The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2023 | September | Volume 24 | Issue 9

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Rosemary Abbagnale, Francesco Pagnoni, Shilpa Bhandi, Chiara Bramucci, Dario Di Nardo

New Indications Regarding the Use of Endodontic Ni-Ti Rotary Instruments, How Is Shaping Changing?

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:2] [Pages No:621 - 622]

Keywords: Endodontics, NiTi rotary instruments, Root canal treatment, Shaping

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3555  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Nesma Mohamed Othman, Yousry Mahmoud Elhawary, Mohamed G Elbeltagy, Amany Elsaid Badr

The Effect of Rosmarinus Officinalis as a Potential Root Canal Medication on the Viability of Dental Pulp Stem Cells

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:9] [Pages No:623 - 631]

Keywords: Calcium hydroxide, Cell viability, Dental pulp stem cells, Rosmarinic acid, Triple antibiotic paste

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3570  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The objective of the current study was to assess and compare the impact of triple antibiotic paste (TAP) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) with rosmarinic acid (RA) on the viability of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Materials and methods: Dental pulp stem cells were isolated and characterized using flow cytometry. The cells were treated with (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 mg/mL) concentrations for TAP and Ca(OH)2 and (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µM) concentrations for RA. Cell viability was evaluated after 3 days, with cell proliferation further analyzed over 3, 5, and 7 days utilizing the MTT assay. The optical density (OD) was quantified at 570 nm, subsequently enabling the determination of corrected OD and cell viability. ANOVA followed by the post hoc Tuckey test evaluated the statistical significance at p < 0.05. Results: Following the cell viability test, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL of TAP and Ca(OH)2 showed no significant difference for DPSCs compared to the control group. While dosages of 1 mg/mL, 2.5 mg/mL, and 5 mg/mL significantly reduced cell viability (p < 0.05). However, 6.25 µM and 12.5 µM concentrations of RA showed a significant increase in cell viability compared to untreated cells, 25 µM and 50 µM concentrations showed no significant difference compared to untreated cells while 100 µM concentration showed a decrease in cell viability (p < 0.05). Moreover, RA at a concentration of 12.5 µM exhibited a significant enhancement in cell proliferation rates after 5 and 7 days. Conclusion: Rosmarinic acid showed a significant increase in cell viability when used at 6.25 and 12.5 µM concentrations compared to TAP and CA(OH)2. Clinical significance: The assessment of cytotoxicity associated with bioactive compounds like RA, which processes antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, holds importance. This evaluation could pave the way for novel intracanal medicaments that enhance the regenerative potential of DPSCs.



Dovelin Witty, Parvathy Kumaran, Balagopal Varma, J Suresh Kumar, Arun Mamachan Xavier, Malini Venugopal, Nishna Thankappan

Effect of Prolonged Water Aging on the Bond Strength and Marginal Seal of Three Novel Restorative Materials

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:6] [Pages No:632 - 637]

Keywords: Cention-N, Filtek Z350, GIC Fuji IX, Water aging

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3560  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To assess and contrast the shear bond strength (SBS) and microbial leakage of Cention-N, Fuji IX, and nanohybrid composite restorative materials after being exposed to prolonged water aging. Materials and methods: A total of 30 self-curing acrylic blocks were prepared for SBS analysis. Extracted teeth were affixed on the acrylic resin to incorporate the root section. To expose the occlusal dentin, 3 mm of the midcoronal portion was sectioned. The sectioned samples were allocated into the following three groups: Group I: Fuji IX; group II: Filtek Z350; and group III: Cention-N. Cylindrical plastic tubing was used to place each material as directed by the manufacturer and water aging for 7, 14, and 28 days at 37°C. Also, a universal testing machine (UTM) was utilized for testing followed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For microleakage analysis, a total of 30 class-V cavities were prepared. The prepared samples were allotted to respective groups; Later, 200 thermocycles at 5°C and 55°C were applied for 30 seconds to mimic the oral environment. The root apices sealed with sticky wax and the exception of a 1-mm around the edges of the restorations were then painted twice with clear nail varnish and submerged in 0.5% basic fuchsin dye at 37°C. Samples were washed, dried, and sectioned longitudinally followed by stereomicroscopic evaluation. Results: Groups I (0.083), group II (0.083), and group III (0.102) did not show significant variation in the SBS after water degradation. At the end of 28 days of water aging, group III showed 33.3% adhesive failure and 66.7% mixed failure mode. For marginal leakage in group III, the mean and standard deviation (SD) were 334.90 ± 418.454 with the p = 0.001 showing a significant difference compared to groups I and II. Conclusion: Compared to nanohybrid composite and Fuji IX, Cention-N showed a superior SBS after being exposed to water aging and exhibited lesser marginal leakage. Clinical significance: Cention-N outperformed in its marginal adaptation with superior shear resistance and can be considered as an alternative bulk filling material.



