with flap techniques. However, on comparison, less bone resorption was observed in flapless technique.



Punkit S Sudan, Emmanuel P Samson, Maneet K Kukreja, Musfirat Khan, Rajath Misurya, Prabhu M Syed Ismail

A Comparative Evaluation of Apical Leakage using Three Root Canal Sealants: An in vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:955 - 958]

Keywords: Endorez, Endoseal, Realseal, Sealant.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2364  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Apical leakage is one of the drawbacks leading to endodontic failure. Various root canal sealants have been tried in endodontics. The present study was conducted to compare root canal sealants such as Endorez, Realseal, and Metaseal in preventing apical leakage. Materials and methods: Sixty mandibular single-canal premolars were divided into three groups of 20 each. Group I teeth were sealed with Endorez, group II teeth with Realseal, and group III teeth with Metaseal. After completing endodontic treatment in all teeth and sealing with above sealants, glucose leakage value was assessed at 1st, 8th, and 15th day. Results: At day 1 [mean ± standard deviation (SD)], leakage was 0.416 ± 0.011 in group I, 0.234 ± 0.09 in group II, and 0.328 ± 0.19 in group III. On 8th day, it was 2.124 ± 0.108 in group I, 0.624 ± 0.102 in group II, and 1.31 ± 0.24 in group III. On 15th day, it was 5.178 ± 0.125 in group I, 3.122 ± 0.150 in group II, and 4.25 ± 0.28 in group III. The mean apical leakage in all groups in different days was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Endorez sealant showed highest apical leakage, whereas Realseal had minimum leakage. There was significant increase in leakage in all groups with the progression of time. Clinical significance: With the advent of different root canal sealants, the success rate of the root canal-treated teeth can be confirmed.



Fernando B Barletta, Caroline Solda, Eduardo G Reston, Alissa L Zurawski, Paula Lambert, Caroline Zanesco

Mesiolingual Canal Prevalence in Maxillary First Molars assessed through Different Methods

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:959 - 963]

Keywords: Composite magnetic, Computerized microtomography, Mesiolingual canal, Radicular anatomy.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2365  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Evaluate the prevalence of mesiolingual canal prevalence orifice in mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molars using five methods of visualization. Materials and methods: About 73 first permanent maxillary molars were analyzed. Visual clinical analysis of the presence of the fourth canal was performed using a straight endodontic exploratory probe (EXDG16®) and a K10 manual file (SybronEndo®). Dental elements that were not located on the fourth canal were analyzed with the aid of a magnifying glass (Zeiss®) with a 2.5-fold increase and those teeth in which the fourth canal was not found went through the examination with clinical surgical microscope (OPTO®) with magnification of 20 times with both the explorer and endodontic file. Next, a periapical radiography of the teeth was performed in the teeth in which the mesiolingual canal was not yet found to observe the presence or absence of the fourth canal. Afterward, the teeth in which the canal was not yet located were scanned using the microtomography equipment (SkyScan®), at 100 kV and 100 μA, with an isotropic resolution of 16 μm. Results: The mesiolingual canal was located in 70 teeth (95.8%) and in only 3 teeth it was not identified. Conclusion: The visual method in the fourth canal search has limitations, whereas the composite magnifying glass, the clinical surgical microscopy, and the computerized microtomography are efficient methods for locating the fourth canal in the upper first molars. Clinical significance: The anatomical complexity of the first maxillary molars is one of the factors that leads to high failure rates in the endodontic treatments of this group of teeth. In most clinical situations, the mesiolingual canal goes unnoticed by professionals, since conventional radiographs do not always allow the visualization of all root canals. Determining an effective method for locating the mesiolingual canal is of paramount importance to the success of endodontic treatment.



