The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2020 | January | Volume 21 | Issue 1


Maurilio D\'Angelo

Future Trends in Endodontics: From the Virtual Assessment of the Anatomy to the Computer-driven Approach

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:1 - 1]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2764  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Suzan Salem

Consequences of 660 nm Diode Laser Following Postsurgical Exodontia in Patients under Contraceptive Pills: A Randomized Double-blinded Clinical Trial

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:9] [Pages No:2 - 10]

Keywords: Contraceptive pills, Photobiomodulation, 660 nm diode laser, Transalveolar extraction

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2736  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The photobiomodulation (PBM) effect of 660 nm diode laser in reducing pain, edema, trismus and promote healing subsequently to the transalveolar extraction of mandibular third molars in female patients taking contraceptive pills were evaluated. Materials and methods: Fifty female patients participated in our study. The 660 nm diode laser was applied immediately on randomly selected patients of the study group (n = 25) over the surgical site for 1 minute with continuous laser beam application. For the control group (n = 25), the same extraction procedure was performed without the application of 660 nm diode laser. Pain intensity, swelling, trismus, and healing was evaluated before extraction and during recall visits 24 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days postoperatively. Results: The values of pain, swelling, and trismus were significantly inferior in the study group compared to the control group (p < 0.05) at T2 and T3; while the values of the healing index were significantly superior in the study group compared to the control group (p < 0.001) at T1, T2, and T3. Conclusion: Using 660 nm diode laser reduced the postsurgical discomforts (pain, edema, and trismus) and promote healing associated following transalveolar extraction of the lower third molar. Clinical significance: To develop a framework based on the results regarding the PBM effect of 660 nm diode laser following transalveolar extraction of lower third molar in a female patient taking oral contraceptive pills, which may help to improve the treatment services provided to the community.


Saime A Aydin, Tamer Taşdemir, Celal K Buruk, Davut Çelik

Efficacy of Erbium, Chromium-doped Yttrium, Scandium, Gallium and Garnet Laser-activated Irrigation Compared with Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation, Conventional Irrigation, and Photodynamic Therapy against Enterococcus faecalis

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:11 - 16]

Keywords: Passive ultrasonic irrigation, Photoactivated disinfection, Root canal disinfection,Er,Cr:YSGG laser, Laser-activated irrigation

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2727  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To compare the antimicrobial effects of two different irrigation solutions activated with erbium, chromium-doped yttrium, scandium, gallium and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser or an ultrasonic system and a photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Materials and methods: The root canals of 72 single-rooted human permanent incisors were prepared with ProTaper Universal rotary instruments and incubated with E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) for 4 weeks. Then the teeth were randomly divided into seven experimental groups with 10 specimens for canal disinfection procedures. Group I, standard needle irrigation (SNI) with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); group II, SNI with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX); group III, laser-activated irrigation (LAI) by Er,Cr:YSGG of NaOCl; group IV, LAI of CHX; and group V, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) of NaOCl; group VI, PUI of CHX; group VII, PDT. The remaining two teeth were used as the control group. After the disinfection procedures were completed, the root canals were filled with phosphate-buffered saline and bacterial samples were taken with sterile paper cones. The cultivation was performed on Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) plates. The live bacteria were calculated by counting the colonies on these plaques. The statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis H test and Miller\'s multiple comparison technique. Results: Both LAI and PUI of NaOCl and PUI of CHX were more successful than the PDT on root canal disinfection (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limitation of the present study, the activation of NaOCl solution by Er,Cr:YSGG laser or an ultrasonic system can be useful in the elimination of the E. faecalis from the canal. The PUI of CHX also has similar results. Photodynamic therapy showed a lower performance compared to these methods. Clinical significance: The activation of the sodium hypochlorite with Er,Cr:YSGG laser or PUI may be useful for removal of the E. faecalis biofilm layer in the root canal.