Napassorn Thanatipanont, Phumisak Louwakul

Comparison of Marginal Adaptation, Surface Hardness and Bond Strength of Resected and Retrofilled Calcium Silicate-based Cements Used in Endodontic Surgery: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:7] [Pages No:638 - 644]

Keywords: Apicoectomy, Biodentine, Bond strength, Calcium silicate, iRoot BP Plus, Marginal adaptation, Orthograde, ProRoot MTA, Retrograde, Surface hardness

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3562  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: This study compared the effects of orthograde and retrograde methods on marginal adaptation, surface hardness, and push-out bond strength (POBS) of three calcium silicate-based used in endodontic surgery. Materials and methods: Ninety single-rooted human mandibular premolars were randomly assigned into six groups (n = 15/group): groups I and II, ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with orthograde and retrograde methods; groups III and IV, Biodentine (BD) with orthograde and retrograde methods; groups V and VI, iRoot BP Plus (BP-RPM) with orthograde and retrograde methods. After obturation, the apical 3 mm of each root was sectioned into two 1-mm-thick root slices and evaluated for marginal adaptation using a scanning electron microscope, surface hardness using Vickers hardness tester and POBS using a universal testing machine. Results: Orthograde placement had a higher maximum gap width than retrograde placement (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference among the tested materials (p > 0.05). Biodentine exhibited lower surface hardness than ProRoot MTA and iRoot BP Plus (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between ProRoot MTA and iRoot BP Plus (p > 0.05). Orthograde placement had higher POBS compared with retrograde placement (p < 0.05). Biodentine had higher POBS than iRoot BP Plus (p < 0.05), but no significant difference from ProRoot MTA (p > 0.05). The failure mode was mainly mixed for all the tested materials regardless of material type or placement technique. Conclusion: The retrograde method had better marginal adaptation; however, the orthograde method provided better dislodgement resistance. Biodentine had lower surface hardness than MTA and iRoot BP Plus with both techniques, whereas iRoot BP Plus demonstrated lower dislodging resistance than BD. Clinical significance: The current findings suggest that orthograde technique, a simpler periapical surgery, with ProRoot MTA provides potentially better surface hardness and POBS than BD and iRoot BP Plus in single-canal teeth.



Akshay Manakkattupadi Vijayan, Sachin Aslam Aslam, Roshni Abidha, Mathew Pynummoottil Cherian, Tom Thomas, Ayisha Moonnam Kandathil

A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Ultrasonography as a Diagnostic Screening Tool in Maxillofacial Fractures: A Prospective Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:6] [Pages No:645 - 650]

Keywords: Computed tomography, Maxillofacial, Sensitivity, Specificity, Ultrasonography