Sheetal Mali, Amit Patil, Deepak Hegde, Himmat Jaiswal, Hrishikesh Saoji, Dhairaysheel N Edake

Efficacy of Rotary and Hand Instrument in removing Gutta-percha and Sealer from Root Canals of Endodontically Treated Teeth

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:964 - 968]

Keywords: Hand instruments, ProTaper, Retreatment, Rotary instruments, Stereomicroscope.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2366  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: One of the common dental procedures employed these days in patients with irreversible pulpitis is root canal therapy. In retreatment cases, it is necessary for complete removal of obturate gutta-percha (GP) from obturate root canal system. Various methods and techniques are available these days for this purpose. This study was aimed to assess the efficacy of D-RaCe files, ProTaper retreatment files, Mtwo retreatment files, and manual Hedstrom files (H-files) in removing filling materials from the root canals of the endodontically treated teeth. Materials and methods: The present study included comparative evaluation of efficacy of nickel–titanium (NiTi) retreatment instruments and H-files in removing GP and sealer from root canals. All the samples were randomly and broadly divided into four study groups based on the instrumentation technique for removing the root canal fillings. Evaluation of the results was done based on operating time and remaining root canal filling material. Stereomicroscopic evaluation of the samples was done at 8× magnification. Results: All the results were assessed and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Least quantity of filling material was left by ProTaper retreatment files. When put together in decreasing order, the efficacy of different study groups, in terms of mean time taken for retreatment, was found to be as follows: D-RaCe > ProTaper Retreatment > Mtwo Retreatment > H-file. Conclusion: No single technique can completely remove obturating fillings from the root canals of endodontically treated teeth. However, rotary instruments are better in comparison with hand instruments for removing the GP from obturate root canals. Clinical significance: ProTaper retreatment files and D-RaCe files are recommended over other instrument systems in terms of quality for managing retreatment root canal cases.



Saad M Al-Qahtani, Mohamed FA Elagib, N Raghavendra Reddy, Nuha S Alghamdi, Sara MH Baldo, P Mohan Kumar

Relationship between Obesity and Periodontal Diseases in Saudi Women (Asir Region): A Prospective Study

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:969 - 973]

Keywords: Body mass index, Neck circumference, Obesity, Periodontal disease.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2367  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present study is undertaken to assess any possible association between obesity and periodontal diseases among Saudi women in Asir region. Materials and methods: A total number of 100 obese subjects in the age group between 16 and 35 years participated in the study. A questionnaire which consisted of anthropometric measurements [neck circumference (NC) ≥ 34 cm for women] and demographic features was used. Periodontal status was assessed for the subjects. Results: The periodontal disease shows significant association with anthropometric measurements (NC ≥ 34 cm for women) and demographic features. Conclusion: The findings of this prospective study showed possible relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Clinical significance: In view of changing lifestyle with dietary habits, there is a possibility of developing obesity. The results in this research show a direct relationship between obesity and periodontal diseases by measuring body mass index (BMI) and NC in the age group of 16 to 35 years females in Saudi Arabia. Thus, it helps in preventing and managing obesity, especially among youth.



Alireza Izadi, Bijan Heidari, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Hanif Allahbakhshi, Farnoush Fotovat

Comparative Study of Dimensional Accuracy in Three Dental Implant Impression Techniques: Open Tray, Closed Tray with Impression Coping, and Snap Cap

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:8] [Pages No:974 - 981]

Keywords: Dental implants, Dental materials, Dental prosthesis, Dimensional accuracy, Impression techniques.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2368  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Several impression techniques have been proposed to result passive fitness between the prosthesis and osseointegrated implant. The aim of the study was to compare dimensional accuracy of three impression methods: Open tray, closed tray with impression coping, and closed tray with snap cap. Materials and methods: In this experimental study, a mandibular acrylic model was prepared with a milling machine to place three holes for dental implant analogs (Dio SM) with the dimension of 3.8 × 10 mm into the intended sites (one in midline and two others on the side at a distance of 10 mm) parallel with each other and perpendicular to the plane. Twenty-seven casts were prepared with impression material of polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) and dental stone type IV and divided into three groups. Implant situations were measured by coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and results were analyzed with Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney test to perform pairwise comparison among the groups. Results: The mean ΔR values for open tray, closed tray with impression coping, and closed tray with snap cap were respectively, 0.070 ± 0.088, 0.173 ± 0.205, and 0.142 ± 0.044. There were statistically significant differences between open tray and closed tray as well as open tray and snap cap methods (p < 0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference between closed tray and snap cap method (p = 0.1). Conclusion: Regarding the results, open tray impression technique had the highest dimensional accuracy compared with the other two methods. There were no statically significant differences between closed tray with snap cap and closed tray with impression coping technique. Clinical significance: Snap cap technique is less time consuming with similar dimensional accuracy in comparison with open tray impression technique.