Umme Azher, Sarakanuru K Srinath, Mihir Nayak

Effectiveness of Bubble Breath Play Therapy in the Dental Management of Anxious Children: A Pilot Study

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:17 - 21]

Keywords: Behavior, Dental anxiety, Dental fear, Play

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2741  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Play is an inseparable part of childhood and can act as a mode through which children can be desensitized toward dental treatment. Aim: To assess and compare the efficacy of bubble breath play therapy (BBPT) and tell-show-do (TSD) technique in the dental management of anxious/fearful children. Materials and methods: Forty-eight children aged 6–8 years were randomly divided into group I: BBPT and group II: TSD. The effectiveness of the BBPT and TSD technique in reducing anxiety/fear in children was assessed pretreatment, during, and posttreatment evaluation of the child\'s anxiety levels using finger pulse oximeter and Venham\'s anxiety and behavior rating scale. All children underwent rotary restorative treatment. Results: The mean pulse rate in the BBPT and TSD group was 106.96 mm Hg and 102.25 mm Hg, respectively, at baseline. A decrease in the pulse rate was observed in both the groups after the application of behavior modification strategies. However, after the dental treatment, the mean pulse rate slightly increased in the BBPT group, while it showed a further improvement in the TSD group. Conclusion: The BBPT acts as a distraction and can be considered to enhance rapport between the dentist and children during dental treatment. Clinical significance: Application of appropriate strategies to allay dental fear in children is essential to provide quality dental treatment and build a positive attitude toward oral health.


Yasser M Al-Qahatani, Mohammed Al-Omari, Shibu T Mathew, Mohammed A Al-Qarni

Degree of Conversion of Nanoceramic and Microhybrid Composites Activated by Different Polymerization Modes at Different Intervals: An In Vitro Comparative Study

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:22 - 27]

Keywords: Degree of conversion, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Spectrum TPH,Ceram X

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2713  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: This is an in vitro study to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) of nanoceramic and microhybrid composites activated by different polymerization modes at different intervals. Aim: To determine the DC of two resin composites at different time intervals and modes of polymerization on DC. Materials and methods: Two commercially available composite resins—nanoceramic (Ceram X, Dentsply) and microhybrid (Spectrum TPH, Dentsply)—were used in this study. A total of 80 cylindrical samples (n = 40 each) were made by packing the composites in one increment into (5 × 2 mm) Teflon molds and cured using a light-emitting diode (LED) at an irradiance of 1,200 mW/cm2. Each group was further divided into two groups (n = 20) based on the curing modes (20 seconds, 40 seconds). These 20 samples were further subdivided (n = 10) based on the time interval (2 days, 7 days). Degree of conversion was assessed by Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) using a direct technique (attenuated total reflectance) on the top surface of the samples. Degree of conversion was measured for samples cured for 20 seconds (n = 10) and 40 seconds (n = 10) after 2 days and 7 days during which the samples were stored in an incubator at 37°C, 90% ± 10% relative humidity. The results obtained were statistically analyzed using two-way and three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and p value set at (<0.005) significance level. Results: Degree of conversion for the tested composites varied between 44% and 55% for Ceram X and 42% and 45% for Spectrum TPH. A significant difference was observed in DC for Ceram X samples for different polymerization modes (20 seconds and 40 seconds) as well as at 2–7 days measurement, whereas Spectrum TPH did not show any significant difference for polymerization modes. Conclusion: Ceram X demonstrated high DC values compared with that of Spectrum TPH with regard to two different polymerization modes. Clinical significance: Lesser the time required for conversion and less the residual monomer left, better is the prognosis of the restoration, and better is the patient satisfaction.


Stefano Scavia, Rachele Roncucci

Minimal Invasive Flapless Piezotome Alveolar Crest Horizontal Split Technique: Preliminary Results

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:28 - 35]

Keywords: Piezosurgery, Split crest,Abfraction, Bone graft, Cone-beam computed tomography, Dental implants, Flapless surgery

