The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2023 | February | Volume 24 | Issue 2

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SV Sowmya, Dominic Augustine, Sonia Prabhu

Nanomaterials-based Bioanalytical Sensors for the Detection of Oral Cancer Biomarkers

[Year:2023] [Month:February] [Volume:24] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:69 - 70]

Keywords: Bioanalytical sensor, Biosensor, Nanoparticles, Oral cancer

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3478  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Rafael Dario Werneck, Daher Antonio Queiroz, Mariana Itaborai Moreira Freitas, Diana Leyva Del Rio, Cecília Pedroso Turssi

Association of Non-carious Cervical Lesions with Oral Hygiene Aspects and Occlusal Force

[Year:2023] [Month:February] [Volume:24] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:71 - 79]

Keywords: Bite Force, Dental Occlusion, Gingival Recession, Tooth Wear

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3457  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The purpose of this case-control (CT) study was to investigate the association between the presence of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) with occlusal force and other potential risk factors. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine participants with NCCLs [cases (CS)] and 39 with no NCCLs [control (CT)] attending the dental clinic of the Faculdades Integradas São Pedro (FAESA), located in Brazil, were enrolled in this study. Information was collected through anamnesis, clinical examination, and a questionnaire addressing aspects related to tooth brushing, dentifrice, and mouthwash use. In clinical examination, patients were submitted to four measurements of occlusal force in the maxillary first premolars and maxillary first molars, using a strain gauge sensor of medium intensity, the Flexiforce (Tekscan, South Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America). The sensor was calibrated for the unit of measurement in Newtons (N). Data were analyzed using a student's t-test and multiple logistic regression, e with a significance level of 5%. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the case and CT groups regarding the bite force in the four measured regions. Logistic regression identified sex as a factor significantly associated with NCCLs (p = 0.020). The odds ratio showed the female sex had more chance (OR = 6.082; CI = 1.332–27.765) of having NCCLs. Conclusion: It is concluded that females presented a higher risk factor for NCCLs than men. In contrast, there was no association of occlusal force, as well as aspects related to brushing and deleterious habits. Clinical significance: Females have a higher risk factor for non-carious lesions than men.



Sandhya Kizhakke Neelamana, Beena Varma, Chandrashekar Janakiram, Priya Vijayakumar, Vineetha Karuveettil

Cross-cultural Adaptation of Oral and Maxillofacial Frailty Assessment Tools for Geriatric Population of Kerala

[Year:2023] [Month:February] [Volume:24] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:80 - 88]

Keywords: Cultural adaptation, Geriatric oral frailty, Oral and maxillofacial frailty, Oral frailty index

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3482  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study is to translate the oral and maxillofacial frailty index (OMFI) into Malayalam, culturally adapt it, and test its reliability and validity in the Kerala geriatric population. Materials and methods: OMFI was translated, culturally adapted, and validated in Malayalam using a methodological and cross-sectional study design. The Malayalam version of OMFI underwent full linguistic validation and was tested on 200 patients at Amritakripa Hospital in Kalpetta. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used for exploratory factor analysis, and Cronbach's alpha was used to assess reliability. Results: Two-hundred patients were recruited in this study. Participants ranged in age from 60 to 83 years; mean age was 68 years (SD: 15.21). In total 55.5% were male participants, and 30.5% were belonging to upper middle class as per the Kuppuswami scale. Only 12% of the participants were living alone. Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin was found to be 0.583, and Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant with a Chi-square test value of 1003.469. A principal axis factor analysis conducted on 20 items with orthogonal rotation (varimax). OMFI Malayalam version (5 items) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.751). Item-total correlations were reviewed for the items of OMFI. Conclusion: The OMFI Malayalam version demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability and can be used to screen the oral frailty of the geriatric population in Kerala. Clinical significance: As Kerala is having highest geriatric population in India, we need to assess the oral frailty burden of Kerala. This study provided the first measure to assess the oral frailty in elderly in Kerala.



Maria Raafat Reslan, Essam Osman, Lucette Segaan, Mohammad Rayyan, Mohamed Sayed, Ibrahim Gamal El-Hussein

Comparison between Distal Extension Attachment-retained Removable Partial Prostheses with Integrated and Conventional Reciprocation Designs: A Clinical Trial

[Year:2023] [Month:February] [Volume:24] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:89 - 96]

Keywords: Extracoronal attachment, Hybrid partial prosthesis, Integrated interlock designs, Parallel interlock designs, Removable partial dentures

