The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2022 | December | Volume 23 | Issue 12

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Sreenidhi Prakash, Jyotsna Needamangalam Balaji, Vishnu Priya Veeraraghavan, Surapaneni Krishna Mohan

Telehealth: Is It a Post-COVID Reality in Early Diagnosis of Oral Cancer?

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1181 - 1182]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3356  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Thomas E Rams, Jacqueline D Sautter, Seunghwa S Shin

Molecular Iodine Mouthrinse Antimicrobial Activity Against Periodontopathic Bacteria

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1183 - 1189]

Keywords: In vitro, Laboratory research, Molecular iodine, Mouthrinse, Periodontal pathogens, Periodontitis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3447  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study compared two molecular iodine mouthrinses for their in vitro bactericidal effects against subgingival biofilm bacteria from severe periodontitis patients. Materials and methods: In a subgingival biofilm eradication assay, dilution aliquots of subgingival microbial specimens from 32 adults with severe periodontitis were mixed in vitro with either a mouthrinse containing 100 parts per million (ppm) molecular iodine (Iorinse®) or one containing 150 ppm molecular iodine (iClean®), followed by mouthrinse neutralization after 60 seconds with 3% sodium thiosulfate. The mixtures, along with unexposed subgingival biofilm aliquots, were inoculated onto enriched Brucella blood agar and incubated anaerobically for 7 days to quantitate total viable bacterial counts and selected red/orange complex periodontal pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter rectus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum). Results: Both molecular iodine mouthrinses significantly reduced total viable bacterial counts in the subgingival biofilm samples, with iClean® providing significantly greater in vitro suppression than Iorinse®. Both molecular iodine mouthrinses also significantly reduced total red/orange complex periodontal pathogens, with significantly greater suppression also exhibited by iClean®. Conclusion: The molecular iodine mouthrinses exerted marked bactericidal activity in vitro against human subgingival biofilm microbial species, including red/orange complex periodontal pathogens associated with severe periodontitis, with iClean® providing significantly better antimicrobial activity than Iorinse®. Clinical significance: These findings suggest potential value of molecular iodine mouthrinses in the treatment and prevention of periodontal diseases.



Arun Kharavela Mohanty, Thomas Varghese, Purnendu Bhushan, Rama Kanta Mahapatro, Paul Kariyatty

Influence of Occlusal Stress on Implant Abutment Junction and Implant Bone Interface: A Finite Element Analysis Study

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1190 - 1194]

Keywords: Finite element analysis, Implant abutment, Occlusal stress, Screw retained

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3452  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the occlusal stress on the implant–abutment junction and implant–bone interface of a long-span implant-supported prosthesis made of two different prosthetic materials. Materials and methods: A computerized tomography of the mandible was used to get the finite element model of the bone. The comparative groups were made as follows: S1 and S2 – 3.7 × 11 mm (44 region) and 4.5 × 11 mm (47 region), S1A and S2A – screw-retained porcelain-fused-to-metal prosthesis, S1B and S2B – cement-retained porcelain-fused-to-metal prosthesis, S1C and S2C – screw-retained zirconia prosthesis, and S1D – cement-retained zirconia prosthesis. Maximum stress generated on the implant–abutment interface of all the prostheses under vertical and oblique load was assessed. Results: For all the comparative groups, maximum level of stress was generated at the cervical level of the implant–bone interface in comparison to the apical and middle-third level under both vertical and oblique load. No statistically significant difference between zirconia and porcelain-fused-to-metal prosthesis was seen at the implant–abutment interface and the cervical third of the implant–bone interface. A significant difference was found between all screw-retained and cement-retained groups. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the short implants in combination with standard-length implants using either porcelain-fused-to-metal or zirconia as prosthetic material in the form of long-span implant-supported prosthesis can be a viable treatment option in the posterior mandible. Clinical significance: The accuracy of the diagnosis, examination, and knowledge of the site where the implant must be inserted, and the choice of superstructure is important for the stability and lifespan of the implant prosthesis.