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2743  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Alveolar split crest is an established surgical technique to enable implant insertion into narrow and atrophic alveolar crest. This surgical technique is adopted to position standard or large implants so that postextractive anatomy compromises with this attempt. The aim of this study was to evaluate the horizontal alveolar bone augmentation and its stability along time with a minimally invasive flapless technique. Materials and methods: Twenty-four implants were inserted in 10 patients during a 15-month period. Clinical parameters such as horizontal bone augmentation, intrasurgical complications, patient morbidity, implant loss, and vertical bone loss (VBL) were recorded in the first 3 years after surgery. Using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), alveolar bone width was measured for both implants position and bone reconstructions. 6 months later, at the time of implant integration, a new low-dose CBCT was performed. Implant survival (IS) and VBL were evaluated radiographically for 3 years. Results: The initial bone thickness measured on the ridge is between 0.82 mm and 5.40 mm (average 2.43 mm), after the split crest the bone width is between 4.65 mm and 8.09 mm (average 6.39 mm). This leads to an increase in the alveolar bone width of between 0.80 mm and 6.01 mm (average 3.71 mm) on the ridge. No implant was lost at 3 years, and all implants are stable at the end of the study. Three years after the surgery, controls showed a VBL of between 0.0 mm and 1.2 mm (average 0.63 mm) around the inserted implants. These parameters suggest using a flapless technique to reduce bone resorption around the implant neck. Conclusion: A minimally invasive approach allows to reduce the surgical trauma and postsurgical discomfort. The complete vascular supply is maintained, the bone resorption is reduced, and the connective epithelium does not undergo postsurgical retraction, achieving the full maintenance of the residual keratinized gingiva. Clinical significance: A technique such as split crest can be a valid option to avoid autologous or heterologous bone grafts.


Voruganti Deepak, Johnson J Josephin, Palaparthy R Babu, Vikram R Guntakandla, Jagadish R Gooty, Suryakanth Malgikar, Abhinav Gupta

Evaluation of Efficacy of Injectable-guided Tissue Regeneration with and without Clindamycin on the Colonization of Porphyromonas gingivalis by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:36 - 40]

Keywords: Clindamycin, Injectable-guided tissue regeneration, Periodontitis, P. gingivalis, Real-time PCR

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2742  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the loading of clindamycin with injectable-guided tissue regeneration (GTR) will prevent the colonization of Porphyromonas gingivalis and to compare and assess the quantitative changes in P. gingivalis colony forming units (CFUs) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Materials and methods: Thirty microbiological samples were pooled from the deepest periodontal pockets from the thirty sites from the two groups: group I—injectable GTR placed in the defect filled with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) and group II—clindamycin loaded injectable GTR placed in the defect filled with DFDBA. The total number of P. gingivalis CFUs was estimated using real-time PCR at baseline and 4 weeks after therapy. Results: A significant reduction in P. gingivalis CFUs at the end of 4 weeks was seen in both groups. Comparative evaluations between both groups at 4 weeks were with a mean of 4.44 ± 2.28 and 4.75 ± 3.32, respectively. Though there was a significant reduction in group II, the difference was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results suggest that clindamycin is beneficial in reducing microbial infection and can potentiate regeneration through host modulation. Clinical significance: Injectable GTR has the ability to mold according to the defect size and shape and eliminates the need to manipulate the membrane as required for the conventional membrane.


Mohammed Sayed, Ahmad Jameel, Ghadi Duhduh, Tasneem Arishi, Aziza Alqadi, Saurabh Jain

Assessment of Undercuts Relative to Abutment Teeth and Edentulous Area: A Retrospective Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:41 - 46]

Keywords: Direct retainer, Removable partial denture, Retrospective study, Undercut,Abutment tooth

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2728  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Undercuts on abutment teeth (AT) should be identified and quantified to establish the exact location of the active tip of the retentive arm of the direct retainer. The aim of this study was to locate and evaluate tissue and tooth undercut areas in various Kennedy\'s classes and to assess the correlation, if any, between Kennedy\'s classes and the location and depth of undercuts. Materials and methods: One hundred and seven patients’ casts, with designated AT and edentulous areas (EAs), were surveyed. The undercuts on AT and EAs were measured using undercut gauges. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: The median depth of the undercut was maximum on distal the surface of mandibular AT in a Kennedy\'s class III edentulous situation. No significant difference was found between the amount of tissue undercuts measured on the EA in each of the Kennedy\'s classes in the maxillary and mandibular arches. Conclusion: No significant difference was found between the amounts of undercut measured on AT and the EA in each of the Kennedy\'s classes in the maxillary and mandibular arches. No correlation was found between Kennedy\'s classes and the location and depth of undercuts. Clinical significance: The results of our study reinforce that the diagnosis and selection of ideal abutments should be stressed while planning for a removable dental prosthesis (RDP). In the majority of the cases, the anticipated design of the direct retainer can be applied, though one cannot overlook the need for proper diagnosis and survey.


