The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2022 | November | Volume 23 | Issue 11

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V Vishnu Priya, Y Dinesh, Vishnu Priya Veeraraghavan, A Thirumal Raj, Shankargouda Patil

Assessing the Potential Applications of Epidrugs in Epigenetic-mediated Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1077 - 1078]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3347  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Jakob Fehlhofer, Carlos Fernandez-Ulrich, Aron Wohlers, Marco R Kesting, Andrea Rau, Mayte Buchbender

A Retrospective Analysis of Postoperative Abscess Formation Following Wisdom Tooth Removal and Their Clinical Condition and Localization

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1079 - 1084]

Keywords: Abscess, Complications, Oral surgery, Wisdom tooth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3427  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: As a common procedure in oral surgery, the removal of wisdom teeth (3M) is associated with a variety of postoperative complications. This study reports of deep tissue abscesses after the removal of 3M in correlation to several factors. Materials and methods: Patients between 2012 and 2017 with removed 3M were retrospectively evaluated in terms of clinical condition and localization and thus assigned tog A (removal of asymptomatic 3M) or group B (removal of symptomatic 3M). Moreover, they were analyzed in terms of abscesses after the removal and correlation with various parameters: localization of the abscess, general diseases, perioperative antibiotic treatment, number of days from removal of the tooth to abscess formation, and postoperative complications after primary abscess incision. Results: About 82 patients (male n = 44, female n = 38) were included, with 88 wisdom teeth removed and postoperative abscesses. Postoperative abscesses occurred more frequently in group B (n = 53) with n = 29 in IIB localization, without a significant correlation. Patients in this group were older, and there were more surgical abscess incisions needed, despite a longer treatment with oral and intravenous antibiosis that correlated with neurologic diseases and age. Younger patients reported significantly more pain. Conclusions: Detection of potential 3M pathologies at an early and asymptomatic stage is essential to avoid postoperative complications following 3M removal. Additional prospective studies are necessary to develop corresponding guidelines. Clinical significance: Wisdom tooth extraction is the most common operation in oral surgery, and therefore, adequate risk evaluation is still required.



Abdulkhaleq Mohammed Qaraghuli, Antonio Signore, Stefano Benedicenti, Mohamed Tarek El Halawani, Luca Solimei

Comparison and Effect of Common Beverages on Color Stability of Different Esthetic Restorative Materials: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1085 - 1090]

Keywords: Ceramics, Color, Composite, Esthetic materials, Zirconia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3419  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to assess the color stability of different esthetic veneer restorative materials (feldspathic ceramic, hybrid ceramic, zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass ceramic, and composite resin) after being exposed to commonly consumed beverages that have staining potential. Materials and methods: Sixty specimens were prepared into rectangular blocks with fixed dimensions of 10 × 12 × 2.5 mm. Machinable feldspathic ceramic (FC), zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass ceramic (LS), and a hybrid ceramic (HC) were milled using CAD/CAM (n = 15), and specimens of microparticle composite resin (MPC) were manually prepared by with the same dimensions (n = 15). All specimens were randomly divided into three subgroups (= 5) according to immersing solutions used (coffee, black tea, and red wine). All specimens were immersed for a period of 72 hours. A colorimetric evaluation was done for each specimen before and after immersion using a spectrophotometer and the difference in color was calculated according to the CIE-Lab system. To analyze the data, two-way ANOVA and one-way ANOVA tests of significance were used to compare between the different study groups, followed by pairwise comparisons using post hoc test (Tukey). Results: Different restorative materials showed statistical significance regarding color change after staining (p < 0.001); however, no statistical significance in color change (p > 0.05) was found between the different beverages used. Conclusion: All tested ceramic materials had better color stability compared with composite resin. All the staining beverages used in the current study might cause a significant color change in the tested restorative materials. Clinical significance: The color stability of esthetic restorative materials affects their clinical performance in the oral cavity, where the restorative materials are usually exposed to staining beverages that are frequently consumed by patients. Therefore, it is important to understand the staining effect of the different beverages on esthetic restorative materials.