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3564  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate the diagnostic efficacy of high-resolution ultrasonography (USG) in the diagnosis of maxillofacial fractures. Materials and Methods: A descriptive diagnostic evaluation study was carried out on 30 patients with suspected maxillofacial fractures, out of which 26 were male (86.7%) and 4 were female (13.3%). After initial management, detailed clinical examinations were carried out and significant findings were noted. Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in fracture-suspecting patients followed by USG examination which was done in a standardized pattern on both sides of the face. The result of USG was compared with the CT scan report. Result: Based on CT findings, 65 sites were found to be fractured, and this was considered the gold standard. Ultrasonography detected 58 fractures at these 780 sites, of which 54 were true fractures, while 4 were false-positive results. However, USG was not able to detect eleven fractures. The overall sensitivity and specificity of USG were 83.1% and 99%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 93% and 98%, respectively. Conclusion: According to our study, it may be concluded that USG may be recommended as a diagnostic screening tool to detect superficial maxillofacial fractures. Clinical significance: Ultrasonography provides a safe, cost-effective, reliable, non-invasive, easily available, and portable imaging modality to screen for maxillofacial fractures.



Asutosh Das, Deepa Basapur Vijayakumar, Saurabh Sathe, Ahmed Mohammed Saaduddin Sapri, Pallavi Ammu Thomas, Sarath Kappiamkunnath, Praveen Kumar Singh

Comparative Assessment of Three Different Alveolar Ridge Dimension Measurement Methods before Implant Placement: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:4] [Pages No:651 - 654]

Keywords: Cone-beam computed tomography, Direct surgical exposure, Implant placement, Ridge mapping

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3540  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the three various techniques for measuring the alveolar ridge's dimensions prior to implant insertion. Materials and methods: For this study, a total of 36 participants were chosen. To prepare a surgical stent, a study model was created from an alginate impression. A first point (reference point) was marked on the crest of the ridge in relation to the adjacent teeth. Then, one point (point 1) and another point (point 2) were marked at distances of 3 and 6 mm, respectively, from the reference point. Based on the procedure for measuring the size of the alveolar ridge, the study was divided into the following groups. Group I: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurement method; Group II: Ridge mapping measurement method; Group III: Direct caliper measurements method. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the mean and standard deviation (SD). The Student's unpaired t-test was utilized for the statistical analysis. The 5% level of significance was used. Results: There was no significant difference found between CBCT with ridge mapping and direct caliper measurements. However, on comparison of ridge mapping and direct caliper measurements technique, at point 1, the ridge mapping was 3.88 ± 0.12 and the direct caliper measurement was 3.62 ± 0.08. At point 2, the ridge mapping was 6.58 ± 0.06 and the direct caliper measurement was 6.32 ± 0.04. There was a statistically significant difference found between these two measurement methods. Conclusion: Within the limitation, the current study came to the conclusion that when CBCT and ridge mapping measurements were individually compared with the gold standard—the surgical open method, CBCT—demonstrated to be a highly specific and sensitive method for detecting the residual alveolar ridge width in the treatment planning of dental implants. Clinical significance: Evaluation of alveolar bone is necessary during treatment planning for dental implant placement. Using simply panoramic and/or periapical radiographs to evaluate the bone may not be sufficient because it only provides two-dimensional information regarding the implant locations. Therefore, for better implant placement, three-dimensional information of the implant site, such as CBCT and ridge mapping technique, should be assessed.



Abdulrahman K. Alshammari, Safanah AlDakhayel, Ghaida Alsulaiman, Fatemah Alzoori, Albandari Alghurayes, Taif Alshammari, Muteb Algharbi, Ammar A. Siddiqui

Impact of Orofacial Clefts on Oral Health Quality of Life: A Cross-sectional Survey Study in Saudi Arabia

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:5] [Pages No:655 - 659]