Prasanti Kumari Pradhan, Kanhu Charan Sahoo, Sradhashree Dipallini, Swagata Banerjee, S Lata, Gaurav Patri

Effect of Different Intracanal Medicaments on Apical Sealing Ability of BioRoot RCS

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:47 - 50]

Keywords: Triple antibiotic paste,BioRoot RCS, Curcuma longa, Metapex, Metrogyl DG gel forte

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2740  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims and objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of BioRoot root canal sealer (RCS). Materials and methods: One hundred permanent single-rooted teeth were used in this study. All the samples were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction and instrumented in a sequential order from 15 to 50 number k-file. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups containing 20 teeth each. Intracanal medicaments used in this study were Metapex, triple antibiotic paste, Metrogyl DG gel forte (metronidazole gel 1.5% w/w), and curenext gel. For control group following instrumentation, the roots were obturated with laterally compacted gutta-percha with BioRoot RCS. In medicament groups after the period of 14 days, the medicaments were removed. All the four groups were obturated with BioRoot RCS and gutta-percha cones using lateral compaction technique. All the specimens were coated with nail varnish and immersed in 2% methylene blue. Then the specimens were demineralized and diphanized. The cleared teeth were analyzed by means of a stereomicroscope under 10× magnification. All the data were analyzed in SPSS version 18 software (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA). Result: Among all the intracanal medicaments, triple antibiotic paste showed the highest microleakage. When Metpaex and Metrogyl DG gel forte were compared with Curcuma longa, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Among all the intracanal medicaments, triple antibiotic paste showed the highest microleakage and least was Metapex. Clinical significance: Incomplete removal of medicaments prevents the penetration of sealer into the dentinal tubules and interferes with the normal setting reaction, thus affecting the seal of obturating material leading to microleakage and subsequent treatment failure. Hence, while placing an intracanal medicament, it is important to consider its effect on leakage of the root canal system.


Shatha A Alshali, Sohil A Kazim, Rashad Nageeb, Hala S Almarshoud

Comparative Evaluation of the Translucency of Monolithic Zirconia

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:51 - 55]

Keywords: Monolithic, Translucency, Zirconia

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2735  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims and objectives: New techniques are being developed to invent zirconia with high translucency and better esthetics leading to the development of several brands of monolithic zirconia. The aim of this study is to compare the translucency of three brands of zirconia available for the fabrication of monolithic restorations. Materials and methods: An in vitro study was designed to compare the translucency of three brands of zirconia available for the fabrication of monolithic restorations: Zirlux Zirconia (Vivadent Ivoclar), Zenostar Zr Translucent Zirconia (Weiland), and BruxZir Zirconia (Glidewell). All specimens were prepared to 0.5 mm thickness. Thirty zirconia specimens from each material were finished and polished. After drying, specimens were fired according to the manufacturers’ recommendations. A spectrophotometer (Color i5) was used for the translucency test. Each specimen was presented at the view port permitting the light to hit the center of the specimen. Results were saved into the software until all measurements were completed. The data were then transferred to an Excel sheet where translucency parameters were calculated. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the post hoc Bonferroni test were performed to analyze the results. Results: The one-way ANOVA test revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the groups. This study showed lower translucency of BruxZir in comparison to Zenostar and Zirlux when tested under standardized conditions. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant difference in the translucency between the different brands of zirconia available for monolithic restoration fabrication. Clinical significance: Different brands of zirconia have different degrees of translucency. Material selection should be customized in each case.


