The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2020 | April | Volume 21 | Issue 4

EDITORIAL

Alessio Zanza, Andrea Del Giudice

How to Improve Properties of Nickel–Titanium Rotary Instruments

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:351 - 352]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2796  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

An In-Vitro Assessment of Surface Roughness, Tensile Bond Strength and Antifungal Activity of Grape Seed Extract-modified Soft Liner

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:353 - 358]

Keywords: Antifungal activity, Grape seed extract, Soft liner, Surface roughness, Tensile bond strength

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2810  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the grape seed extract (GSE)-modified soft liner regarding surface roughness, tensile bond strength to the denture base material, and the antifungal activity. Materials and methods: The GSE powder was blended with the soft liner powder in ratios of 5 and 10% w/w, and three groups were employed: I, control; II, 5% w/w GSE-modified soft liner; III, 10% w/w GSE-modified soft liner. Evaluation parameters included surface roughness, tensile bond strength to the denture base material, and the antifungal activity. Changes in surface topography were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The statistical analysis was performed using the one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey’s test (α = 0.05). Results: The 5% w/w GSE-modified soft liner showed a significant increase in surface roughness, while both ratios (5 and 10% w/w) of the modified-soft liner exhibited significant increase in tensile bond strength and antifungal activity (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The GSE of 10% w/w considerably enhanced the antifungal activity and tensile bond strength of the modified soft liner to the denture base material without compromising its surface roughness. Clinical significance: The 10% w/w GSE-modified soft liner may be a promising formulation with antifungal activity. It could inhibit fungal adherence and development of fungi-induced lesions or exacerbation of existing ones.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Edoardo Bianco, Chiara Calvelli, Claudio L Citterio, Alberto Pellegatta, Pier M Venino

Evaluation with Micro-CT of the Canal Seal Made with Two Different Bioceramic Cements: Guttaflow Bioseal and Bioroot RCS

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:359 - 366]

Keywords: Abfraction, Air void, Bioceramic, Endodontic cement, Gutta-percha, Laboratory research, Micro-CT, Occlusion

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2816  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this work is to investigate the quality of root canal seals obtained by comparing two bioceramic cements, GuttaFlow bioseal and BioRoot RCS, focusing on the presence of voids created during the canal obturation procedure. Materials and methods: The voids are analyzed using a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) device. The study will be performed using images of the endodontic space before and after filling of a selected group of elements. Furthermore, the average thickness of the cement, the average quantity of gutta-percha compared to the total shaped volume, and the average quantity of the two cements, GuttaFlow bioseal and BioRoot RCS, with respect to the total shaped volume were considered. The apical, middle, and coronal thirds will also be investigated in a sectorial manner. Images have been analyzed using a CT-An™ software and visualized through a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the slices by the software CT-Vol™. Shapiro–Wilk test/Test D’Agostino-Pearson/Kolmogorov–Smirnov test were used to ensure the reliability of results. Results: No significant differences were observed in the amount of gutta-percha compared to the shaped volume between the GuttaFlow bioseal group and BioRoot RCS. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of voids. Conclusion: The data obtained from this study allowed to conclude that the samples filled with GuttaFlow bioseal and BioRoot RCS have a similar seal capacity since no statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups. No sample showed the absence of voids within the root canal obturation. Clinical significance: Even if the two cements tested showed differences in terms of void volume and ability to fill thin spaces, they should be considered both acceptable and equivalent in terms of clinical sealing ability.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Ghassan Masri, Rola Mortada, Hani Ounsi, Nawal Alharbi, Paul Boulos

Adaptation of Complete Denture Base Fabricated by Conventional, Milling, and 3-D Printing Techniques: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:367 - 371]

