The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2023 | April | Volume 24 | Issue 4

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Caroline de Souza Mendes, Katheleen Miranda dos Santos, Jennifer Tsi Gerber, Vinicius Petroni, Lidiana dos Santos Cordeiro, Erika Calvano Küchler, Flares Baratto-Filho, Tatiana Miranda Deliberador, Aline Monise Sebastiani, Rafaela Scariot

Variation of Tooth Crown Size in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients

[Year:2023] [Month:April] [Volume:24] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:207 - 213]

Keywords: Cleft lip and palate, Dental anomalies, Permanent dentition, Tooth size

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3497  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aims to compare the mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) tooth crown size (TCS) of adult patients with cleft lip and palate (CL/P) and patients without CL/P. Materials and Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 146 adult patients, of both genders, of which 73 were included in the case group (with CL/P) and 73 were included in the control group (without CL/P). Data regarding gender and age and cleft type were collected. In addition, dental models were evaluated to obtain the TCS in the maximum distance of the MD and BL dimensions of all erupted permanent teeth (except third molars). The results were submitted to statistical analysis with a significance level of 0.05. Results: In the upper arch, the central incisors (CI) were smaller in the case group for the MD and BL dimensions (p < 0.05). The lateral incisors (LI) and canine (C) were smaller only in the BL width (p < 0.05) and the second molars (SM), were smaller only in the MD dimensions. In the lower arch, there were significant differences only in the BL width between groups, the CI and LI presented smaller measurements in CL/P patients, while the left first molar (FM) and right first premolar (FPM) were larger (p < 0.05) than in patients without CL/P. Conclusion: Patients with CL/P have different sizes in certain teeth compared to patients without CL/P. Clinical relevance: Cleft lip and palate patients usually present important dental anomalies; thereby, the knowledge about trends in tooth size variations in CL/P patients can aid in dental and orthodontic treatment planning to obtain a stable, functional, and esthetic occlusion.



Wajeha Albatal, Tarek Qasem, Yasser Alsayed Tolibah

Evaluation of the Effect of Injectable Platelet-rich Fibrin on Palatal Wound Healing: A Two-arm Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

[Year:2023] [Month:April] [Volume:24] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:214 - 220]

Keywords: Injectable platelet-rich fibrin, Palatal tissue healing, Periodontal surgery, Subepithelial connective tissue graft, Tissue thickness

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3496  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) as a potential catalyst for the acceleration of palatal wound healing after subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) harvesting. Materials and methods: Referred patients to the Department of Periodontology with the complication of the gingival recession were examined. Thirty participants were chosen for root coverage surgeries with SCTGs, and randomly distributed into two groups; the study group (n = 15) with i-PRF was applied, and the control group (n = 15) without i-PRF. The wound healing index was evaluated on the 7th, 14th, and 30th days of the treatment. Palatal tissue thickness was measured before the treatment and at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd months after the treatment. Results: The study group improved significantly the early healing over the control group on days 7 and 14 (p < 0.01), whereas no difference in the first month (p > 0.05) between the groups. Moreover, the study group showed higher tissue thickness mean in the first and second month (p < 0.01), but in the third month, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between both groups. Conclusion: The i-PRF has favorable effects on the healing process by enhancing wound healing and increasing the tissue thickness in the palate after SCTG harvesting. Clinical significance: For clinicians, it is important to know that we can use biological materials to accelerate healing in general, such as i-PRF. In this study, we used it in the palate, which may accelerate the healing so that we can repeatedly use the same area of the patient's palate for more than one occasion faster.



Anchu Rachel Thomas, Tripuravaram Vinay Kumar Reddy, Jee Yee Tan, Sharron Ee Jia Qing, Chee Sing Qing, Lim Ying Xuan, AR Vivekananda Pai

Analysis of Shaping Abilities of Rotary File Systems in Oval Canals with Moderate Root Curvature: A Randomized Controlled Ex Vivo Study

[Year:2023] [Month:April] [Volume:24] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:221 - 227]

Keywords: Canal transportation, Centering ability, Cone-beam computed tomography, Oval-shaped canals, TruNatomy shapers, XP-endo shapers