Hadeel K Abdalkadeer, Samaher M Almarshedy, Nasser M Al Ahmari, Mohammed M Al Moaleem, Abdullah A Aldosari, Nabiel A Al Ghazali

Influence of the Coca-Cola Drinks on the Overall Color of Glazed or Polished Porcelain Veneers Fabricated from Different Materials and Thicknesses: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:56 - 61]

Keywords: Coca-Cola, Color, Porcelain veneers

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2705  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the current study is to assess the influence of Coca-Cola drinks on the overall color of glazed or polished porcelain veneers fabricated of three different porcelain systems and two different thicknesses. Materials and methods: A total of 96 ceramic disk specimens were fabricated. The ceramic veneers were prepared to a standardized thickness of 1.0 mm ± 0.025 mm and 0.6 ± 0.025 (48 samples each group) using the following ceramic systems: Zircon, E-max press, and E-max CAD/CAM. Veneer samples from each system were divided into two subgroups (n = 8). First subgroup samples were glazed according to the manufacturer\'s instructions, and the other subgroup samples were adjusted with diamond burs then polished with ceramic polishing kit. Color was measured with Vita Easyshade spectrophotometer. Then all samples immersed with Cola drink, for 4 weeks, in a thermocycling machine and then the color were measured again and color change was recorded. Results: Significant differences in color change were noticed before and after immersing with Coca-Cola and thermocycling for all materials and thicknesses used (p < 0.01). Significant differences in color changes were noticed between glazed and polished samples (p < 0.001). No significant differences in color change were noticed when using different thicknesses for all materials used (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Different porcelain materials have shown significant color changes after immersing and thermocycling in Coca-Cola drinks. The color changes of polished porcelain specimens were more considerable than those of polished specimens for all porcelain materials and thicknesses used. This suggests reglazing of all esthetic restoration after any adjustments might be performed and before final cementation in an attempt to maintain the color stability in oral environment. Clinical significance: To achieve a perfect color stability of ceramic veneers, clinicians should take into consideration the possible color deviations that might result after any adjustment followed by polishing procedures to the ceramic surface. And, it is always preferable to do reglazing of porcelain restorations after any surface treatments and before final cementation.


Fatima L Al Otaibi, Ahmed F Althumairy, Budur T Al Ahmadi, Nouf M Alkhamis

Patients’ Preferences on Different Types of Esthetic Treatment in Saudi Arabia

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:62 - 67]

Keywords: Esthetic treatment, Veneers, Whitening,Bleaching

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2714  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Dental cosmetics have always had a large-scale impact on an individual\'s social life. A variety of dental treatment regimens ranging from composite resins to ceramics are available to enhance the oral esthetic appearance. Materials and methods: The present study aimed to identify the preferred dental cosmetic treatment regimen used in Saudi Arabia. The sample included 434 patients, who were asked to mention their preferred esthetic treatment. A close-ended, predesigned questionnaire was used to collect the data. The questionnaire was made using the survey monkey which was distributed to the study participants using social networking sites like WhatsApp and E-mail. The response data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Out of 434 respondents included in the study, 140 were males and 294 were females. The majority of the participants had taken some form of esthetic dental treatment (n = 230); of these composite buildups were the most common (n = 132), followed by bleaching (n = 84), veneers (n = 31) and prepless veneers (lumineers) (n = 11). It was noted that a majority of the surveyed population preferred permanent treatment modalities (n = 304) rather than temporary treatment strategies (n = 33). Conclusion: A significant proportion of participants preferred taking permanent treatment over the temporary treatment regimens. Clinical significance: Understanding patient\'s perception regarding their dental esthetics helps the clinicians to plan treatments which are patient compliant and elicits a higher level of therapeutic satisfaction.


Hisham A Mously

Effect of Two Implant-supported Partial Overdenture Attachment Design on the Periodontal Health

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:68 - 72]

Keywords: Ball and socket attachment, Gingival index, Locator system, Overdentures, Pocket depth

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2730  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of locator attachment and ball and socket (BS) attachment on the peri-implant and periabutment supporting structures on clinical pocket depth and gingival index in cases of limited interarch spaces in mandibular Kennedy class I implant-supported removable partial overdentures. Materials and methods: A comparative clinical trial was conducted among twenty partially edentulous patients aged 30–60 years. The study participants were randomly divided into two study groups based on the attachment system used: group I – locator attachment, and group II – BS attachment. Two implants were positioned in the 1st or 2nd molar area following the two-stage surgical protocol. Evaluation of the peri-implant and periabutment supporting structures was done at the time of overdenture insertion and after 6, 12, and 18 months by measuring the pocket depth and gingival index. Inter- and intragroup comparisons were done using independent-samples t test and paired-sample t test respectively. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: It was observed that there was a statistically significant increase in the pocket depth around the implant as well as the abutment in both groups at 6, 12, and 18 months when compared to baseline. Intergroup comparison for pocket depth and gingival index revealed nonsignificant results. However, the values were higher in the BS group. Conclusion: The locator attachment group had lower, though statistically not significant, pocket depth and gingival index scores around both the dental implant and the natural abutment as compared with the BS attachment. Clinical significance: Gingival health surrounding dental implant attachments is very crucial for the long-term success of dental implant, this could help the clinician to select the proper design for implant attachment underneath the over denture prosthesis.