Prince Kumar, Renu B Pachar, Youginder Singla

Evaluation and Comparison of the Effect of Different Border Molding Materials on Complete Denture Retention: An in vivo Study

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:6] [Pages No:982 - 987]

Keywords: Complete denture, Green stick compound, Impression, Polyether.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2369  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Different border molding materials have different qualities which help in recording fine details of tissues. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effect of different border molding materials on complete denture retention. Materials and methods: The present study was conducted on 10 completely edentulous patients in the age group of 50 to 70 years. On each patient, three different border moldings were completed. In group I, border molding was done with green stick impression compound. In group II, border molding was done with putty consistency addition silicone. In group III, border molding and final impression were done by polyether impression material in a single step. Permanent denture bases were fabricated with wire loop at the center. Retention was assessed in all three groups using a digital force gauge. Results: Upon data compilation and preparation of spread sheets for concerned groups, it was subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0 for Windows. Mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 57.40 ± 8.46 in group I, 57.40 ± 8.46 in group II, and 57.40 ± 8.46 in group III. The difference was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). The overall mean value for the group I was 4.59 ± 0.81. For group II, it was 4.7 ± 0.81. For group III, it was 6.72 ± 0.81. The difference was significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Green stick compound with light body final wash showed the lowest mean values of complete denture retention. Dentures made using polyether final impression material showed the highest mean values of complete denture retention followed by putty rubber base border molding with light body final wash. Clinical significance: In this study, polyether showed the highest mean retentive value compared with other tested materials; therefore, it could possibly provide some future innovative means in achieving optimal denture retention.



Hadi Mokhtari, Mahdi Rahbar, Mehrdad Lotfi, Aysan Mozafari, Mohammad-Hosein Badri-Nozadi, Hamid-Reza Mokhtari-Zonouzi

Comparison of Setting Time of White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with and without Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate at Different Liquid-to-powder Ratios

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:4] [Pages No:988 - 991]

Keywords: Disodium hydrogen phosphate, Mineral trioxide aggregate, Setting time.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2370  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of different liquid-to-powder ratios on setting time of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) and the effect of adding disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) to white MTA (NAMTA). Materials and methods: Sixty samples were prepared in plastic annular molds with a diameter of 10 mm and a height of 2 mm in order to record setting time where white MTA was placed in 30 samples and 2.5 wt% mixture of Na2HPO4 with white MTA was placed in other 30 samples. Setting times in different ratios of liquid to powder (50, 60, and 70%) and at different times including 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 50 minutes as well as 1, 1.5, 2.5, 3, 3.5, and 4 hours were measured with Vicat. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software was used to examine the differences between groups. The values of p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant in this study. Results: The average setting time of samples in two WMTA and NAMTA was 182.17 ± 57.86 and 67.00 ± 14.42 respectively, and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Also, the average setting time of samples in ratio groups of 50, 60, and 70% were 146.00 ± 75.90, 85.00 ± 31.71, and 142.5 ± 64.47 respectively, and results showed that there was no significant difference between groups. Conclusion: Adding 2.5 wt% of Na2HPO4 mixture to white MTA reduces the setting time, which is lower than the WMTA in 50, 60, and 70% liquid-to-powder ratios. Clinical significance: According to the findings of this study, it can be seen that adding Na2HPO4 to white MTA is a good way to reduce setting timing in clinical dentistry, especially in one-visit treatments.