Saee Deshpande, Neelam Pande, Pravinkumar Patil

Stomatognathic Risk Factors and Clinical Manifestations of Temporomandibular Disorders in Indian Population: A Case-control Study

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1195 - 1198]

Keywords: Disc displacement, Myofascial pain, Temporomandibular disorder, Temporomandibular joint disorder

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3445  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study was aimed to compare the risk factors and associated clinical manifestations of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) in the Indian population. Materials and methods: A total of 52 patients were explored according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) and compared with 48 controls. The mean age of the study group was 30.96 ± 11.60 years, 41% were males and 59% were females. The mean age in the control group was 31.5 ± 9.9 years (37.5% males), measuring differences in TMD risk factors (self-perceived stress, parafunctions, occlusal interferences, history of orthodontic treatment, and/or extraction). Results: The most common sign observed in the selected subjects was the joint sound (clicking) (42%), followed by mandibular deviation 39% as the second most common sign. Myofascial pain (MFP) (single or multiple diagnoses) was the most frequent diagnosis (n = 40, 76%), followed by disc displacement with reduction (DDWR) (32.1%), arthralgia (30%), and disc displacement without reduction (DDWoR) (7.6%). More than one DC/TMD diagnosis was established in 63.2% of the patients. The risk factors like presence of clenching, stress perception, parafunctions, tooth wear, and occlusal interferences were significantly more frequent in all the cases than in the respective controls. Conclusions: In the studied population, the presence of TMD was found to be positively related to factors namely female gender, parafunction, occlusal interferences, psychological stress, and tooth wear. Myofascial pain is the commonest diagnosis (either single or in combination). It is followed by DDWR (either single or in combination with others). Double diagnosis is also common. Clinical significance: Temporomandibular disorders showed a female predilection and were found to be positively related to factors, viz., parafunction, occlusal interferences, stress, and tooth wear. Clinicians should also be aware of common clinical manifestations of TMDs and their related stomatognathic risk factors to provide comprehensive oral care and to identify such factors for disease prevention.



Annapurna Ahuja, Vipin Ahuja, Abhirup Saha, Adya Singhal, Tannu Priya, Avishek Bhattacharjee

Effectiveness of Gelatin Sponge Along with i-PRF in Endodontically Involved Tooth with Grade II Furcation Defects: A Clinical and Radiographic Study

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1199 - 1202]

Keywords: Absorbable surgical gelatin sponge, Endodontically involved tooth, Furcation defect, Grade II furcation, Injectable platelet-rich fibrin, Regeneration of Bone

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3449  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of gelatin sponge [Abgel] with injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) in the surgical treatment of mandibular Grade II furcation defects in endodontically involved teeth. Materials and methods: The present study was a single-center clinical trial wherein 20 mandibular grade II furcation defects were treated with gelatin sponge combined with i-PRF results were compared both clinically and radiographically at baseline, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) we software. For pre and post comparison, paired t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Wilcoxon test were used. Results: There was a statistically highly significant improvement seen in all the clinical parameters vertical clinical attachment level (V-CAL), horizontal clinical attachment level (H-CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD) and radiographic parameters at baseline and 6 months postoperatively p < 0.01. Conclusion: Open flap debridement along with Abgel combined with i-PRF is an effective treatment modality in reducing the horizontal and vertical component of grade II furcation defects. Clinical significance: Gelatin sponge with i-PRF is a cost–effective treatment modality in achieving periodontal regeneration.



Maged S Alhammadi

Dimensional and Positional Characteristics of the Temporomandibular Joint of Skeletal Class II Malocclusion with and without Temporomandibular Disorders

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:8] [Pages No:1203 - 1210]

Keywords: Cone–beam computed tomography, Joint spaces, Mandibular condyle, Skeletal class II malocclusion, Temporomandibular joint disorder