Keywords: 3-D printing, Adaptation, Complete denture base, Conventional, Milling

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2770  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the adaptation of complete denture base (CDB) manufactured by three different techniques: conventional, milling, and three-dimensional (3-D) printing. Materials and methods: A master cast was duplicated to create 60 gypsum casts. Twenty casts (n = 20) were attributed to each group. In the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) groups (milling and 3-D printing), the 40 gypsum casts reserved for these two groups were scanned. An STL file was obtained and a master CDB was designed and then fabricated according to each technique. In the conventional group, a polyvinyl siloxane putty mold was obtained from the milled CDB, and this mold was used to fabricate 20 conventional denture bases by compression molding using the silicon–gypsum technique in a bronze flask. The inner surfaces of the obtained 60 CDB were scanned and superimposed over their corresponding master cast. Deviation analyses were calculated using digital subtraction technique. Five functional areas (posterior palatal seal, anterior border seal, crest of the ridge, maxillary tuberosities, and palate) were selected to evaluate the variations in CBD adaptation. Results: Based on the results and color maps of all selected regions, milling technique offers the best adaptation. The crest of ridge in the conventional technique showed the least adaptation and the posterior palatal seal in the 3-D printing technique showed the best adaptation. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the CAD/CAM fabrication techniques seem to offer better adaptation of CDB compared to the conventional fabrication technique. Milled CDBs presented the most homogeneous distribution of adaptation, yet the 3-D printing process seems a promising techniques that needs to be addressed and perfected. Clinical significance: The CAD/CAM technologies can help overcome many limitations related to conventional impressions and therefore should be well investigated to improve the edentulous patient’s quality of life.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Simpy Amit Mahuli, Ali M Zorair, Mohammed Abdurabu Jafer, Alnomari Sultan

Antibiotics for Periodontal Infections: Biological and Clinical Perspectives

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:372 - 376]

Keywords: Antibiotic, Periodontitis, Plaque control, Periodontal pathogen

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2797  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The review is to highlight the use of antibiotics in periodontal infections and prevent indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Background: Periodontitis is the most common disease of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and its etiological factor can be related to the existence of virulent microorganisms in the dental plaque biofilm which harbors millions of microorganisms. In addition, the pathogenesis of this disease is greatly influenced by the host immune response that leads to the cyclic destruction and healing pattern. Review results: Periodontitis is mostly treated through mechanical debridement using surgical and nonsurgical therapy. However, many times, this treatment does not render desired results due to poor patient compliance, altered immune response, or other host-related factors. This leads to the administration of antibiotics as an adjunct to mechanical debridement. Antibiotics are useful in eliminating periodontopathic microbes, but these agents should be cautiously used and prescribed only if indicated. Conclusion: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics can lead to unforeseen adverse effects as well as the development of resistant strains of microorganisms. Clinical significance: Hence, it is crucial for the dentists to know the indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, correct choice, and dosage of the antimicrobial agent before prescribing it to their patients thereby ensuring the success of periodontal therapy. Thus, the clinician should keep in mind that the antibiotics are merely adjuncts to mechanical therapy and not its replacement.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Sonika Sharma, Shruti Premsagar, Saksham Madhok, Sumit Kumar, Manish Goyal

Comparison of Mesiodistal Width of Maxillary Anteriors with Arch Form in Various Malocclusions: A Retrospective Study

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:377 - 382]

Keywords: Arch form, Arch form template, Malocclusion, Maxillary anterior teeth, Mesiodistal width

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2800  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: This study was conducted for evaluating and comparing the mesiodistal width of upper anteriors in different malocclusions and its relation with various arch forms. Materials and methods: In total, 60 subjects with different malocclusions were examined. Mesiodistal width was measured for the anterior teeth using digital vernier caliper. 3M Unitek arch form template and two-dimensional (2D) model were superimposed to find out primarily the relation of arch form in specific malocclusion to the sum the mesiodistal width of the maxillary of anterior teeth and secondarily the relation of sum of the mesiodistal width of the maxillary anterior tooth with different arch forms. Results: The ovoid arch form was common in class I malocclusion with mean mesiodistal width of 50.43 mm. The tapered arch form was the common type in both class II and class III malocclusion with mean mesiodistal width of 49.96 and 45.15 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The mean of anterior mesiodistal width for Angle’s class III individuals was 45.15 mm considerably less than that of class II subjects and class I subjects, which signifies that the tooth material was more in the anterior region of the subject of class I followed by class II and class III malocclusions. Clinical significance: The performed study presents various maxillary dental arch forms observed in various malocclusions (Angle’s class I, class II, and class III). The ovoid and tapered arch forms exhibited the common occurrence, while the square form was the rarest.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Abdullah S Alshahrani, Hassan B Alamri, Faisal M Nadrah, Moteb K Almotire, Ahmed Y Alateeq, Ibraheem F Alshiddi, Sayed R Habib, Ala’a I Abu-Obaid

Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth Restored with Fiber Posts Luted with Composite Core Materials

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:383 - 389]

Keywords: Core buildup, Fiber post, Fracture resistance, In vitro study, Secondary monobloc, Self-adhesive resin cements

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2814  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the influence of using dual-cure composite core materials for fiber post luting on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors. Materials and methods: Fifty sound and recently extracted maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated and distributed into five groups. In the control group, access cavities were restored with the composite resin. Experimental groups had the coronal structure trimmed 2 mm above the cementoenamel junction. Teeth were restored with fiber posts and different combinations of luting and core materials: RelyX Unicem for post luting and MultiCore for core buildup; MultiCore for post luting and core buildup; RelyX Unicem for post luting and LuxaCore for core buildup; or LuxaCore for post luting and core buildup. All teeth were restored with zirconium crowns and subjected to thermocycling (6000 cycles 5/55°C). Loading of the teeth was applied at 135° to the palatal surface, using a universal testing machine at a cross-speed of 0.5 mm/minute until failure. The mode of failure was analyzed under a digital microscope. Results: The fracture resistance of the control group was significantly higher than the experimental groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the experimental groups (p > 0.05). All teeth demonstrated nonrestorable failures. Conclusion: With the presence of the ferrule effect and crown restoration, the selected materials for post luting and core buildup have no significant influence on the fracture resistance of the endodontically treated teeth. Clinical significance: The use of the same dual-cure composite core materials for fiber post luting and core buildup would simplify the clinical procedure without enhancement of the fracture resistance of the endodontically treated tooth.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Jazib Nazeer, Supriya Singh, Rohit Singh, Md A Iqubal

Assessment of the Role of Vitamin D in the Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:390 - 395]

Keywords: Autoimmune disorder, Oral lichen planus, Vitamin D

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2784  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Lichen planus is an autoimmune disease that can affect the skin and mucous membranes, including the oral mucosa. Vitamin D plays a very important role in the bone health along with boosting immunity. This study was carried out to assess the role of vitamin D in the treatment of oral lichen planus. Materials and methods: A sample size of 450 was taken which included patients showing clinical presentation of oral lichen planus. The patients were equally divided into three different groups based on their vitamin D levels. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 26.0. Results: The patients who were given the vitamin D supplementation showed the maximum improvement. The comparison of the data were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: It was concluded that vitamin D played an important role in the treatment of oral lichen planus. Clinical significance: The role of vitamin D in lichen planus needs to be explored. This study may be useful in conducting further study to assess the role in vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of oral lichen planus.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Ibrahim Barakat, Mohamed A Elpatal, AlWaleed Abushanan, Bahaa Eldin Anwar Abd elrady

Antibacterial Effect of Metronidazole vs Chlorhexidine Solutions in Treatment of Root Canals of Primary Anterior Teeth

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:396 - 399]

Keywords: Chlorhexidine, Dental caries, E. faecalis, Metronidazole, Pulpectomy

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2719  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial effect of 0.5% metronidazole, 2% chlorhexidine, and normal saline irrigant solutions against Enterococcus faecalis bacteria in the treatment of root canals of primary anterior teeth. Materials and methods: This study was carried out on sixty nonvital primary anterior teeth of Egyptian children diagnosed with ECC. These teeth were classified equally into three groups according to irrigation materials. A fresh sample was collected from each root canal after access opening before and 3 days after irrigation with the help of a paper point. The number of organisms (E. faecalis) before and after irrigation was compared for each group. Results: The bacterial count of E. faecalis was decreased in all groups however, these differences were statistically insignificant where (p <0.05). Conclusion: Both 0.5% metronidazole and 2.0% chlorhexidine appeared to be superior against E. faecalis bacteria as endodontic irrigants in pulpectomy anterior primary teeth with higher antibacterial efficacy compared to saline. Clinical significance: The success of endodontic treatment depends on the removal of microbes, from the root canals and avoidance of reinfection thus; this study provides an insight on the effects of different irrigant solutions to further help dental practitioners in the endodontic management of primary dentition.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Rohit Singh, Jazib Nazeer, Mohammad A Iqubal, Supriya Singh