Gaurav Patri, Pratik Agrawal, Nanjegowda Anushree, Suraj Arora, Jimly J Kunjappu, Shaheen V Shamsuddin

A Scanning Electron Microscope Analysis of Sealing Potential and Marginal Adaptation of Different Root Canal Sealers to Dentin: An In Vitro study

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:73 - 77]

Keywords: Dentinal tubule penetration, Marginal adaptation, Root canal sealer, Scanning electron microscope

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2733  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the sealing potential and marginal adaptation of different root canal sealers to dentin. Materials and methods: A total of sixty human lower premolars of the permanent dentition that were extracted were used for this study. The visible debris and calculus were removed from the extracted teeth ultrasonically and were kept for 2 hours in 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and stored in normal saline till next use. A low-speed diamond disc was used to section all the teeth samples at the cementoenamel junction. Later, cleaning and shaping of the canals was done. Based on the sealer used, the samples (each group consisting of 20 samples) were divided randomly into three groups: group I—bioceramic sealer, group II—resin-based sealer, group III—MTA-based sealer. All split samples were visualized under scanning electron microscope (SEM) at apical and coronal thirds of root canal, the marginal gap at root dentin and sealer interface were assessed. Results: The highest marginal adaptation (5.60 ± 0.12) was demonstrated by EndoSequence BC sealer, followed immediately by ProRoot MTA sealer (4.48 ± 0.12) and EndoREZ sealer (2.10 ± 0.54). A statistically significant difference (p = 0.001) was seen between the EndoSequence BC and ProRoot MTA sealer for apical and coronal marginal adaptation. Also, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between EndoSequence BC sealer vs EndoREZ sealer at coronal and EndoSequence BC sealer vs EndoREZ sealer and EndoREZ sealer vs ProRoot MTA sealer at apical third. Conclusion: The present study concluded that significant and better sealing ability and marginal adaptation was demonstrated by EndoSequence BC (bioceramic sealer) when compared to ProRoot MTA sealer (MTA-based sealer) and EndoREZ sealer (resin-based sealer). Clinical significance: Numerous endodontic sealers enter the market with various factors to attain acceptable seal. According to current study bioceramic sealer, is the appropriate sealer that hermetically seals all the margins.


Rashid I Mian, Fawzeyah FH Rashidi, Tahani M Alshammary, Saad Al Zubaidi, Freah Al Shammary, Junaid Amin, Rabia S Khan

Oral Health-related Knowledge and Assessment of Oral Health Status of Diabetic Patients Attending Dental Clinic at College of Dentistry, Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:78 - 82]

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Hail, Oral health, Periodontal diseases

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2729  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the oral health status and knowledge of diabetic and nondiabetic patients attending dental clinic at College of Dentistry, Hail, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: It was an observational cross-sectional study. Using nonprobability convenient sampling technique, data were collected from 202 respondents. A total of 202 diabetic and nondiabetic patients were screened for the study. Data were collected by interview using the structured, self-administered questionnaire, and assessment of oral health status was done by clinical examination. The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software. The data were displayed as numbers and percentages and association among the variable of interests was measured using Pearson Chi-square. Results: Of the 202 patients, 102 (50.6%) were males and 100 (49.4%) were females. Majority of the patients, 71 (35.2%) were in the age-group of 30–40 years. In all, 128 (63.4%) participants knew the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on oral health, 167 (82.7%) knew that diabetic patients needed special healthcare, 152 (75.25%) had never spoken to their doctors about oral health, and 164 (81.19%) had never spoken to their dentists regarding diabetes. Conclusion: The complications associated with oral health are more common in diabetic patients when compared to the nondiabetic patients. This is the case in both male and female patients visiting the College of Dentistry in the Hail region. Clinical significance: Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased susceptibility to oral infections especially periodontal disease. Role of a general dentist in diagnosis and raising patient awareness toward DM and its effects on oral health need to be emphasized.