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3441  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study sought to evaluate dimensional and positional temporomandibular joint (TMJ) features in three-dimensions in skeletal class II malocclusion with and without temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Materials and methods: A total of 91 (182 joints) adult patients were divided into the following two groups: (1) Group I – TMD (n = 56; 112 joints) and (2) group II – non-TMD (n = 35; 70 joints). Dimensional and positional TMJ characteristics including glenoid fossae, mandibular condyles, and joint spaces were assessed using cone–beam computed tomography (CBCT). Results: The mandibular fossa in the TMD group was significantly more lateral than in the non-TMD group, and the mandibular fossa anterior wall inclination to the horizontal plane showed a significantly more vertically inclined wall in the TMD group compared to the non-TMD group. Significantly vertical mandibular condylar changes in the form of less vertical inclination, more vertical position, and lower vertical dimension (height) in addition to more upward position within the joint space were found. The TMD group showed significantly decreased superior and posterior joint spaces in addition to significantly increased medial joint spaces. Conclusion: Patients with TMDs are associated with laterally positioned mandibular fossa with the more vertically inclined anterior wall. They are characterized by vertical mandibular condylar changes in the form of less vertical inclination, more vertical position, and lower vertical dimension (height) in addition to more upward positioning within the joint space is accompanied by a decrease in superior and posterior and an increase in medial joint spaces. Clinical significance: The TMJ characteristics of skeletal class II make it more susceptible to TMDs and any orthodontic and/or surgical interventions in a direction possibly change these characteristics are to be considered.



Mahendran Kavitha, Shakthipriya Sivaprakasam, Dorai Arunaraj, Rangarajan Hemamalini, Sekar Velayudham, Balakrishnan Bakthavatchalam

Comparative Evaluation of Platelet-rich Fibrin and Concentrated Growth Factor as Scaffolds in Regenerative Endodontic Procedure: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1211 - 1217]

Keywords: Apexogenesis, Concentrated growth factor, Cone-beam computed tomography, Platelet-rich fibrin, Scaffolds

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3443  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and concentrated growth factor (CGF) as scaffolds in the regenerative endodontic procedure (REP) using clinical and radiographic parameters along with cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) analysis. Materials and methods: The apexogenesis procedure was performed in 16 teeth. They were randomly divided into two groups of eight teeth each: group I and group II. In group I PRF was used as the scaffold and in group II CGF was used as the scaffold. They were evaluated for pain, pulpal vitality, tenderness on percussion, and mobility, and also evaluated using digital radiographs at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months interval. The response of the teeth was graded using Chen and Chen criteria. Increase in root length, reduction in the apical foramen dimension, and reduction in periapical lesion volume were evaluated using CBCT scans taken preoperatively and at 18 months. Results: At the end of 3 months, 50% of teeth without periapical pathology were found to be vital in both groups. At the end of 18 months, 60% of the teeth in both groups showed increase in root length, all teeth showed closure of apical foramen, and reduction in the volume of periapical lesion. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The clinical and radiographic features reported in this study revealed that both PRF and CGF act as effective scaffolds in REP for regeneration of pulp-dentin complex with promising results. Clinical significance: Apexogenesis by revascularization has not been used regularly for the treatment of nonvital teeth with open apex because the results are not reliable. Since platelet concentrates like PRF and CGF are rich in growth factors; when apexogenesis is performed by REP using these platelet concentrates, desirable results can be achieved in a short duration of time. They also accelerate the healing of periapical lesions present in such cases. With the increased success rate of apexogenesis with REP, many clinicians would prefer to use REPs as a treatment option for teeth with open apex.



Varsha Verma, Puja Hazari, Harsh Mahajan, Naveen S Yadav, Puja Verma, Shweta Narwani

Comparison of Stress Distribution in Fixed Partial Prosthesis Restored with Different Combination of Support: A Finite Element Study

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1218 - 1223]

Keywords: Cancellous bone, Composite, Cortical bone, Modulus of elasticity, Stainless steel, Titanium