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3471  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the canal transportation tendencies and centering ability of the TruNatomy shaper (TN) and XP-endo shaper (XPS) rotary systems in oval-shaped canals with moderate root curvature (15°–25°), using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Materials and methods: Sixty single-rooted permanent human teeth were chosen after considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The teeth were divided into two groups (n = 30). The test group was instrumented with TN files and the other with XPS according to manufacturer's instructions. CBCT images were taken before and after instrumentation to record the root canal distances from mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual borders of the root at 3, 5, and 7 mm distances from the root apex using a specific formula. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software program, version 20.0. The data were analyzed using the unpaired t test. Results: Both TN and XPS were safe for use in oval-shaped canals with moderate root curvature. However, the XPS showed higher buccolingual transportation as compared with TN at 3 mm from the apex and higher mesiodistal transportation at 3 and 5 mm levels from the apex as compared with TN. Conclusion: Canal transportation has been detected in both systems; however, the values obtained were within the safe range (<0.3 mm). Overall, no significant difference was observed between TN and XPS (p > 0.05) in their canal transportation tendencies and centering ability. Clinical significance: The study assesses the canal centering and transportation tendencies of the recently launched TN rotary system in extracted teeth with a combination of morphologies. The findings of the study are significant clinically as minimum transportation of the canal, minimal dentin removal, efficient disinfection, and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal are considered important factors in deciding the prognosis of endodontic therapy.



Kavichithraa Jothy

Evaluation of the Effects of Povidone Iodine and Hydrogen Peroxide Mouthwashes on Orthodontic Archwires: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2023] [Month:April] [Volume:24] [Number:4] [Pages:10] [Pages No:228 - 237]

Keywords: Corrosion, Flexural modulus, Orthodontic wires, Preprocedural mouthrinses

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3484  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the effects of two preprocedural mouthrinses, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and povidone iodine (PI) on the surface characteristics and mechanical properties of nickel–titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel (SS) orthodontic archwires. Materials and methods: Five wire specimens were used, each (0.016” NiTi, 0.016” SS wires, 0.016 × 0.022” NiTi and 0.016 × 0.022” SS wires) specimen was cut into 30 mm lengths and immersed in 9% of artificial saliva and 91% of two preprocedural mouthrinse solutions: 1.5% hydrogen peroxide mouthwash, 0.2% povidone-iodine mouthwash, and distilled water (control group) for 90 minutes and incubated at 37°C. The wire specimens were then subjected to a three-point bending test for mechanical testing and viewed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to evaluate their surface characteristics. The collected data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni post hoc test. Results: The results showed a significant increase in the flexural modulus (E) of Nitinol wires in povidone-iodine gargle (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in the E of stainless steel wires in hydrogen peroxide mouthwash (p < 0.05). Analysis using SEM showed varying qualitative surface changes in the form of corrosion, voids, and ridges on the wires after exposure to both the mouthwashes. Conclusion: Though there were significant changes in the flexural modulus of archwires for both the mouthwashes, hydrogen peroxide did not show a significant difference in the E of wires at most of the deflection intervals when compared with the other two solutions, hence, could be used in orthodontic patients as an effective preprocedural mouthrinse. Clinical significance: Preprocedural mouthrinses can cause surface irregularities on the wires which in turn lead to an increase in friction at the bracket–wire interface, thereby disrupting effective tooth movement and extending the orthodontic treatment time.



Ahmed Adel Abdelaziz, Mohamed Shady Nabil, Ahmed Ali Habib

Comparison between Two Design Concepts of Four Implants Placement Used to Support Telescopic Mandibular Overdenture: A Prospective Study of Implant Marginal Bone Height Changes

[Year:2023] [Month:April] [Volume:24] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:238 - 243]

Keywords: Implant, Inclined, Overdenture, Radiograph, Telescopic

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3495  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this present study was to compare two placement designs of four implants used to support a telescopic mandibular overdenture regarding the marginal bone height changes. Materials and methods: Each patient received four implants. Two anterior implants were installed vertically in the canine area. Patients were randomized into two groups according to the direction of posterior implants installed in the premolar area. Group I: where the implants were installed vertically parallel to the anterior implants and group II: where the implants were installed 30° distally. The implants were delayed loaded with a telescopic mandibular overdenture. The implant's marginal bone changes were evaluated after 6 and 12 months of overdenture insertion. Results: Mean marginal bone loss of anterior implants showed a statistically significant difference between both groups. The vertically parallel posterior implants in group I showed statistically significant higher marginal bone loss than posterior implants in group II after follow-up periods. The 30° distally tilted posterior implants maintained the implant marginal bone after 12 months of overdenture insertion. Conclusion: Rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible with telescopic overdenture supported by four parallel implants is a promising successful treatment option. Clinical significance: Tilting the posterior implants will improve the anteroposterior spread that in turn increases the support and the survival rate of the implants. Also, using this technique gives us an opportunity to use fewer implants.



Aparna Mohan Anitha, Mala Ram Manohar

Comparative Evaluation of Cranial Base Length and Flexure on Facial Parameters in Hypodivergent, Normodivergent and Hyperdivergent Patients: A Retrospective Cephalometric Study

[Year:2023] [Month:April] [Volume:24] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:244 - 249]

Keywords: Cranial base length, Cranial flexure, FMA angle, N-Me-Go angle, Vertical dysplasia.