Ahmed A Thawaba, Nehal F Albelasy, Amira M Elsherbini, Ahmad M Hafez

Comparison of Enamel Surface Roughness after Bracket Debonding and Adhesive Resin Removal Using Different Burs with and without the Aid of a Magnifying Loupe

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:9] [Pages No:1091 - 1099]

Keywords: Magnifying loupe, Profilometer, Scanning electron microscopy, Surface roughness

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3432  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of using a magnifying dental loupe on enamel surface roughness during adhesive resin removal by different burs. Materials and methods: Ninety-six extracted premolar teeth were randomly divided according to the bur used with or without the aid of a magnifying loupe into four equal groups (N = 24): group I: naked eye tungsten carbide burs (NTC); group II: magnifying loupe tungsten carbide burs (MTC); group III: naked eye white stones (NWS); and group IV: magnifying loupe white stones (MWS). The initial surface roughness (Ra) T0 was evaluated using a profilometer, and the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) technique. The metal brackets were bonded and debonded after 24 hours with debonding plier. After adhesive removal, Ra was evaluated again (T1) also the time spent on adhesive removal was recorded in seconds. The samples were finally polished by Sof-Lex discs and Sof-Lex spirals, and the third Ra evaluation was performed (T2). Results: The results of two-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that all burs increased surface roughness at T1 as compared to T0 (p < 0.001) with the highest Ra values shown in group III followed by group IV, group I, and group II. After polishing, no significant difference was noted in Ra values in group I and group II at T0 vs T2 (p = 1.000), while it was significant in group III and group IV (p < 0.001). Regarding the time required for adhesive removal, the shortest time was in group IV followed by groups III, II, and I, respectively. Conclusion: The use of a magnifying loupe affects the quality of the clean-up procedure by reducing the enamel surface roughness and the time spent on adhesive removal. Clinical significance: Using a magnifying loupe was helpful during orthodontic debonding and adhesive removal.



Sumanth Rangarajan, N Raj Vikram, L Xavier Dhayananth, P Rajakumar, Sudhakar Venkatachalapathy, N Karikalan

Efficacy of Fluoride Varnish with Casein Phosphopeptide and Amorphous Calcium Phosphate vs Fluoride Varnish in Prevention of White Spots Lesion in fixed Orthodontic Patients: In Vivo Study

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1100 - 1105]

Keywords: Fluoritop, MI Varnish, Remineralization, White spot lesion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3404  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the in vivo efficiency of Michigan (MI) varnish containing casein phosphopeptide (CPP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and Fluoritop containing sodium fluoride (5% NaF) in the prevention and remineralization of white spot lesions (WSLs) around orthodontic brackets at days 28 and 56 after bonding. Materials and methods: A total of 30 patients were selected and divided into two groups I (MI varnish) II (Fluoritop varnish) of 15 patients in each group. All the patients were bonded and then varnish was applied around the brackets. Right-side upper and lower first premolar teeth were taken as the control group and left-side upper and lower first premolar teeth as the experimental group. Also, 14, 24 teeth were extracted on day 28 after bonding and 34, 44 teeth after day 56 of bonding. Samples were collected and sent to laboratory for evaluation of surface microhardness (SMH). Results: Based on the statistics results, there was a significant decrease in demineralization and an increase in remineralization of WSLs after the application of varnish. No statistical significance was found between the effectiveness of MI varnish and Fluoritop except in the cervical region. Conclusion: Through our study, we concluded that no statistical significance was found between the effectiveness of MI varnish and Fluoritop except in the cervical region where MI varnish was found to be more effective than Fluoritop in preventing WSLs. Clinical significance: The results from the above study concluded that CPP–ACP varnish can be an effective method in preventing WSLs in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.