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3446  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of stress in the bone around the natural tooth, endodontically treated tooth having post and core, and implant as an abutment in different combinations in fixed partial prosthesis using two-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). Materials and methods: Six models were simulated using ANSYS Modeller19. All six models were divided into 12 zones and 4 lines, and stress values were calculated and compared. The study combinations were – tooth supported fixed partial prosthesis, fixed partial prosthesis having the combination of tooth and post- and core-treated tooth, fixed partial prosthesis with the combination of tooth and implant, fixed partial prosthesis having the combination of implant and post- and core-treated tooth, fixed partial prosthesis with the combination of post- and core-treated tooth on both sides, and fixed partial prosthesis having the combination of implant on both sides. Result: On comparing the stress values, the maximum stress value was observed in fixed partial prosthesis having the combination of implant on both sides (306.2434 MPa) followed by Model 4 (223.1255 MPa), Model 3 (154.3952 MPa), Model 5 (136.9041 MPa), Model 2 (116.2034 MPa), and least stress seen in Model 1 (99.6209 MPa), and minimum in tooth supported fixed partial prosthesis (99.6209 MPa). Conclusion: This study concluded that stress concentration in bone was maximum when the implant was used as an abutment in fixed partial prosthesis. The least stress was seen in bone around the natural tooth due to the dampening effect of the periodontal ligament. Further, the modulus of elasticity of a post acts as a vital parameter in the distribution of stress in post- and core-treated tooth. Clinical significance: The stress concentration in the bone around the abutments affects the longevity of the prosthesis, hence, the clinically appropriate combination of the abutments should be considered for a fixed partial prosthesis.



Yasaggari Mounica, Sidhartha Behera, Sudheer Arunachalam, Lankapali Srikanth, Meesala Navya Deepthi, Mondal Susmita

Influence of Different Cements and Cement Thickness on the Stress Distribution under Occlusal Surfaces of Porcelain-fused-to-metal and Porcelain-fused-to-zirconium Crowns: A Finite Element Analysis

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1224 - 1229]

Keywords: Cement thickness, Finite element analysis, Porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns, Porcelain-fused-to-zirconia crowns, Stress distribution

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3448  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the influence of two different cement space settings and two different cement types on the stress distribution under occlusal surfaces of tooth restored with two different types of crowns and studied by using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA). Materials and methods: Eight 3D finite element models (FEMs) representing a mandibular first molar tooth restored with crowns of, porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) and porcelain-fused-to-zirconia (PFZ) crowns with two cement space settings (50 and 80 µm) and with two different types of cement were constructed, using an FEA software (ANSYS, version 10). Each model was subjected to a distributed load simulating normal masticatory bite force of 225 N and was applied axial direction. Also, von Mises stress of each individual part in the system of models was calculated. Results: The PFM crowns undergo less stress distribution than the PFZ crowns. The PFM crowns are more compatible with self-adhesive cements, and the PFZ crowns are more compatible with resin-modified glass ionomer cements. Conclusion: The PFM crowns with G-Cem Link Ace with 50 µm and PFZ crowns with RelyX Luting Plus with 80 µm combinations displayed less amount of stress distribution under normal masticatory bite force. Clinical significance: Self-adhesive resin cements with PFM crowns and PFZ with resin-modified glass ionomer cements show more benefits in stress distribution under occlusal surfaces under normal masticatory bite force.



Mariana Domingues Pordeus, Giulia Dani Gasparetto, Leonardo Mendes Ribeiro Machado, Pedro Yoshito Noritomi, Rodrigo Moreira Bringel da Costa, Ana Paula Chappuis-Chocano, Helena Sandrini Venante, Joel Ferreira Santiago Junior, Vinicius Carvalho Porto

A New Proposal for Calibrated Gauges for Removable Partial Dentures: A Finite Element Analysis

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1230 - 1236]

Keywords: Crowns, Dental clasps, Dental prosthesis design, Finite element analysis, Removable partial denture