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3479  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To compare marginal bone level (MBL) around the abutments in integrated and conventional reciprocation designs in attachment-retained removable partial prosthesis (A-RPP). Materials and methods: Around 14 participants were indiscriminately selected and separated into two groups. For every group, an A-RPP with one of the studied reciprocation types was fabricated and assessed. Group I received A-RPP with integrated reciprocation and group II received A-RPP with conventional reciprocation. MBL around the crowned primary and secondary abutments was assessed on the day of A-RPP insertion, at 6 and at 9 months of denture use. Results: Comparison of MBL values at the primary and secondary abutments within each group showed no statistical difference from time of delivery and throughout the study. After using the A-RPP for 6 and 9 months, group I revealed lower mean values of MBL than group II which were statistically significant. Conclusion: Distal extension A-RPP with integrated and conventional reciprocation designs were associated with raise in bone loss. Integrated reciprocation design revealed a lesser amount of bone loss than the conventional reciprocation design and therefore, it is considered as more preferable to be used. Clinical significance: Distal extension A-RPP with integrated reciprocation is superior in terms of periodontium preservation around abutment teeth as compared to distal extension A-RPD with conventional reciprocation.



P Shameem Hamza, Sachin Aslam, A Roshni, Mathew Pynummoottil Cherian, Sooraj Soman, K Akhila

Conventional Rotary Technique and Piezosurgical Technique in the Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molar: A Comparative Study

[Year:2023] [Month:February] [Volume:24] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:97 - 102]

Keywords: Conventional, Mandibular, Pain, Piezoelectric, Rotary, Trismus

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3469  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To compare the operating time, postoperative pain, edema, trismus, and patient acceptance following surgical removal of impacted third molar using piezosurgery and conventional rotary technique. Materials and methods: About 42 patients with impacted mesioangular mandibular third molars were included in this study. Subjects are divided into two groups: group I (treated with conventional rotary technique) and group II (treated with piezosurgery). Duration of surgery, pain, trismus, and swelling were assessed. The patients were evaluated on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th postoperative days. Results: Postoperative pain, trismus, and edema were reduced with piezosurgery compared with conventional technique. Even though the duration of time was longer with piezosurgery, patient comfort was found to be better. Conclusion: Piezosurgery is a meticulous and innovative ultrasonic technique with selective bone cutting and better postoperative outcomes. However, it is expensive, and the operating time is prolonged. Clinical significance: Piezosurgery is an alternative in the surgical removal of third molars as it ensures precise and selective cutting, with no injury to the surrounding soft tissues. Postoperative outcome and patient acceptance are improved with piezosurgery.



Siddheswaran Vijayaraghavan, Krutika Menon

Comparative Evaluation of Human Pulp Tissue Dissolution by 500-ppm and 200-ppm Hypochlorous Acid and 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2023] [Month:February] [Volume:24] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:103 - 106]

Keywords: Hypochlorous acid, Irrigant, Pulp dissolution, Sodium hypochlorite

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3462  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study was to assess, in vitro, the human pulp dissolution capacity of 500 ppm and 200 ppm of hypochlorous acid in comparison with 5.2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and methods: Forty pulp tissue samples were standardized to a weight of 9 mg and divided into four groups according to the irrigating solution used: 5.25% NaOCl, 500 ppm hypochlorous acid, 200 ppm hypochlorous acid, and distilled water. Eppendorf tubes carrying 2 mL of the irrigants were taken and the pulp tissue samples were placed in the tubes for the specified time interval: Subgroup A: 30 minutes and subgroup B: 60 minutes. After the designated time interval, the solution from each sample tube was filtered using Whatman filter paper and left for drying overnight. The residual weight was calculated by filtration method. The mean dissolution time for each experimental group at the different time intervals was statistically analyzed. Results: Mean tissue dissolution increases with an increase in the time period. Approximately 5.25% NaOCl was most effective at both time intervals followed by 500-ppm hypochlorous acid at 60 minutes. Least amount of tissue dissolution was shown by 200-ppm of hypochlorous acid at 30 minutes. Distilled water did not show the ability to dissolve human pulp tissue. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, 5.25% NaOCl dissolved the pulp tissue most efficiently at both time intervals and both concentrations. Human pulp tissue dissolution by hypochlorous acid was found to gradually increase with time and with an increase in its concentration. Clinical significance: With the basic information that hypochlorous acid does have the capacity to dissolve human pulp tissue, further research can be undertaken to assess methods to increase its efficiency. Sooner than later, hypochlorous acid may be able to completely replace the toxic NaOCl in clinical practice, as the irrigant of choice during root canal therapy.