Ahmed Rizk Ali Mostafa, Samaa Nagy Kotb, Omnia Abdel-Hamid El-Shihy

Internal Adaptation and Marginal Accuracy of Two Different Techniques-based Poly (ether ether ketone) Single Crowns: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1106 - 1110]

Keywords: CAD–CAM technique, Internal fit, Marginal adaptation, PEEK and Press techniques

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3429  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate how different fabrication techniques affected the marginal accuracy and internal adaptability of poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) molar single crowns. Materials and methods: Twenty PEEK crowns were constructed using two different fabrication techniques, and they were divided into two main groups (PEEK-CAD and PEEK-pressed). PEEK-CAD crowns were numbered from 1 to 10. PEEK-pressed crowns were numbered from 11 to 20. Each group had 10 PEEK crowns, and both were constructed over a master die. For internal fit measurements, silicone replica bodies were built and cut into two halves buccolingually. Marginal accuracy was measured using three evenly spaced landmarks along the specimen's cervical circumference on each surface using a Leica L2 APO* microscope. Results: In terms of marginal accuracy, the Press group had a statistically significant greater mean marginal gap value than the computer aided-designing (CAD) group. While in terms of internal fit, there was no statistically significant difference in internal fit between the CAD and Press groups. At a significance level of two-tailed p-value = 0.21 (p > 0.05). Conclusion: PEEK-CAD crowns demonstrated higher marginal accuracy and nearly similar internal fit when compared to PEEK-pressed crowns. Clinical significance: PEEK material could be used as a substitute for zirconia for a full coverage posterior restoration.



Eman Saad Radwan, Ahmed Maher, Mona A Montasser

Comparative Evaluation of Twin Block Appliance and Fixed Orthodontic Appliance in Early Class II Malocclusion Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:11] [Pages No:1111 - 1121]

Keywords: Mandibular retrusion, Skeletal class II, Twin block

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3426  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: To compare skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue changes between Twin block and early fixed orthodontic appliance for class II division 1 malocclusion treatment through a randomized controlled trial. Materials and methods: Sample and randomization: This study was a randomized controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio in which 40 patients were divided equally into two groups: control and experimental; each group had an equal number of boys and girls. Randomization was achieved using random blocks of 20 patients with allocation concealed in sequentially numbered, opaque, and sealed envelopes. Blinding was only applicable for data analysis of radiographic measurements. Intervention: Twin block appliance was used in the experimental group for 1 year. However, control group was treated with fixed appliance. Inclusion criteria: Skeletal class II division 1 malocclusion with mandibular retrognathism; cephalometric angular measurements: SNA ≥ 82, SNB ≤ 78, ANB ≥ 4; overjet ≥6 mm; and patient in circumpubertal stage cervical vertebral maturation (CVM2 and CVM3). Parameters for evaluation: Cephalometric skeletal, dental, and soft tissue angular and linear measurements were used for evaluation. Results: SNB increased remarkably by 4° in the Twin block group, but only by 0.68 in the control group. There was a significant decrease in vertical dimensions (SN-GoGn) in the Twin block group compared to control group (p = 0.002). Significant enhancement in the facial profile of the patients was observed. Conclusions: The Twin block appliance induced significant skeletal and dental changes. These changes were more obvious relative to the slight changes induced by natural growth. Clinical significance: Early treatment of Class II due to mandibular retrusion with Twin block functional appliance is recommended due to its favourable skeletal effect. Early treatment with fixed appliance affects mainly the dentoalveolar component. Long term follow-up is needed for further insights.



Jayanthi Govindarajan, Bahavathi Ananthan Hemasathya, Bharath Naga Reddy, Senthil Nathan, Sriram Sankar, Savadamoorthi Kamatchi Subramani

Comparative Assessment of Novel Collagen Cross-linking Agents on Push-out Bond Strength of Two Different Sealers: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1122 - 1127]

Keywords: Cashew shell liquid, Collagen cross-linking agents, Push-out bond strength