Ashish B Lanjekar, Rahul R Bhowate, Suparna Bakhle, Abhay Narayane, Vipul Pawar, Ranjeet Gandagule

Comparison of Efficacy of Topical Curcumin Gel with Triamcinolone-hyaluronidase Gel Individually and in Combination in the Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:83 - 90]

Keywords: Hyaluronidase mucoadhesive semisolid gel, Oral submucous fibrosis, Topical curcumin mucoadhesive semisolid gel, Triamcinolone acetonide mucoadhesive semisolid gel

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2726  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To study the efficacy of topical curcumin mucoadhesive semisolid gel, triamcinolone acetonide/hyaluronidase mucoadhesive semisolid gel, and a combination of both in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty patients diagnosed with OSMF were randomly divided into groups I, II, and III. Each patients in groups I, II, and III was given professionally prepared mucoadhesive semisolid gel of curcumin, a combination of triamcinolone acetonide and hyaluronidase mucoadhesive semisolid gel, and a combination of all three, respectively. Patients were instructed to apply the gel thrice daily for 6 weeks on buccal mucosa bilaterally using the tip of index finger. Three parameters were evaluated at the end of each week, namely, mouth opening, burning on visual analog scale (VAS), and the color of oral mucosa on the binary scale. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: It was observed that the group administered the three drug combinations achieved the greatest mouth opening (mean increase 4.05 mm) as compared to the other two groups. It was observed that triamcinolone and hyaluronidase group reported reduction in burning sensation on VAS (mean difference 6) as compared to the other two groups. It was observed that group III (1% curcumin, 1% hyaluronidase and 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide combined) drug therapy showed better change in mucosa color as compared to groups I (1% curcumin) and II. Conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that curcumin has a therapeutic effect on patients diagnosed with OSMF. Maximum utilization and enhanced drug delivery were achieved with the help of a combination other two active drugs, namely, triamcinolone and hyaluronidase. Clinical significance: Curcumin role in the treatment of oral cancers and the precancer lesion is very promising.


Valentina Spicciarelli, Hani F Ounsi, Marco Ferrari, Giacomo Corsentino, Crystal Marruganti, Simone Grandini

Push-out Bond Strength of Fiber Posts Cemented Using New Universal Adhesives on Etched and Nonetched Intraradicular Dentin

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:91 - 96]

Keywords: Universal adhesives,Bond strength, Dark-curing, Fiber post, Laboratory research

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2750  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study was to assess if the curing mode and the etching mode could affect the push-out bond strength of different post cementation systems using two universal adhesives. Materials and methods: A total of 100 single-rooted teeth were divided into Prime & Bond Elect (PBE), Prime & Bond Active (PBA), and Prime & Bond XP (PBXP) as a control. The PBE, PBA, and PBXP were used in the self-etch (SE) and etch and rinse (E&R) mode. Post cementation was performed using Core X flow used in dark-cure and in light-cure. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test and post hoc Bonferroni and Dunnet tests. The Student\'s t test was performed to find significance between two independent groups. Results: Bond strength was significantly influenced by the adhesive strategies. The PBE and PBA obtained higher values when used in the SE mode (p < 0.001). Light-cured groups obtained significantly higher values (p < 0.001) compared to dark-cured groups. The post space region also had a significant effect on the bond strength; the apical third recorded lower values in all groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The PBA and PBE universal adhesives obtained higher PBS values when used in the SE mode and followed by the light-curing of resin cement. Clinical significance: Universal adhesives represent a good alternative to the conventional total-etch adhesive system for fiber post cementation. Since they perform better in SE, they would be recommendable in clinical practice, as they can be used with a simplified technique.