Ashika Bachira Kashi, Subhash Sonkesriya, Ashley Thomas, Prasanth Prathapan Santhakumari, Abhilash Abdul Iatheef, Shashidhara Hebbal Shadaksharappa

Determination of Labiopalatal Angulation of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Using Manual Method and Digital Methods: A Comparative Study

[Year:2023] [Month:February] [Volume:24] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:107 - 112]

Keywords: Facial axis of clinical crown, Labiopalatal angulation, Profile projector, Reference planes

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3431  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate labiopalatal angulation of maxillary anterior teeth using Custom-made jig, Profile projector, and ImageJ computer software methods. Materials and methods: The subjects for this study were selected in the age-group of 20–30 years having permanent dentition, including 2nd molars and bilateral Angle's class 1 molar and canine relationship. Recording the labiopalatal angulation in proximal view was carried out by using one manual method and two digital methods namely using Custom-made jig, Profile projector, and ImageJ computer software, respectively. Alginate impressions were made for the subjects, and the spatial relationship of the maxilla to the cranium was recorded using a facebow. The casts were mounted in a semi-adjustable articulator, and the articulated mounted casts with the mounting ring were transferred to the Custom-made jig, and angulations were measured in proximal view. Digital methods of measurement were recorded by using Profile projector and ImageJ computer software methods. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: In males, the mean labiopalatal angulation of maxillary right and left maxillary canines of Custom-made jig was 91.94 ± 1.47 and 91.70 ± 1.68, in Profile projector method 87.41 ± 3.75 and 87.58 ± 3.79, and in ImageJ computer software 84.23 ± 5.72 and 83.29 ± 6.74, respectively. In females, Custom-made jig was 91.82 ± 1.55 and 92.17 ± 1.84, in Profile projector method 86.70 ± 5.58 and 86.94 ± 5.57, and in ImageJ computer software 82.76 ± 6.34 and 83.05 ± 6.12, respectively. There was a very high statistically significant difference found between different methods. Conclusion: In conclusion, the values obtained in the digital methods (i.e., both the Profile projector and ImageJ computer software) were more accurate than the manual method. However, the ImageJ computer software was most reliable in comparison with the values obtained in Profile projector. Clinical significance: The labiopalatal angulation of anterior teeth will act as a guideline in re-establishing the correct angulations and the anatomic contours of the maxillary arch to achieve the desired esthetics that provide adequate lip support and to restore the required functions.



Anuradha Navaneetham, Vaibhav Nagaraj, P Satish Kumaran, Bindu Channabasappa, Daisy Loyola, Romir Navaneetham

Temporomandibular Joint Replacement Using Stock Alloplastic Graft in the Treatment of Ankylosis- A Case Report

[Year:2023] [Month:February] [Volume:24] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:113 - 119]

Keywords: Ankylosis, Biomet Stock devices, Temporomandibular Joint replacement

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3489  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: This paper aims to assess the suitability and effectiveness of temporomandibular joint replacement (TMJR) devices to treat a case of re-ankylosis and association of tuberculosis (TB) with reduced mouth opening. Traditional protocols for the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis have preferred autologous grafts for reconstruction. Usage of TMJR devices have been reserved for very specific conditions. Case report: We present a case of a patient previously treated for ankylosis using a sternoclavicular graft, who came with a chief complaint of progressive decrease in mouth opening. She also gave a history of pulmonary TB a year back. Investigations revealed no active TB. Images and clinical presentation were consistent with bilateral ankylosis. The treatment plan consisted of resection of ankylotic mass on the left side and removal of the failed graft and reconstruction with Biomet stock TMJR prosthesis on the left side. Discussion: Stock device has proven to be reliable option in planned TMJR procedures. Osteoarticular TB should be ruled out in patients with a history and features of TB. Conclusion: Stock TMJR devices are an effective and viable option for the treatment of re-ankylosis. This ensures almost immediate possibility of physiotherapy and long-term results including maintenance of mouth opening and function. Osteoarticular TB can cause trismus and painful joints which may be misdiagnosed. Any patient with reduced mouth opening with a history of TB should be investigated for possible extrapulmonary TB.



Yuya Kamano, Noboru Terajima, Yuta Chiba, V Venkata Suresh, Masahiro Saito

Japanese Laws and the Current Status of Regenerative Medicine in the Tohoku Region

[Year:2023] [Month:February] [Volume:24] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:120 - 128]

Keywords: Japanese Laws on Regenerative Medicine, Regenerative medicine, Tohoku region