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3439  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To assess the push-out bond strength and tubular penetration of resin-based and bioceramic sealers after employing two collagen cross-linking agents, namely, cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on sodium hypochlorite treated root canal dentin. Materials and methods: Fifty human permanent mandibular premolars selected were decoronated at CEJ, this was followed by cleaning and shaping protocols, root canals were enlarged up to 20 sizes with 6% taper and were randomly divided into the following 5 groups with 10 samples each based on the cross-linking agent and the sealer: • Group I: Irrigation with saline (control). • Group II: Irrigation with cashew nut shell liquid followed by bioceramic sealer obturation. • Group III: Irrigation with cashew nut shell liquid followed by resin-based sealer obturation. • Group IV: Irrigation with EGCG followed by bioceramic sealer obturation. • Group V: Irrigation with EGCG followed by resin-based sealer obturation. Five specimens in each group were evaluated for push-out bond strength with the universal testing machine while the remaining five specimens in each group were evaluated for depth of sealer penetration by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data was recorded, tabulated, and statistically analyzed. Results: The push-out bond strength was found to be maximum in the apical region in all the five groups followed by the middle third and coronal region. The maximum push-out bond strength was seen in group II followed by groups III and IV, and least in group V. The mean depth of tubular penetration of sealers was found to be effective in the coronal portion followed by the middle third while the apical third region showed the least depth penetration of sealers into the tubules. The maximum penetration of sealers was revealed in group V followed by groups III and IV, and least in group II. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that push-out bond strength was found to the maximum in specimens irrigated with cashew nut shell liquid and obturated with bioceramic sealer. The maximum push-out bond strength was seen in the apical third of all root canals followed by the middle and coronal region. The scanning microscopic analysis revealed maximum mean tubular penetration in the coronal portion followed by the middle third and apical third. A greater penetration was seen in specimens irrigated with EGCG and obturated with hybrid sealer. Clinical significance: Selection of sealers plays a pivotal role in the success of endodontic therapy. Leakage-related issues can compromise the bond strength enhancing the bond strength can be achieved through the addition of cross-linking agents.



Merve Abaklı İnci, Emre Korkut

Is Bioactive Glass an Effective Agent in Pulp-capping Treatments?: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial with One-year Follow-up

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:8] [Pages No:1128 - 1135]

Keywords: Bioactive glasses, Biocompatible materials, Calcium hydroxide, Dental pulp, Pulp capping agents

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3428  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: Indirect pulp-capping treatment is a procedure applied to teeth with deep and close-to-pulp caries lesions and without pulp degeneration symptoms. This study aimed to explore the use of a material containing bioactive glass for indirect pulp capping in primary and permanent teeth. Materials and methods: The study included 145 patients, aged 4–15 years, without any systemic disease and 100 primary second molars and 100 permanent first molars in total. Four material groups were determined: calcium hydroxide (Dycal-DC group), glass ionomer (Biner LC–BC group), calcium silicate (TheraCal LC–TC group), and Bioactive glass-containing ACTIVA BioACTIVE-AC group. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were made 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the treatment. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: During the 12-month follow-up period, the DC and TC groups were more successful clinically (94%), while the DC and AC groups were found to be more successful radiographically (94%). However, no statistically significant difference was found between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supported the view that the success of indirect pulp-capping treatments was independent of the material used. Clinical significance: This study demonstrated that a material containing bioactive glass, ACTIVA BioACTIVE-Base/Liner, can be used safely in indirect pulp-capping processes.



Maneesha Das, Ahmed Abdullah Al Malwi, Abinash Mohapatra, M Mohammed Abdul Kader, Ahmed Babiker Mohamed Ali, Shriya C Shetty, Mirza Muzaamill Baig

In Vitro Assessment of Sealing Ability of Various Materials Used for Repair of Furcal Perforation: A SEM Study

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1136 - 1139]

Keywords: Furcal perforation, Root repair material, Scanning electron microscope, Sealing ability