Bishnupati Singh, Subhash Chandra, Kumar Sourabh, Ajoy K Shahi, Swati Sharma, Sandeep Kumar

A Comparative Radiographic Evaluation of Occlusal Plane in Dentulous and Edentulous Subjects: A Clinical Study

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:97 - 104]

Keywords: Dentulous, Edentulous, Inferior border of mandible, Occlusal plane

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2737  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study is to establish a proportion between the inferior border of mandible and lower edge of the mental foramen and inferior border of mandible to occlusal plane for dentulous subjects and to evaluate the validity of this proportion in orienting the occlusal plane for edentulous subjects. Materials and methods: The occlusal plane was evaluated in the selected 50 dentulous and edentulous subjects for its relation to the mental foramen and inferior border of the mandible. The orthopantograms obtained were traced with the markings and the measurements were tabulated under different headings. After measuring the distances, the proportion between the distances was determined. The mean proportions of dentulous, edentulous, male, and female subjects were evaluated. Then the proportion of male subjects was compared with that of female subjects and dentulous subjects with that of edentulous subjects. Comparison of proportion between the different groups was done by using unpaired t test. The mean and standard deviation (SD) were determined for each group separately and were compared within each group. From the calculated “t” value, “p” the probability for error was found out. Results: In dentulous subjects, the proportion ranged from 1:3.53 to 1:4.40. The mean was 1:3.90. In edentulous subjects, the proportion ranged from 1:3.50 to 1:4.15. The mean was 1:3.84. On comparison, the difference between both the groups was 0.06. The difference was statistically insignificant (p = 0.14). In the comparison of dentulous male and female subjects, the difference obtained was 0.02. The difference was statistically insignificant (p = 0.77). The comparison of edentulous male and female subjects and the difference obtained was 0.03. The difference was statistically insignificant (p = 0.51). Conclusion: The derived proportion of 1:4 between the inferior border of mandible and mental foramen and inferior border of mandible and occlusal plane in edentulous patients as measured on an orthopantogram may yield a plane of occlusion similar to that existing in the dentulous state. Clinical significance: The above-drawn proportion between the inferior border of the mandible to the lower edge of the mental foramen and between the inferior border of the mandible and the occlusal plane in edentulous patients may yield a plane of occlusion which is oriented similar to that existing in the dentulous state. The proportions derived radiographically in this study can serve as a basis for future studies to establish the occlusal plane for edentulous subjects.


Hegang Li, Xun Ren, Yun Hu, Lijun Tan

Effects of the Forsus Fatigue-resistant Device on Skeletal Class II Malocclusion Correction

[Year:2020] [Month:January] [Volume:21] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:105 - 112]

Keywords: Skeletal effects,Class II malocclusion, Dentoalveolar effects, Forsus fatigue-resistant device

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2748  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To test the hypothesis that skeletal and dentoalveolar effects are both important in skeletal class II malocclusion corrected with the Forsus fatigue-resistant device (FRD). Materials and methods: A total of 35 patients (16 females and 19 males; age 12.0 ± 0.6 years) with skeletal class II malocclusion treated with the Forsus FRD were included. Lateral cephalometric radiographies before and after treatment were collected. Cephalometric analysis and superimpositions were applied. Pancherz\'s analysis was performed to discover the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects on all patients and 60% contribution was set as a milestone to classify. Statistical comparisons were performed by paired t testing (p < 0.05). Results: The mean treatment period of the Forsus FRD was 6.4 ± 0.2 months. All patients (AG) have been corrected to class I molar relationship in three mechanisms: 15 patients in the skeletal group (SG), 10 patients in the dentoalveolar group (DG), and 10 patients in the skeletal and dentoalveolar group (SDG). Four groups showed a significant change in skeletal sagittal relationship improvement (p < 0.05). The AG, SG, and SDG showed a significant improvement in the growth of the mandible (Co-Go, Go-Pog, and Co-Gn, p < 0.05). The DG showed a significant improvement in the growth of the mandibular body (Go-Pog, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Three mechanisms were found in skeletal class II malocclusion corrected with the Forsus FRD. Skeletal and dentoalveolar effects are both important in skeletal class II malocclusion corrected with the Forsus FRD. And skeletal and dentoalveolar effects played differential roles in different cases. Clinical significance: The mechanism of skeletal class II correction with Forsus FRD may divide into mandibular growth, dentoalveolar effects, and both.

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