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3453  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution of a planned removable partial denture (RPD) using new proposals for calibrated gauges of 0.3 mm and 0.35 mm undercuts through the three-dimensional (3D) finite element methodology, and compare them with 0.25 mm and 0.5 mm gauges that are already existing in clinical practice. Materials and methods: Kennedy class-I edentulous 3D models and their respective RPDs (InVesalius software; Rhinoceros and SolidWorks CAD) were created and exported to the finite element program HyperMesh 2019 for mesh configuration. In the following steps, axial loading (0°) of 40 N per point was performed, with 3 points on the molars and 2 points on the premolars, totaling 280 N unilaterally. The model was processed by the OptiStruct 2019 software and imported into the HyperView 2019 software to obtain the stress maps (MPa). Results: The use of 0.30 and 0.35 mm calibrated gauges presented tensions similar to those with the 0.25 mm gauge (gold standard) and caused no significant damage to biological structures. The use of a 0.5 mm undercut caused greater traction force in the periodontal ligament of the abutments. Conclusions: The 0.35 mm undercut seems promising as it presented more favorable results in this simulation, on the other hand, a 0.5 mm undercut is greater than that necessary for retainers made of CoCr. Clinical significance: This study aims to measure a new undercut gauge (0.35 mm) to increase the retention area in abutment teeth of removable partial dentures.



Haithem Milad Hameed, Aya Adel El Tahlawy, Sayed Hussein Saniour

Assessment of the Remineralizing Efficacy of Grape Seed Extract vs Sodium Fluoride on Surface and Subsurface Enamel Lesions: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:8] [Pages No:1237 - 1244]

Keywords: Enamel remineralization, Grape seed extract, Microhardness, pH cycling model, Raman spectroscopy, Sodium fluoride

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3442  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) on remineralization of surface and subsurface enamel lesions compared to that of sodium fluoride (NaF). Materials and methods: A total of 20 intact bovine incisor crowns were separated from their roots and immersed in a demineralizing solution for 96 hours at 37°C to create artificial enamel lesions. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10): 6.5% GSE solution and 1000 ppm NaF solution. The specimens were subjected to six daily pH cycles for 8 days. The microhardness test was carried out at three different stages: baseline, after artificial caries formation, and after pH cycling. Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate the depth of enamel remineralization. Surface morphology and elemental analysis were assessed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0 at a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results: There was a significant increase in the mean values of enamel surface microhardness after pH cycles in the two groups compared to after artificial caries formation, but there was no significant difference between both groups. The B-type carbonate/phosphate (Ca/P) ratio at 10 and 40 µm depth revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Scanning electron microscope micrograph revealed occlusion of porosities and particle precipitation on the enamel surface of the two groups, while EDX results for the Ca/P ratio of the GSE and NaF groups were 1.59 and 1.60, respectively. Conclusion: Grape seed extract and NaF are equally effective in remineralizing surface and subsurface artificial enamel lesions. Clinical significance: Grape seed extract can be considered a promising herbal material and a safe alternative to traditional NaF for the noninvasive treatment of enamel lesions.



Ibrahim Abdelmonem Elboghdadi, Mohamed Hassan Elkenawy, Sally Elsayed Abdelsameaa, Nahed Ibrahim Ghoneim

U-shaped Splitting Technique vs Conventional Bone Grafting in Maxillary Facial Undercut for Dental Implants Placement: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:10] [Pages No:1245 - 1254]

Keywords: Dental implants, Horizontal bone augmentation, Randomized controlled clinical trial, Ridge splitting technique

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3454  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This prospective randomized clinical trial was designed to compare the apical U-shape splitting technique (AUST) combined with guided bone regeneration (GBR) vs GBR alone for horizontal bone augmentation in maxillary labial undercut areas. Materials and methods: The study included twelve patients with labial undercuts that made their alveolar ridges not able to compass dental implants. They received a total of 14 dental implants in the anterior maxilla where 7 (group I) were placed after AUST with GBR and the other 7 (group II) after the conventional GBR. The clinical and radiographic evaluations were done preoperatively, after surgery, and 6 months later. Facial flap fracture, peri-implant health, ridge width (RW) gain and loss, marginal bone loss (MBL), and implant esthetics were measured. Data were analyzed and compared and for any of the used tests, results were considered statistically significant if p-value ≤ 0.05. Results: For group I, no fracture of the bone flap happened and the gain in RW was significantly higher at 6 months postoperatively. Marginal bone loss was similar for both groups. The total pink esthetic score was significantly higher in group I vs group II (p = 0.024). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that AUST combined with GBR was more effective in RW gain than GBR alone and it provided a merit approach for restoring function and esthetics if labial fenestration was unavoidable during implant placement. Clinical significance: Apical U-shape splitting technique for horizontal ridge augmentation is a valuable option for the benefit of patients in clinics who need dental implants and have anterior undercut areas that may lead to fenestration and usually requires onlay bone grafting which is less successful in maintaining the RW.