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3425  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the current in vitro research was to evaluate the sealing capacity of three different agents employed for the repair of perforations at the furcation area. Materials and methods: Recently 60 extracted human mandibular permanent molars having well apart plus fully formed roots, and intact furcation were chosen. The 60 samples were allocated at random to three groups of 20 samples: Group I: Furcation perforation repair by means of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-Angelus, Group II: Furcal perforation repair using Biodentine, Group III: Furcal perforation repair by EndoSequence. The specimens were subjected to sectioning with a hard tissue microtome and the sectioned parts of the samples were then examined. The specimens were subjected to gold sputtering and visualizing beneath scanning electron microscope (SEM) at 2000× magnification for assessing the sealing capacity of the agents. Results: The highest sealing capacity was noted with the use of Biodentine at 0.96 ± 0.10, in pursuit by EndoSequence use at 1.18 ± 0.14 and MTA-Angelus use at 1.74 ± 0.08. The disparity amid the three groups was statistically significant with p < 0.001. Conclusion: In conclusion, it may be inferred that Biodentine exhibited the finest sealing capacity than EndoSequence and MTA- Angelus. It may thus be given consideration as a substance of preference for the repair of furcal perforation. Clinical significance: Using biologically compatible substances may be suggested to amend perforations thereby decreasing the occurrence of inflammatory response in the neighboring tissues. The sealing capacity is a significant feature in supporting the result of a root canal treatment of a tooth.



Sahar Mohammed ElHassanien Mohammed, Salwa Mohammad Awad, Ahmed Hamdy Wahba

Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Silver-modified Atraumatic Restorative Technique vs Atraumatic Restorative Technique in Primary Teeth: A Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1140 - 1145]

Keywords: Atraumatic restorative technique, Randomized clinical trial, Silver diamine fluoride, Silver-modified atraumatic restorative technique

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3437  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To compare the clinical outcomes of silver-modified atraumatic restorative technique (SMART) vs atraumatic restorative technique (ART) in primary teeth. Materials and methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 30 children. The study was split-mouth design, so each group was consisted of 30 children. Children aged 3–6 years old of both genders. Communication with the children was established. Gross debris from cavitation was removed. Carious dentin on walls was excavated using spoon excavator and low-speed contra with round or fissure bur. The areas to be treated were isolated with cotton rolls. For ART, glass ionomer cement (GIC) was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. For silver-modified atraumatic restorative technique (SMART), a protective coating was applied to the lips and skin to prevent a temporary tattoo. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) was applied carefully using bended microsponge brush. It was applied directly to only the affected tooth surface. The lesion was dried for 15 seconds with gentle flow of compressed air. After 1 week, GIC was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. Clinical evaluation was done for all teeth at 6 and 12 months. The data were collected and then statistically analyzed using the Chi-square test to show the difference between groups. Results: The restoration of the first primary molar with ART restoration alone showed a lower success rate when compared with the restoration with a combination of SDF and ART (SMART technique), with percentages of 70% and 76.67% and 53.33% and 60% after 6 months and 12 months of follow-up, respectively. Conclusion: Silver diamine fluoride is successful in arresting dentin caries and can be used to increase the efficacy of the ART technique in primary teeth. Clinical significance: It is recommended to use SDF as a noninvasive approach to control dentin caries with the ART technique.



Sofia Rodriguez-Fitzpatrick, Ashley Gonzalez, Brandon Dudar, Udochukwu Oyoyo, So Ran Kwon

Dental Students’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Confidence toward Evidence-based Dentistry: A 5-year Retrospective Study

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1146 - 1149]

Keywords: Coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic, Curriculum, Dental students, Evidence-based dentistry