Krantikiran Reddy Ealla, Pavan G Kulkarni, Durga P Mudrakola, Suchitra Gosavi, Praveen B Haricharan, Neeraja Turagam

Molecular Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in Chronic Periodontitis Patients

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:5] [Pages No:992 - 996]

Keywords: Periodontal disease, Polymerase chain reaction, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Putative periodontal pathogens.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2371  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: In the current study, Porphyromonas gingivalis was identified in chronic periodontitis patients and healthy subjects by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its presence correlated with the severity of clinical periodontal parameters. Materials and methods: Subgingival plaque samples were collected with sterile curette and subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction and subsequent PCR for detection of P. gingivalis. Results: Porphyromonas gingivalis was detected in 60% of patients of group II (pocket depth up to 5 mm), and in 93.33% of patients of group III (pocket depth more than 5 mm). One periodontally healthy subject in group I (probing depth ≤ 3 mm) showed the presence of P. gingivalis. Conclusion: Detection frequency of bacterium increased significantly with increase in probing pocket depth (PPD), loss of attachment (LOA), and gingival index (GI). Clinical significance: Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly associated with chronic periodontitis and its detection frequency positively correlates with the severity of periodontal destruction.



Mahdi Rahbar, Amirreza Babaloo, Zohre Babaloo, Shima Ghasemi, Amjad Amini

Evaluation of Clinical Periodontal Indices and Serum Interleukin-27 by One-stage Full-mouth Disinfection and Quadrant Scaling and Root Planing in Periodontitis

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:8] [Pages No:997 - 1004]

Keywords: Chronic periodontitis, Interleukin-27, One-stage full-mouth disinfection, Quadrant scaling and root planning.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2372  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: One-stage oral disinfection technique has been developed to prevent cross-contamination between the treated and untreated areas between treatment sessions. Considering the role of inflammatory mediators in periodontitis, this study has been designed to compare the effects of one-stage oral disinfection with quadrant scaling and root planing (Q-SRP) on serum interleukin-27 (IL-27) levels in patients with moderateto- advanced periodontitis. Materials and methods: In this study, two groups were considered. One group was treated with one-stage full-mouth oral disinfection (FMD), while the other group was treated with Q-SRP. In each group, 20 patients with chronic periodontitis were randomly selected based on the inclusion criteria. To evaluate the periodontal status, the clinical parameters of bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment level (CAL), and probing depth (PD) were measured before treatment as well as at 2- and 4-month intervals after treatment. At the same intervals, the immunological index of the study (serum IL-27) was measured by special laboratory kits. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 (SPSS 16) software. In this study, p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results of this study indicate that there has been an elevation in the mean of serum IL-27 after treatment in both treatment groups. There is no significant difference between the levels of IL-27 in the FMD group during the study period (p = 0.20). All periodontal indices (BOP, CAL, and PD) show clinical improvement in each group (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was observed in the improvement of periodontal indices of CAL and PD (p < 0.05). Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, it can be said that both FMD and Q-SRP improve the periodontal indices and increase the serum level of the inflammatory mediator IL-27 in patients with periodontitis. Clinical significance: Considering the benefits of the FMD method, such as patient and dentist comfort, systemic effects, and its cost-effectiveness, use of this method is suggested in patients suffering from periodontitis.



Rajnish Aggarwal, Shashikala Jain, Sunita Choudhary, Harpreet S Saini, N Kulashekar Reddy

Evaluating the Effect of Different Impression Techniques and Splinting Methods on the Dimensional Accuracy of Multiple Implant Impressions: An in vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:8] [Pages No:1005 - 1012]

Keywords: Dental implant, Dental impression, Dimensional measurement accuracy, Polyvinyl siloxane.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2373  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study was done to determine more accurate impression technique and splinting method for multiple implant impressions in edentulous patients. Materials and methods: A prefabricated maxillary reference model was taken on which four implants were placed parallel to each other using vertical milling machine. Forty custom trays having different tray designs were fabricated using autopolymerizing acrylic resin on the stone cast obtained from the reference model. A total of 40 samples (n = 40) were divided into five groups, in which group I included casts obtained from impressions made with closed-tray technique, group II: open-tray impression technique, group III: open-tray impressions splinted with acrylic, group IV: open-tray impressions splinted with light cure material, and group V acted as a control group (reference model). Casts obtained were poured with dental stone. The interimplant distances were checked using coordinate measuring machine to evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) positional accuracy in X, Y, and Z axes. Results: Casts obtained from impressions made with closedtray technique showed highest mean deviation from the reference model while those obtained from open-tray splinted with light cure showed the least deviation. The casts obtained from open-tray nonsplinted and open-tray acrylic splinted showed intermediate mean deviations. Conclusion: The casts obtained from open-tray impression technique were more accurate as compared with the closedtray technique. Among splinting, the impressions obtained from light cure splinting showed more accuracy than the impressions obtained from acrylic splinting. Clinical significance: The accuracy of the multiple implant impression is influenced by the type of impression material used which ultimately leads to an accurate cast on which precisely fitting prosthesis is fabricated. Several factors including material accuracy, time span before the impression is poured, and extent of intraoral undercuts are to be kept in mind while choosing an impression material.