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3487  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study was to review Japanese laws regarding regenerative medicine and the current status of clinical application of regenerative medicine, to learn about the advantages and problems, and to thereby serve as a reference for measures necessary for the development of regenerative medicine. Background: Regenerative medicine started in 1957 with the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells, followed by the establishment of embryonic stem cells in 1981 and induced pluripotent stem cells in 2006, and continues to evolve progressively. At the same time, however, problems have emerged due to lax legal regulations, such as the use of treatments that lack scientific evidence. Review results: The Japanese government enacted two laws to regulate regenerative medicine: the Law to Ensure the Safety of Regenerative Medicine and the Amend the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in 2013. These laws were enacted with the aim of providing safe regenerative medicine promptly and smoothly and developing many regenerative medicine products. In these laws, regenerative medicine is defined as medical treatment that restores lost functions of damaged organs and tissues with the help of cellular and tissue-based products. Nowadays, there are two major methods of regenerative medicine. One representative method involves the transplantation of devices that activates self-regenerative ability by introducing living cells into patients’ body. The other method is the activation and differentiation of endogenous stem cells with cell growth and differentiation factors. Conclusion: The current status of regenerative medicine in the Tohoku region after the enactment of these laws is described in detail. This clarified the advantages and disadvantages associated with regenerative medicine as it is currently practiced in Japan. Clinical significance: Development of regenerative medicine in dentistry will be advanced by learning about its clinical application in medicine.



Stephan lampl, Jogikalmat Krithikadatta, Deepak Mehta, Desigar Moodley

Reasons for Failure of CAD/CAM Restorations in Clinical Studies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

[Year:2023] [Month:February] [Volume:24] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:129 - 136]

Keywords: Biological complications, Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture materials, Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture failure rates, Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture success rates, Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture survival rates, Technical complications

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3472  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The systematic review presented herein was performed to descriptively analyze the causes for the failure of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) restorations. The meta-analysis reported herein was performed to estimate long-term survival and success rates of CAD–CAM fabrications. Materials and methods: Using the PICOS paradigm, a systematic search was carried out in the PubMed and Cochrane databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective observational studies reporting survival data for CAD/CAM restorations. After selecting studies with a predefined set of selection criteria, data from included prospective clinical studies and RCTs were used for a systematic review aimed at a descriptive analysis of factors associated with failure of CAD–CAM restorations. Data from the included prospective clinical studies were used for meta-analysis, wherein 5-year and 10-year survival and success rates were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results: The systematic review included data from 9 RCTs and 6 observational studies, which had a median follow-up of 36 months and 60 months, respectively. About 58 failures and 118 technical/biological complications were noted in the included RCTs and 9 failures along with 58 technical/biological complications were noted in the prospective clinical studies. Poisson regression indicated an estimated 5-year and 10-year survival rates of 85.55–100 and 71–100, respectively. The estimated 5-year and 10-year success rates were 74.2–92.75 and 33.3–85.5, respectively. Conclusion: Several technical and biological complications contribute to failure of CAD/CAM restorations. However, CAD/CAM restorations with routine chairside materials might have clinically meaningful success rates in the long term. Clinical significance: The results presented herein indicate that optimal strategies for mitigation of biological and technical complications may augment the success of CAD/CAM fabrications in restorative dentistry. Studies aimed at identification of such strategies are needed to further enhance the long-term success rates of CAD/CAM restorations.



Shankargouda Patil, Rua Adnan Saeed Jalal, Dhalia Hassan Albar, Sandesh Jagdish Bansal, Sudha Patil, Suresh Nagaral, Joshua Finch, Christopher Alexander Bernard, Hosam Ali Baeshen, Kamran Habib Awan

Intake of Artificial Sweeteners by Children: Boon or Bane?

[Year:2023] [Month:February] [Volume:24] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:137 - 145]

Keywords: Artificial sweeteners, Dental caries, Non-nutritive sweeteners, Oral health

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3435  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Sugar is the main culprit in many health dysfunctions. Excessive sugar intake can negatively affect oral health, precipitate diabetes, and lead to weight gain and obesity. Sucrose is the primary form of sugar, and is strongly correlated with dental caries. Artificial sweeteners are chemically synthesized sugar substitutes that are generally regarded as being low-calorie. Objective: This review examines the current evidence in the literature for the need for artificial sweeteners and outlines its implications for the health of children. We briefly outline its adverse effects, and concerns regarding their safety. Review results: Artificial sweeteners are a widely used food additive. Six main artificial sweeteners are approved by the food and drug administration (FDA). The conflicting results and divergent regulatory norms of each sweetener are a constant cause of concern and debate. However, most studies have spotlighted the beneficial effects of artificial sweeteners. Dental caries diminish with the increase in sweetener intake. An increase in appetite and eventually weight gain is observed in individuals consuming artificial sweeteners. Conclusion: Artificial sweeteners are indeed a bane according to present studies, although more research on recently discovered non-nutritive artificial sweeteners is required. It also has a positive effect on overall health disorders. If one curbs the onset of dental caries, then the eventual rise is highly unlikely. Clinical significance: Artificial sweeteners’ effect on lowering dental caries will help to reduce the caries index in general. Oral hygiene is maintained, and the growth of oral bacterium is depressed. Research on novel sweeteners will help to compare their efficacy in caries prevention compared to existing ones. It is necessary to educate people on artificial sweeteners and its implication as one can use them by being aware of their properties.


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