A Comparative Assessment of the Management of Mandibular Angle Fractures using 3D Plates and 2D Mini Plates

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:400 - 403]

Keywords: Mandibular angle, Miniplates, Mouth opening

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2787  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare 2D plates with 3D mini plate system in the management of mandibular angle fractures. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 146 patients with mandibular angle fracture, who were equally divided into two groups of 73. Patients in group I were treated with 3D plating and in group II with 2D plating. In all cases, 2.0 mm titanium miniplates were used. The etiology of fracture, amount of mouth opening, and pain and sensory deficit were recorded. Clinical and radiographic assessment was done at 1, 3, and 6 months. Results: The etiology of mandibular angle fracture is roadside accident (RSA) seen in 110 (75.3%) cases, fall in 24 (16.4%), and assault in 12 (2.6%) cases. There was significant (p < 0.05) mouth opening in group I at 1 month postoperatively (32.4 mm) as compared to group II (27.5 mm), at 3 months in group I (33.6 mm) as compared to group I (30.2 mm), and at 6 months in group I (36.4 mm) as compared to group II (31.6 mm). After 1 month, sensory deficit was present in six patients in group I and 10 patients in group II. After 3 months, group I had no patients and three patients in group II. Right angle fracture was found in 71 patients (group I—36, group II—35). Mandibular right angle fracture in 58 patients (group I—28, group II—30). Conclusion: The authors found that the 3D miniplate system is more useful in the management of cases of mandibular angle fracture as compared to 2D miniplates. Clinical significance: There has been increase in mandibular fractures in the last few years. Appropriate management with 3D miniplates may be useful in providing better treatment outcomes.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Giulia Mazzucchi, Marco Lollobrigida, Domenica Laurito, Francesca Berlutti, Giorgio Serafini, Alberto De Biase

Microbiological and FE-SEM Assessment of d-PTFE Membrane Exposed to Oral Environment after Alveolar Socket Preservation Managed with Granular nc-HA

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:404 - 409]

Keywords: Alveolar socket preservation, Bacterial contamination, Bone graft, Dense polytetrafluoroethylene, Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2805  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze, by the aid of microbiological analysis and the field emission scanning electron microscopical (FESEM) analysis, the role of high-density polytetrafluoroethylene (d-PTFE) membranes in avoiding the microbial colonization of a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nc-HA) bone graft and the involvement of this colonization in the healing process. Materials and methods: Six patients underwent extraction of unrecoverable teeth, and a socket preservation technique was carried out with nc-HA synthetic bone graft and then covered with a d-PTFE membrane. After 28 days from surgery, FE-SEM analysis and BioTimer assay technique to assess the microbiological count of streptococci species were carried out. Data were collected and analyzed by the Student’s t test (confidence interval: 95%). Results: The mean amount of bacteria measured on the upper side of the membrane was 6.52 ± 0.50 CFU, while on the lower side, it was 6.59 ± 0.40 CFU. Significant differences were not found between the two sides of the membrane or between the different sectors (p > 0.05). The FE-SEM analysis revealed structured biofilms on both sides of the membrane: species of cocci, bacilli, and fusobacteria were recognizable in occasional settled vegetations. Conclusion: Since the amount of bacteria found was low, the improved impermeability of the d-PTFE membrane permitted the healing process to proceed uneventful and without signs of infection or inflammation. Clinical relevance: The infection of the graft site could lead to a failure of the socket preservation technique which could delay or compromise the rehabilitation following procedures. The use of d-PTFE can improve the bone regeneration thanks to its antimicrobial properties.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Indhuja R Saraswathi, Arun Sadasivan, Elizabeth Koshi, Steffi Vijayakumar, Chitra G Vallabhan, Sheethel M Vrinda

Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum Level of Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with and without Hypothyroidism

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:410 - 415]

Keywords: Hypothyroidism, Interleukin-6, Periodontitis, Thyroid function test, Tumor necrosis factor-α