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3503  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of cranial base length (CBL) and Flexure on facial parameters in Hypodivergent, Normodivergent, and Hyperdivergent patients. Materials and methods: Around 60 standardized cephalograms were divided into Hypodivergent, Normodivergent, and Hyperdivergent groups (20 each) based on the FMA angle. The CBL, cranial flexure (CF), and various facial parameters were measured for each case. The results were analyzed for the correlation between Cranial and facial parameters in each of the three study groups. Results: Comparison and Pairwise Comparison of variables between study groups were done using ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc Test. Cranial base length, mandibular body length, LAFH, N-Me-Go angle (p-value <0.001), and Jarabak's ratio were found to be significantly different between the groups. Pearson's Correlation showed that most of the facial parameters had a significant correlation with CBL in Hypodivergent groups. Conclusion: The CBL is more closely related to facial parameters in vertical dysplasia individuals than CF. The CBL is positively correlated to facial variables, especially in Hypodivergent individuals. The N-Me-Go Angle introduced in the study was significantly different in all three vertical facial types studied; hence, it cannot be used as a valuable diagnostic tool. Clinical significance: Changes in the length and flexure of the cranial base influence the anteroposterior position of jaw bases. The influence of the cranial base on the development of vertical dysplasias is not studied much, hence the present study aims at resolving this lacuna in literature.



Mebin George Mathew, Satish Vishwanathaiah, Yahya Mohsen Khubrani, Masood Ahmed Depsh, Fayez Yahya Almalki

Evaluation of Change in Quality of Life, Dental Fear and Dental Anxiety in Young Children Following Full-mouth Dental Rehabilitation under General Anesthesia for Early Childhood Caries

[Year:2023] [Month:April] [Volume:24] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:250 - 256]

Keywords: Comprehensive dental care, Dental anxiety, Dental fear, Early childhood caries, Full-mouth rehabilitation, General anesthesia, Oral health-related quality of life

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3500  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the change in quality of life, dental fear, and dental anxiety in young children following full-mouth dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia for early childhood caries. Materials and methods: About 200 children who were diagnosed with early childhood caries requiring full-mouth rehabilitation under general anesthesia were recruited after obtaining parental consent. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured using the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Dental fear was evaluated using Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale and dental anxiety was evaluated using the Facial Image Scale. Scores were taken on the day of intervention, and after 14 days when the child reported for posttreatment follow-up. Results: All 200 participants returned for a follow-up visit after 2 weeks. The child impact section was reduced from 15.7 ± 4.1 to 7.7 ± 1.9 after treatment. The family impact section was reduced from 9.6 ± 2.7 to 3.5 ± 2.6 after treatment. A statistically significant difference was seen in both sections when pre-and posttreatment values were compared (p < 0.001). The total ECOHIS showed statistically significant improvement as the pretreatment score of 21.6 ± 9.5 reduced to 11.2 ± 4.2 showing 51.9% improvement in OHRQoL after full-mouth rehabilitation under general anesthesia was done (p < 0.001). Dental fear and anxiety among the participants showed a statistically significant reduction after treatment was done and most participants were found to be less fearful of doctors, dentists, and injections after treatment. Conclusion: Full-mouth rehabilitation was found to be a reliable treatment modality to improve the OHRQoL of children suffering from early childhood caries. Clinical significance: Significant improvement was seen in the OHRQoL within 2 weeks after treatment and most participants were found to be less anxious and fearful toward dentists and dental treatment. Comprehensive dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia has been proven to be an effective treatment modality for early childhood caries and a productive treatment technique to reduce dental fear and anxiety.



Kamath Apoorva Shrinivas, Shetty Suhani Sudhakar, Greeshma Kannan, Praveena Shetty, Dilip Daniel Quadras, Siddhartha Raghava

Predictive Equation for Construction of Anatomic Porion with Machine Porion as Reference Point

[Year:2023] [Month:April] [Volume:24] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:257 - 260]

Keywords: Anatomic porion, Frankfort horizontal plane, Lateral cephalogram, Machine porion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3501  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the study was to find a relationship between anatomic porion (PoA) and machine porion (PoM) and to construct PoA with the help of machine porion. Methodology: About 200 pretreatment lateral roentgenic cephalograms were used for the study. Perpendicular distances of PoA and PoM were measured from Sella–Nasion (SN) plane and SN perpendicular plane. The results were tabulated. With the help of statistical analysis, predictive equation was derived to construct PoA and PoM. p-value was set at p < 0.05. Results: Anatomic porion distance from SN was 24.35 ± 3.96 and from SN perpendicular was 12.89 ± 4.56. Distance of PoM from SN was 22.46 ± 4.20 and from SN perpendicular was 16.76 ± 4.89. Sexual dimorphism was also seen. Conclusion: There is a relationship between the PoM and PoA, thus, PoA, which is more reliable, can be constructed with the help of PoM, which is easy to reproduce. Clinical significance: To overcome the inherent limitations of PoA and PoM, the present study aimed to find a relationship between the two so as to easily construct PoA that is more reliable while taking advantage of the ease of reproducibility of PoM.