Michael G Botelho, Nithya Jagannathan, Ho CM Brian, Otto LT Lam

A Systematic Review of Amalgam Bonded Restorations: In vitro and Clinical Findings

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:12] [Pages No:1013 - 1024]

Keywords: Adhesives, Bond strength, Bonded amalgam, Longevity, Microleakage, Sensitivity, Systematic review.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2374  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This article aims to systematically review the evidence reporting on physical properties of bonded amalgam, its clinical performance, and implications. Materials and methods: An electronic search in “Medline” (search term: Amalgam and Dentin bonding) from 1987 to 2013 yielded 465 publications out of which 170 articles were selected for the analysis. Data were extracted relating to the bond strength of amalgam to dentin, microleakage, postoperative sensitivity, and longevity of bonded amalgam restorations. Results: A total of 129 in vitro studies out of 170 articles showed high bond strengths with filled adhesive resins and light-cured adhesives, in particular Amalgambond plus and Optibond adhesives. Thickness of bonding agent, type of alloy, and thermocycling showed inconclusive outcomes between bonded and nonbonded amalgam restorations. Majority of studies reported reduced microleakage when dentin bonding agents and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RM-GICs) were used with amalgam. However, water stored, thermocycled, and spherical amalgam alloys resulted in higher microleakage. While bonded amalgam facilitated the retention of large restorations, reduction in postoperative sensitivity was not consistently observed between bonded and nonbonded amalgam restorations. Conclusion: While bonded amalgam restorations reduce the need for mechanical retention conserving tooth structure and reducing the adverse effects of microleakage, there is lack of consistent evidence across all outcome domains to advocate the benefit of bonding of all amalgam restorations. Despite this, it can be considered the material of choice for large restorations and bonding enhances retention in vitro which can be considered beneficial clinically. Clinical significance: The use of adhesives to bond amalgam to the tooth structure offers potential advantages, as it helps in conservative cavity preparation without compromising the retention to tooth, making it a material of choice in large posterior restorations.



Ilser Turkyilmaz

A Proposal of New Classification for Dental Implant Complications

[Year:2018] [Month:] [Volume:19] [Number:8] [Pages:9] [Pages No:1025 - 1033]

Keywords: Complication, Esthetics, Failure, Implant, Nerve injury, Success.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2375  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aims of this study are to review the available literature related to implant complications and propose a new classification method for dental implant complications. Materials and methods: Dental literature was reviewed via PubMed focusing on articles published in English, which included data regarding dental implants, complications, and classification from January 2000 to January 2018. The author, who has experience with implant placement and restorations for 15 years, and ten of his colleagues, formed a list of implant complications that they have encountered in their practices. Results: After 3,736 articles were found in the initial search, a total of 613 potentially relevant review articles were identified in the database. After the full-text analysis of 25 articles, only 6 review articles with complication classifications were utilized in this study. In addition, a clinically based classification named “Turkyilmaz's Classification of Implant Complications” including three categories was created. Types of complications in these three groups (Mild, Moderate, and Severe) were listed, and some of them were illustrated. Also, recommendations for clinicians were made on how to avoid these problems and/or overcome them. Conclusion: It has been suggested that categorical data regarding complications of dental implants are limited, and the new complication classification presented in this article may help clinicians identify and overcome commonly encountered implant complications. Clinical significance: For clinicians, it is important to know possible complications regarding dental implants. In this article, a group of dentists created and suggested a new classification for implant complications, which may help clinicians identify commonly encountered complications and how to handle them in the clinic.


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