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2812  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this article was to determine the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on clinical parameters and also to evaluate serum level of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in chronic periodontitis patients with and without hypothyroidism. Materials and methods: Subjects were 40 female patients (20 systemically healthy subjects with chronic periodontitis and 20 subjects with hypothyroidism and chronic periodontitis). Clinical parameters like plaque score, gingival score, gingival recession, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline and 4 weeks after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy included oral hygiene instructions and full-mouth scaling and root planing. A total of 5 mL of venous blood sample was collected from each subject at baseline and 4 weeks after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results: The clinical parameters and biochemical parameters like IL-6 and TNF-α in both groups showed pronounced reduction at the end of 4 weeks following nonsurgical periodontal therapy. However, simultaneous comparison of clinical and biochemical parameters between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that nonsurgical periodontal therapy contribute to reduction in serum level of IL-6 and TNF-α in systemically healthy subjects with chronic periodontitis and subjects with hypothyroidism and chronic periodontitis. Clinical significance: The prevalence of periodontitis as well as hypothyroidism is increasing nowadays. Interleukin-6 and TNF-α are found to play a significant role in pathobiology of both periodontitis and hypothyroidism. With the treatment of periodontitis, it is found that there is improvement in periodontal and thyroid status of the patients. So, it is an alert to health professionals about the relation of hypothyroidism and periodontitis so that they consider a multidisciplinary approach.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Eman I Al Shayea

Comparative Assessment between Ibuprofen, Chewing Gum, and Bite Wafers in Pain Control Following First Arch Wire Placement in Orthodontic Patients

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:416 - 420]

Keywords: Bite wafers, Chewing gum, Ibuprofen, Orthodontic treatment, Pain control

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2804  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of using bite wafers and chewing gum in relieving pain after the activation of the first arch wire among Saudi orthodontic patients and evaluating them in comparison with ibuprofen use. Furthermore, the study investigated the effect of chewing gum and plastic wafers on the frequency of orthodontic appliance breakage. Materials and methods: A total of 105 female patients aged 15–35 years, undergoing maxillary and mandibular fixed appliance treatment were classified randomly into three groups of 35 each. In each group, the patients were given one of the following treatments immediately after the placement of the first arch wire, every 8 hours for 1 week as needed: ibuprofen (400 mg), or a viscoelastic bite wafer, or chewing gum. A visual analog scale was given to the patients to record their pain perception following initial arch wire placement. In addition, the patients were asked to report any incidence of detached brackets while using the above methods. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: No statistically significant differences were found in pain perception at any time interval among the three groups. The pain experienced at bedtime and 24 hours after wire placement among different groups in the present study was found to be slightly higher with maximum intensity and the pain perception finding at different time intervals within each pain relief method was statistically significant (p = 0.000, p < 0.05). Furthermore, ANOVA results demonstrate no significant differences in bracket detachment between the groups (p = 0.20, p < 0.05). Conclusion: The use of bite wafers and chewing gum was effective and comparable to ibuprofen use for pain relief following the initial activation of fixed orthodontic appliances among Saudi orthodontic patients. In addition, the study found no clinically or statistically significant differences in bracket detachment between the groups. Clinical significance: The nondrug modalities of controlling pain such as chewing gum and/or bite wafers can be used as an alternative to ibuprofen use following the first activation of fixed orthodontic appliances.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Abhijeet R Sande, Sanjeela Guru, Rakshith Guru, Satish Gaduputi, Divya K Thati, Srinivasa T Siddeshappa

Gingival Crevicular Blood Glucose Levels. Is it a Reliable Tool for Screening Diabetes in a Dental Office?

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:421 - 425]

Keywords: Gingival crevicular blood, Glucometer, Glucose oxidase

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2752  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Periodontal disease is associated with gingival bleeding. Thus, the present study was aimed towards evaluating, whether the blood oozing during routine periodontal examination can be used for evaluating blood glucose levels. Materials and methods: A total of 100 patients reporting to Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, within the age group of 25–55 years were enrolled. In fasting condition, gingival crevicular blood (GCB), finger-stick blood (FSB) was measured using a glucometer and venous blood (VB) glucose values were measured in the laboratory with glucose oxidase method. All the parameters thus recorded were then subjected to statistical analysis. Results: When compared, the GCB glucose values, VB glucose values and the FSB glucose values measured with glucometer in the diabetic and nondiabetic group were found to be highly statistically significant (p = 0.000). Conclusion: Gingival crevicular blood collected during diagnostic periodontal examination can provide a valid and acceptable source for measuring blood glucose levels using a glucometer. In addition, the technique described is quick, safe, easy to perform and more acceptable to the patients. Clinical significance: Dental surgeon can play an active role in screening of patients for glucose levels during routine periodontal examination and help to increase the frequency of diabetes screening in dental offices especially in undiagnosed diabetic cases which can be referred to the physician for appropriate management of the condition.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Fahad Alkhudhairy