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3418  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The purpose was to assess dental students’ knowledge, attitude, and confidence toward evidence-based dentistry in five graduating Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) classes. Materials and methods: All dental students (class of 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022, and 2023) enrolled in the D3 research design course were required to take a pre-Knowledge, Attitude, and Confidence in Evidence-based Dentistry (KACE) survey. On completion of the 11-week course, a post-KACE survey was distributed to compare the differences in the three domains of evidence-based dentistry (EBD). For the knowledge domain, the responses from the 10 questions were converted to either correct (1) or wrong (0) so that the compiled scores could range from 0 to 10. The attitudes and confidence domains used a five-point Likert scale. The compiled attitude score was a sum of the responses from 10 questions yielding a range from 10 to 50. For confidence, the compiled score ranged from 6 to 30. Results: The mean knowledge scores of all classes together before and after training were 2.7 and 4.4, respectively. Overall, there was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-knowledge indicating an improvement in knowledge associated with the training (p < 0.001). The mean attitudes of all classes together before and after the training were 35.3 and 37.2, respectively. Overall, there was a statistically significant improvement in attitude (p < 0.001). The values of mean confidence of all classes together before and after the training were 15.3 and 19.5, respectively. Overall, there was a statistically significant improvement in confidence (p < 0.001). Conclusions: A dental curriculum emphasizing Evidence-based practice (EBD) resulted in increased knowledge acquisition, improved attitude, and confidence toward EBD of dental students. Clinical significance: Educational initiatives emphasizing evidence-based dentistry increase students’ knowledge acquisition, improved attitude, and confidence toward EBD that may also translate to active implementation of EBD in their future practices.



Malak Mohammed ALOsaimi, Asma S Almeslet, Qutaybah Mohammed ALWisali

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Infection Control among Dental Healthcare Personnel: The Updated Guidelines for COVID-19 in Dental Settings

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1150 - 1156]

Keywords: Attitude, Compliance, Coronavirus disease, Dental knowledge, Dental students, Infection control

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3430  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The study sought to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of infection control among dental healthcare personnel (DHCP) in dental settings, with updated guidelines and recommendations regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Materials and methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study. A self-administrative online survey consisting of 45 close-ended statements was prepared, validated, and revised by an expert panel, and pilot tested with a convenience sample. The survey comprised four parts covering the following aspects: demographic data, infection control facilities in the dental office, knowledge of infection control measures, and attitude toward infection control. Data were collected, analyzed, and presented as frequencies and percentages or means and standard deviations, when applicable. The independent t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA), as appropriate, were used for differences in knowledge and attitude scores between the groups, with the significance level of p-value < 0.05. Results: Out of 176 participants, 54 (30.7%) were men, and 122 (69.3%) were women. A total of 143 participants were dental practitioners (81.3%), and more than half [94 (53.4%)] were from governmental universities, followed by those from government dental clinics [44 (25%)]. In general, most participants acknowledged the infection control facilities in their dental offices. Dental assistants, respondents working in private universities, and respondents working in the eastern region showed better knowledge than their counterparts (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were noticed between the different groups concerning attitude toward infection control (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The participants exhibited acceptable knowledge and attitude, with respondents from private universities and dental assistance attaining better knowledge scores. More infection control programs and training courses should be implemented in dental settings.



Jerry Joe Chokkattu, Ditty J Mary, Rajeshkumar Shanmugam, Singamsetty Neeharika

Embryonic Toxicology Evaluation of Ginger- and Clove-mediated Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles-based Dental Varnish with Zebrafish

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1157 - 1162]

Keywords: Acute toxicity, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity, Clove, Dental varnish, Ginger, Nanoparticle, Nitric oxide radical inhibition assay, Titanium oxide, Zebrafish

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3436  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the embryonic toxicology of ginger- and clove-mediated titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs)-based dental varnish with zebrafish (Danio rerio). Materials and methods: Dental varnish was formulated using ginger, clove extract, and titanium dioxide NPs followed by the introduction of this test solution at concentrations of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 µL along with a control group with medium zebrafish embryos into a 6-well culture plate. After 2 hours of incubation, the embryos of zebrafish were tested and analyzed for hatchability and mortality rate using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's tests using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software. Results: The hatching rate of zebrafish embryos was greatest at 1 µL in a declining order when compared to the control group, whereas the mortality rate was greatest at 16 µL compared to the control group. On intergroup comparisons, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) has revealed a significance (p = 0.00) between the concentrations and testing parameters such as hatchability and mortality. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, the zebrafish embryos exposed acutely to TiO2 NPs at experimental doses have shown significant changes in their rate of deformity and capacity to hatch at 16- and 1-µL concentrations of the dental varnish formulation, respectively. Furthermore, studies are required to prove the efficacy of the formulation. Clinical significance: Research and development of new formulations of various dental products is an ongoing process. One such segment is dental varnishes, wherein herbal resources and NPs mediated for improved efficacy against dental caries is an emerging alternative aiming to counteract the limitations posed by the traditional agents. To develop a new formulation of dental varnish, which is herbal resourced and NPs mediated, for an improved efficacy against dental caries.