Krishnakumar Gollahalli Rangappa, Ridyumna Garain, Zeeshan Heera Ahmad, Komal Jain, Ramakrishna Arroju, Vedavathi Boregowda

Remineralization Potential of a Combination of Chitosan with Nanohydroxyapatite and a Self-assembling Peptide with Nanohydroxyapatite: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1255 - 1259]

Keywords: Chitosan, Nanohydroxyapatite, Remineralization, Self-assembly peptide, White spot lesion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3434  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study explores the demineralizing potential of the combination of chitosan with nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) and self-assembling peptides with n-HA. Materials and methods: A total of 66 first premolar teeth of similar dimensions extracted for orthodontic purposes were collected for this study. These were then demineralized and randomly divided into the following three groups (n = 22): (i) Control group, (ii) n-HA + Chitosan (HAC), and (iii) self-assembling peptide + n-HA (SP-HA). The samples in each group were brushed every 24 hours with the respective agent. The specimens were stored in Fusayama Meyer's artificial saliva at room temperature and the solution was replenished daily. Mineral content (Ca, P) and surface morphology of the specimens was analyzed, using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDAX), before demineralization, at 15 days of remineralization and 30 days of remineralization. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) post hoc analysis was used to compare the mean elemental composition of the different groups (p < 0.05). Results: There was no significant difference in the calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) weight percentage between the different groups at the baseline and after demineralization. The Ca and P weight percentages of all three groups after remineralization for 15 and 30 days showed no significant difference from the baseline or after demineralization. The surface morphology after 15 days of remineralization therapy showed decreased surface porosity and increased mineral deposition in the HAC group than the HP-SA group. Surface morphology after 30 days of remineralization showed a more homogenous and smoother surface in the HAC group than the HP-SA group. Conclusion: From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the combination of chitosan with n-HA and self-assembling peptides with n-HA can be considered effective demineralizing agents. Clinical significance: Considering the non-invasive nature of remineralization therapy understanding the effectiveness of different agents is of utmost importance. The demineralizing properties of chitosan, n-HA and self-assembling peptides make their combinations ideal for studying their effectiveness in treating white spot lesions.



Sonali Gupta, Krishna Kumar Gollahalli Rangappa, Shikha Rani, Rajendran Ganesh, Pankaj Kukreja, Bhavna Jha Kukreja

Periodontal and Dentition Status among Psychiatric Patients in Indore: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1260 - 1266]

Keywords: Depression, Oral health, Periodontal diseases, Schizophrenia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3451  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To assess and record periodontal and dentition status among psychiatric patients using modified WHO Oral Health Assessment form 1997. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences and PG Institute, Indore, among the inpatients and outpatients. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from Institutional Review Board of Sri Aurobindo College of Dentistry. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS, IBM version 20.0. Descriptive statistics was used to find the frequencies, mean, and standard deviation of variables considered in the study. Results: Among all the disorders, schizophrenia subjects had shallow pockets 28 (25.2%) and deep pockets 55 (49.5%). Only 2 (2.6%) study subjects who had major depressive disorder had more than 12 mm loss of attachment (LOA). The highest mean DMFT score was recorded for schizophrenia patients (13.0 ± 7.09). Conclusion: The results reveal an unmet need of projecting effective planning and implementation strategies toward the improvement of periodontal and dentition status health of the psychiatric patients. Clinical significance: The study highlights the importance of incorporating dental health education to psychiatric rehabilitation programs.