Dentin Conditioning Using Different Laser Prototypes (Er,Cr:YSGG; Er:YAG) on Bond Assessment of Resinmodified Glass Ionomer Cement

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:426 - 430]

Keywords: Bond integrity, Er,Cr:YSGG, Er:Yag, Resin-modified glass ionomer cement, Surface conditioning

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2807  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare various conditioning regimes (lased and conventional) on shear bond strength (SBS) of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) bonded to dentin. Materials and methods: Sixty non-carious intact maxillary molars were cleaned, isolated, and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). Before randomization, the dentin surface was exposed and finished. Samples in group I were conditioned using Er,Cr:YSGG laser (ECYL). Specimens in group II were conditioned using Er:YAG laser (EYL), and the dentin surfaces of specimens in group III and group IV were conditioned using cavity conditioner and K930. Similarly, the samples in group V and group VI were surface treated using 17% EDTA and total etch. All samples were bonded with RMGIC following conditioning regime. For SBS testing, the samples were placed in universal testing machine. A fracture analysis of debonded surfaces was evaluated using stereomicroscope at 40× magnification. Means and standard deviations (SDs) were calculated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc test at a significant level of p < 0.05. Results: The maximum bond strength values were observed in group VI total etch (23.85 ± 3.67). The lowest bond strength was displayed in lased dentin group II conditioned by EYL (11.65 ± 2.77). Dentin conditioned with ECYL, cavity conditioner, K930 conditioner, and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were found to be comparable, p > 0.05. Cohesive failure was dominant among experimental groups. Conclusion: Er,Cr:YSGG laser has a potential to be recommended for dentin conditioning prior to application of RMGIC. Clinical significance: Dentin conditioning enhances adhesion of RMGIC for improved prognosis and treatment outcome.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Carlo Ghezzi, Luca Ferrantino, Camilla Donghi, Serena Vaghi, Valeria Viganò, Davide Costa, Matteo Mandaglio, Alberto Pispero, Giovanni Lodi

Clinical Audit of Minimally Invasive Nonsurgical Techniques in Active Periodontal Therapy

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:431 - 437]

Keywords: Clinical audit, Periodontitis, Supportive periodontal therapy, Tooth loss

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2815  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims: Periodontitis is one of the most widespread diseases worldwide. Many efforts have been made to increase the efficacy of periodontitis therapy as much as possible. Recently, minimally invasive nonsurgical techniques (MINST) were introduced in the periodontal field as an alternative to minimally invasive surgical techniques (MIST). This clinical audit aims to evaluate the results of MINST in the initial phase of treatment for periodontitis. Materials and methods: One hundred seven patients with periodontitis who were treated with MINST between 2013 and 2017 and reevaluated after 2 months were included in this clinical audit. The primary outcome analyzed was the proportion of pocket closure. The secondary outcomes were tooth extraction before active periodontal therapy, full-mouth plaque score (FMPS) change, full-mouth bleeding score (FMBS) change, average probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction, and average clinical attachment level (CAL) gain between the baseline and reevaluation values. Results: A total of 2,407 teeth were included in the analysis. At the patient level, the treatment resulted in a mean pocket closure rate of 71.6 ± 15.7% for sites with an initial PPD ≥5 mm. The treatment was statistically significantly (p < 0.001) more effective with respect to the primary outcome compared with expected values reported in a recent meta-analysis (57%). The subgroup analysis revealed statistically significant differences between single and multirooted teeth and between shallow (5–6 mm) and deep pockets (≥7 mm) at the baseline. Conclusion: Nonsurgical periodontal therapy with MINST achieved satisfactory results that were better than expected based on the scientific literature. Single-rooted and shallow pockets showed the best proportion of pocket closure at the reevaluation after treatment. Clinical significance: Minimally invasive nonsurgical techniques can be the treatment of choice when approaching periodontally diseased patients with nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Farzaneh Golfeshan, Sepideh Khandadash, Parisa Salehi, Marziye Afsa