Yousef Ali Abdulrahman Farhan, Sally El-Sayed Abdelsameaa, Mahitabe Elgamily, Sally Awad

Impact of Different Preparations of Tooth Graft vs Xenogeneic Bone Graft on Bone Healing: An Experimental Study

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:10] [Pages No:1163 - 1172]

Keywords: Bone defect, Dentin particulate, Osteopontin, Tooth graft, Xenograft

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3438  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aims to compare the effect of demineralized xenogeneic tooth graft in its two forms, particulate and block, with bovine xenograft in the healing of a rabbit tibial bone defect model. Materials and methods: Two monocortical bony defects were made in the right tibias of 36 rabbits, and were divided into four groups. Group I defects were left empty, while group II, III, and IV were filled with bovine xenograft, demineralized particulate tooth graft, and demineralized perforated block tooth graft, respectively for evaluation of the bone healing process. Three rabbits from each group were euthanized at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery. The bone specimens were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and osteopontin (OPN) immunohistochemical staining. The results were subjected to image analysis and quantitative evaluation. Results: Demineralized particulate tooth graft showed the best bone healing capacity compared to all other groups at all time points tested, as it showed a large amount of the formed bone, rapid closure of the defect with a significant increase in OPN expression, and the least amount of the residual grafted particles. Conclusion: In comparison to bovine xenograft and demineralized dentin block graft, the demineralized particulate tooth grafting material is a promising bone grafting substitute as it proved to be osteoconductive, biocompatible, and bioresorbable. Clinical significance: Demineralized tooth grafting material can aid in the regeneration of large bone defects, leading to improvement in the filling of the bone defects which can help in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction.



Claire El Hachem, Walid Nehme, Marc Krikor Kaloustian, Nabil Ghosn, Maha Daou, Carla Zogheib, Mia Karam, Rami Mhanna, Valentina Macaluso, Naji Kharouf, Jean Claude Abou Chedid

The Effectiveness of Different Irrigation Techniques on Debris and Smear Layer Removal in Primary Mandibular Second Molars: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:November] [Volume:23] [Number:11] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1173 - 1179]

Keywords: Endodontic irrigation, Passive ultrasonic irrigation, Primary teeth pulpectomy, Smear layer, Sonic irrigation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3440  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the effectiveness of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), sonic irrigation, and mechanic dynamic activation on the removal of debris and smear layer from primary mandibular second molars during pulpectomy. Materials and methods: Mesial roots of 48 primary mandibular second molars were prepared with an R-motion 21 mm file (30/0.04) (FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and divided into four groups (n = 24 canals) according to the final irrigation activation technique: control group without activation, PUI with Ultra-X (Eighteeth, Changzhou, China), mechanical activation with XP-endo Finisher (FKG), and sonic irrigation with EQ-S (Meta Biomed, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea). The roots were split longitudinally and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of debris and smear layer was assessed using a 5-grade scoring scale with 200× and 1000× magnification, respectively. The Kruskal–Wallis and Friedman tests were used for data analysis. Results: The activation of the irrigant significantly improved debris and smear layer removal (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between Ultra-X, XP-endo Finisher, and EQ-S (p > 0.05). No activation technique was able to completely eliminate debris and smear layer from the root canals of primary mandibular second molars. Conclusions: During pediatric pulpectomy, the irrigation protocol must include activation of the irrigation solutions using either ultrasonic, sonic, or mechanical activation techniques to enhance the removal of debris and smear layer for a better prognosis. Clinical significance: During root canal treatment on primary teeth, the clinician must incorporate an activation technique in the irrigation protocol to enhance the removal of debris and smear layer and increase the success of the treatment.


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