Arvind Muthukrishnan, Ravleen Nagi, L Ashok, GP Sujatha, Roopa S Rao, Surendra Lakshminarayana, Anitha Krishnan Pandarathodiyil, Shankargouda Patil

Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk Factors that Lead Individuals to Initiate and/or Maintain Betel Quid Chewing in Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:13] [Pages No:1267 - 1279]

Keywords: Addiction, Areca nut, Behavior, Betel quid, Habituation, Psycho-oncology, Psychosocial determinants

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3450  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Betel quid (BQ) is the fourth most commonly used psychoactive substance and its use is highly prevalent among southeast Asian countries due to the influence of psychosocial, behavioral, and environmental factors. As a result, even young children and women are becoming addicted and find it difficult to achieve long-term abstinence. Systematic research addressing the influence of behavioral and psychosocial factors on BQ chewing is scarce, hence pointing to the need for understanding the interplay of these factors to develop tailored intervention strategies for BQ cessation. Objective: The objective of this systematic review is to assess various behavioral and psychosocial risk factors from pre-existing literature that lead individuals to initiate and/or maintain BQ chewing in developed and developing countries. Materials and methods: The electronic retrieval systems and databases PUBMED [MEDLINE], EMBASE, SCOPUS, WEB OF SCIENCE, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, and SCIENCE DIRECT were searched independently by two authors for relevant articles from January 2011 to July 2021 using combinations of keywords. Primary studies published in English focusing on the behavioral and psychosocial risk factors for BQ chewing were included. Results: Out of the initial 264 articles searched, 12 articles met the selection criteria. Included studies addressed the influence of behavioral and psychosocial factors toward the initiation and/or maintenance of BQ chewing. Included studies reported that dependent BQ was not able to quit BQ chewing due to habituation, addiction, and withdrawal symptoms. Few social BQ chewers in Southeast Asian countries were not willing to initiate quitting as they considered AN as an important social and cultural identifier and claimed that they could not resist chewing in a peer group, and it has become part of their social life. Conclusion: In the future, studies should take into consideration behavioral and psychosocial risk factors, which are major barriers toward successful quitting. These factors should be integrated into areca nut cessation guidelines, and there is a need to develop more comprehensive culture-specific intervention approaches to achieve long-term abstinence.



Nedal A Abu-Mostafa, Yasser N Alotaibi, Rose N Alkahtani, Farah K Almutairi, Amjad A Alfaifi, Osama D Alshahrani

The Outcomes of Vertical Alveolar Bone Augmentation by Guided Bone Regeneration with Titanium Mesh: A Systematic Review

[Year:2022] [Month:December] [Volume:23] [Number:12] [Pages:9] [Pages No:1280 - 1288]

Keywords: Alveolar bone, Guided bone regeneration, Titanium mesh, Vertical bone augmentation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3444  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aimed to systematically review the published studies on vertical alveolar bone augmentation (VABA) by guided bone regeneration (GBR) with titanium mesh (TM). Background: Guided bone regeneration is a procedure that can be used for VABA of the alveolar ridge. Titanium mesh is used as a barrier due to its ability to maintain a space that the newly formed bone will occupy. Materials and methods: A computerized literature search was conducted on the databases PubMed, SCOPUS, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library to review the published article on VABA by TM from 2011 to 2021. Review results: Eight out of 574 retrieved articles were included in the qualitative analysis, three randomized clinical trials, two prospective clinical trials, and three retrospective trials. They were assessed for risk of bias using the critical appraisal skills program checklist. Titanium mesh was utilized as a barrier in three different ways, adapted directly on the alveolar bone, bent preoperatively on three-dimensional (3D) models, and 3D-printed. Two randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reported 20.8% bone gain, while the other studies reported the means ranging from 2.56 to 4.78 mm. All studies reported TM exposure that ranged from 7.69 to 66.66%. Exposure during the four postoperative weeks led to inadequate bone regeneration. However, late exposure had no effect or caused only slight bone resorption. Early TM removal was performed in two studies, one case per each, ranging from 2.4 to 11.1%. Infection was presented in three studies, one case per each, and the percentages were 5, 11.1, and 25%. Conclusion: All types of TM had exposure, which was the most common complication, but early removal was indicated only in a few cases. Titanium mesh showed reliability and efficacy as a barrier for VABA by GBR. Clinical significance: By this procedure, bone height can be restored, however, meticulous follow-up is recommended for the detection and management of TM exposures.


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