Shivasakthy Manivasakan, David Livingstone, Jahnavi Madaan

Sargassum polycystum and Turbinaria conoides Seaweed-based Novel Denture Cleanser: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2023] [Month:April] [Volume:24] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:261 - 267]

Keywords: Candida albicans, Denture cleanser, Sargassum polycystum, Seaweed, Streptococcus mutans, Turbinaria conoides

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3498  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The study ventures into evaluating the antifungal and antibacterial efficacy of commercially available denture cleanser with Sargassum polycystum, Turbinaria conoides seaweeds, and the combination of seaweeds. Materials and methods: Poly(methyl methacrylate) disks measuring 10 x 2 mm were fabricated. The samples are divided into four groups of 21 samples each. The denture base was coated with Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans individually. Group I was treated with Fittydent, group II (S. polycystum and T. conoides seaweeds combination), group III (S. polycystum), and group IV (T. conoides). The colony-formation units present on the surface of the denture were evaluated before and after treatment with different denture cleansers using the serial dilution method. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and post hoc Bonferroni analysis. Results: At 10−5 dilution, T. conoides (group IV) was statistically significant in reducing both C. albicans and S. mutans. At 10–10 dilution, T. conoides (group IV) and S. polycystum and T. conoides combination (group II) had high antibacterial efficacy and were statistically significant. Fittydent (group I) had higher antifungal efficacy and was statistically significant in comparison to S. polycystum (group III) alone. At 10–10 dilution, the T. conoides (group IV), S. polycystum, and T. conoides combination (group II) showed no evidence of a significant difference in comparison to Fittydent (group I). Fittydent had higher antibacterial efficacy and was statistically significant in comparison to S. polycystum (group III) alone. Conclusion: Sargassum polycystum and T. conoides combination and T. conoides were found to have higher antibacterial efficacy in comparison to commercially available denture cleanser and also were found to have equal antifungal efficacy in comparison to commercially available denture cleanser.



Bhagabati Prasad Dash, Prasanth Prathapan Santhakumari, Ankita Das

Prevalence of Ectopic Canine in Different Sagittal and Vertical Skeletal Patterns

[Year:2023] [Month:April] [Volume:24] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:268 - 273]

Keywords: Ectopic canine, Growth pattern, Malocclusion, Prevalence

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3470  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present investigation aims to find out the prevalence of ectopic canines among skeletal class I, II, and III malocclusions and to evaluate its variability among different genders and their growth patterns. Material and methods: The study sample included orthopantomograms (OPGs), lateral skull views, and study models of 999 patients collected from departmental archives. Among the selected samples, 258 were males and 738 were females. They were divided into skeletal class I, II, and III malocclusions sagittally and hypodivergent, normodivergent, and hyperdivergent groups according to their angle formed between point A-Nasion – point B (ANB) and angle formed between the Sella-Nasion (SN) plane and Gonion (Go) – Gnathion (Gn) plane (SnGoGn) values respectively. Results: Of the 999 samples, 738 (73.9%) were female and 260 (25.8%) were male patients. When compared to men, females had a higher proportion of ectopic canines. An estimated 62.3% of skeletal class I, 29.1% of skeletal class II, and 8.6% of skeletal class III cases were found to have ectopic canines. An estimated 720 (72.1%) patients were found to have maxillary ectopic canines and out of the available sample, 474 patients have horizontal growth patterns, 335 have average growth patterns and 190 patients have vertical growth patterns. Labial impaction was the commonest (65.4%) followed by palatal (24.8%). Bilateral impaction was comparatively more (51.1%) than unilateral impaction (48.2%). Maxilla was more prevalent (72.1%) as compared to the mandible (16.3%) and for both the arches it was (11.6%). Ectopic canines were identified in a total of 62.3% of cases with skeletal class I, 29.1% of cases with skeletal class II, and 8.6% of cases with skeletal class III. Conclusion: The bilateral ectopic canine was mostly seen in skeletal class I and class III malocclusions, whereas, a unilateral presentation was mostly seen in skeletal class II malocclusions. Clinical significance: Knowing the likelihood of a maxillary canine erupting ectopically will aid clinicians in starting with interceptive therapy since this condition necessitates complex orthodontic mechanics.


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