The Effect of Maxillary Posterior Space Discrepancy on the Molars and Overbite in Class II Malocclusions with Different Vertical Patterns

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:438 - 444]

Keywords: Cephalometry, Molar angulation, Overbite, Posterior space discrepancy

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2806  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the influence of maxillary posterior space discrepancy (MPDD) on angulation and vertical position of molars in patients with skeletal class II malocclusions, presenting long, short, and normal vertical growth patterns. Materials and methods: In total, 120 lateral cephalograms of patients (mean age: 23 years) with skeletal class II malocclusion were evaluated. Patients were divided into six groups based on their vertical growth pattern (normal, long, and short faces) and the presence or absence of maxillary posterior discrepancy. Maxillary molars’ sagittal angulation and vertical position were measured on cephalograms via Dolphin™ three dimensional (3D) software (version 11.5). The comparison between groups with the same vertical dimension and different status of MPDD was done with independent t test. The analysis of analysis (ANOVA) was used to make pairwise comparison between all six groups. Finally, a multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of molar position and MPDD on the anterior overbite. Results: The results showed that the angulation of the maxillary first molar was not statistically different between groups with the same vertical dimension but varied in terms of MPDD. The maxillary second molar was more distally inclined in patients with MPDD than those without MPDD with short and normal facial types (p value = 0.016 and p value = 0.001, respectively). The second molar had significantly more distal angulation in long face patients than short and normal face participants, without considering the status of MPDD. The upper first and second molars were erupted more in patients with long than short or normal faces, without any influence of MPDD. Conclusion: The presence of MPDD caused more distal inclination of the maxillary second molar, in skeletal class II patients with short and normal vertical growth patterns. Clinical significance: The status of MPDD and its effect on the maxillary second molar teeth should be considered in skeletal class II patients with short and normal vertical growth patterns.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Fouad AN Alharbi, Ali M Makrami, Ghassan M Al-Iryani, Amal A Maghdi

Patterns and Etiology of Maxillofacial Fractures: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:445 - 452]

Keywords: Mandibular fractures, Maxillofacial fractures, Road traffic accidents

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2808  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence, common age, gender, causes, types, treatment modality, and complication of the maxillofacial fractures for the patients admitted to King Fahad Central Hospital in Gizan City, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases admitted to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) ward at King Fahad Central Hospital (KFCH) in Gizan City, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed for presence of maxillofacial fractures. The statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS version 20. Results: A total of 166 patients with maxillofacial fractures were included in this study. There were 140 males and 26 females. The most affected age-group was 21–30 with a mean age of (30.69 ± 14.65 standard deviation, SD) and the male–female ratio was 5.4:1. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were found to be the most common cause of maxillofacial fractures (52.4%). The mandibular body was fractured more than any other maxillofacial bones (15.7%) followed by mandibular angle (13.3%) and zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) (12.0%). Nine cases (5.4%) of the associated injuries were diagnosed as head injuries. Open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) was the most common treatment methods (72.3%) utilized in this study. Conclusion: Maxillofacial fractures most commonly affected young individuals in the 21–30-year-old age-group, often as a result of RTA, and body of the mandible was the most frequent site of fracture. Clinical significance: The prevalence, common age, gender, causes, types, treatment modality, and complication of the maxillofacial fractures for the patients admitted can be assessed from the present study.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Islam Saad

Photobiomodulation Effect of Low-level Laser Therapy as a Palliative Treatment of Symptomatic Geographic Tongue (A Double-blinded Randomized Clinical Trial)

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:453 - 457]

Keywords: Geographic tongue, Low-level laser therapy, Photobiomodulation

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2802  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of photobiomodulation (PBM) of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as a palliative treatment of symptomatic geographic tongue. Materials and materials: This randomized double-blinded controlled clinical trial was performed on 50 patients with symptomatic geographic tongue (GT). Participants were allocated randomly into study and control groups. A 660-nm diode laser was applied on randomly selected patients of the study group (n = 25) over the complained site for 2 minutes with continuous laser beam application. For the control group (n = 25), no application of 660-nm diode laser was performed. None of the participants were aware if they received the LLLT or placebo treatment. Patients were assessed for the level of pain, burning sensation, and size of the lesion before starting LLLT “T0” and during recall visit “T1, T2, and T3.” Results: The study group showed a low level of pain, burning sensation, and better healing with statistically significant differences at T2 and T3 of the follow-up period, with a level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Conclusion: Low-level laser therapy can be used to adequately relieve significant discomforts associated with GT and accelerate healing and restoring of the patient’s quality of life. Clinical significance: To develop a framework based on the results regarding the photobiomodulation effect of a 660-nm diode laser to relieve pain and burning sensation associated with symptomatic GT, which increases patients’ perception toward the services provided to them.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Sharayu Nimonkar, Seema Sathe, Vikram M Belkhode, Sweta Pisulkar, Surekha Godbole, Pranali V Nimonkar

Assessment of the Change in Color of Maxillofacial Silicone after Curing Using a Mobile Phone Colorimeter Application

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:458 - 462]

Keywords: Facial prosthesis, Hue, Maxillofacial silicone, Mobile phone colorimeter application, Saturation, Value.

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2803  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the change in color of the maxillofacial silicone after curing using a mobile phone colorimeter application. Materials and methods: A two-piece metal mold was fabricated. Twenty five samples were made using M511, maxillofacial silicone. A jig was prepared to hold the mobile phone at a fix distance from the samples. The color was measured for each sample in terms of HSV (hue, saturation, value) with the mobile phone colorimeter application after manipulation and after polymerization of the samples. Data were statistically analyzed using the Student’s paired t test and the software used in the analysis was SPSS 22.0 version. Results: The mean difference of hue was 1.32 ± 2.71, with p value 0.053. Mean differences in saturation was 0.72 ± 2.01, with p value 0.066. Mean differences in value were 2.16 ± 3.11, with a p value 0.002. The measure of value showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Conclusion: There was a significant change in the value of the color of the maxillofacial silicone after polymerization. Clinical significance: Increasing the value of the color by 2–3% at the time of manipulation of the maxillofacial silicone with the use of a mobile phone colorimeter application can help the clinician to reproduce the same color in the final prosthesis after curing to achieve a predictable esthetic outcome for a facial prosthesis.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Maddalone Marcello, Mirabelli Luca, Breschigliaro Sara, Baldoni Marco

Radiographic Evaluation of the Bone Remodeling on Tilted Osseointegrated Implants: Follow-up at 1 Year

[Year:2020] [Month:April] [Volume:21] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:463 - 470]

Keywords: Bone resorption, Implant complications, Implants, Osseointegration, Tilted implants

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2799  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of vertical peri-implant resorption around implants inserted with an inclination increased more than 10° at a distance of at least 1 year from insertion. Materials and methods: For the realization of the study, a sample consisting of 47 patients for a total of 115 implants was selected. We excluded all those subjects whose conditions could have compromised the outcome of the treatment. An orthopantomography of the dental arches was made using Orthophos XG 3D Sirona at time T0 (at the end of definitive insertion of prosthesis) and at time T1 (at least 1 year after T0) with the aim of an individualized positioner. In this study, all the implants with inclination equal to or greater than 10° were subdivided into three groups, and the implants with inclination between 0 and 10 were used as control sample. Results: In group I, there is a statistically significant difference in at least one of the two sides (distal one) between T0 and T1. In groups II and III, there is a statistically significant difference in the degree of bone resorption on the mesial side with respect to distal side. In group IV, a statistically significant difference on both sides was evidenced. The implant survival at a distance of 1 year was equal to 100% of cases. Conclusion: Surgeons must take into account the possibility that an increase in inclination of implants may lead to a more rapid resorption of bone mesially or distally. Clinical significance: The direction of the prosthetic load transmitted to the fixture is a variable that could influence the degree of reabsorption of both mesial and distal bone structures according to both laboratory and clinical data.

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