Keywords: Children, Cleft lip/palate, Clefts, Child Oral Health Impact Profile, Oral health, Quality of life, Saudi Arabia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3531  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the effect of facial clefts on the dental health quality of life of affected individuals, and to determine whether age and gender affect the oral health quality of life differently. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional survey included 50 participants (32 females and 18 males) from the northern region of Saudi Arabia, using a reliable and validated questionnaire, the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP), which measured self-reported oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children and adults using a five-point Likert scale. Statistical analysis was performed, and results were considered significant if the p-value was less than 0.05. Results: The highest scores in the oral health domain were related to bad breath and reluctance in speaking or reading aloud in class within the school environment domain, with mean scores of 3.44 ± 1.3 and 3.52 ± 1.2, respectively. Most patients showed apprehension regarding necessary dental treatments (mean = 1.44 ± 0.07). The study found a non-statistically significant difference in tooth discomfort between age groups (p = 0.092), with individuals aged from 20 to 29 experiencing higher levels of discomfort than other age groups surveyed. Conclusion: The two topics with the highest mean scores in the oral health domain and the school environment domain were bad breath and not wanting to speak or read aloud in class. Females reported more discomfort, and there was a substantial association between gender and tooth pain/sensitivity. Clinical significance: Understanding the difficulties cleft patients face is crucial, as doing so will enable dentists to encourage and handle these issues more effectively.



Dhafer Alasmari

Morphometric Evaluation of Morphological Variations of the Nasopalatine Canal: A Retrospective Study Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:8] [Pages No:660 - 667]

Keywords: Cone-beam computed tomography, Implants, Incisive foramen, Nasopalatine canal, Stenson's foramen

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3561  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The study aimed to analyze the morphological and anatomical variations of the nasopalatine canal (NPC) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and their association with age and gender among the subpopulation of the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: The CBCT records of 401 patients referred to the Department of Radiology between January 2020 and July 2023 were randomly selected in the retrospective cross-sectional study. The anatomical characteristics such as the length of the NPC, and the superior and inferior width of the canal, were analyzed. In the sagittal and axial planes, the morphological variants of the shape of the NPC were also investigated. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for statistical analyses at a 5% significance level. Results: The study examined the CBCT images of 219 females (54.6%) and 182 males (45.4%) with an overall mean age of 40.17 ± 2.31 years. The overall length of the NPC and superior and inferior canal width were 13.86 ± 2.68 mm, 3.4 ± 1.42 mm, and 4.07 ± 2.06 mm, respectively. Independent t-test revealed that the males had a statistically significant larger superior (3.62 ± 1.78 mm) and inferior canal width (4.33 ± 1.79 mm). In terms of gender, the Chi-square test revealed a statistically significant association (p < 0.01) between the morphological shape of the NPC in the axial and sagittal planes. The heart-shaped (51.4%) and cone-shaped canals (34.2%) were the most frequently recorded NPC in the axial and sagittal planes, respectively. Pearson's correlation found a statistically significant positive relationship (p < 0.05) between the superior and inferior canal width and the canal length. Spearman's correlation revealed a statistically highly significant correlation between the NPC shape in the sagittal plane and gender (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The study findings revealed a statistically significant difference in the anatomical and morphological traits of the NPC in the axial and sagittal planes based on gender. The effect of age and gender was found to exhibit significant differences with the NPC parameters. The heart-shaped canal in the axial plane and the cone-shaped canal in the sagittal plane were more prevalent in the study sample. A three-dimensional (3D) examination of the NPC will be crucial to avert challenging circumstances prior to surgical treatments in the anterior maxilla. Clinical significance: The NPC is a long, narrow canal that can take up to 58% of the buccal bone plate width, and an accurate 3D anatomic illustration of the NPC allows for reliable surgical planning and dental implant placement.



Diana Dghaily, Mohammad Rayyan, Hala Ragab, Mohamed Sayed, Ghada Ayash, Ghadah Alzahrani

Comparison of Fracture Resistance between Different Treatment Modalities of Mutilated Endodontically Treated Teeth Using Polyether Ether Ketone

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:6] [Pages No:668 - 673]

Keywords: Endodontically treated teeth, Fracture resistance, Polyether ether ketone, Zirconia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3558  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To compare fracture resistance of multiple treatment modalities intended for mutilated teeth using polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and zirconia materials. Materials and methods: The study was divided into four groups according to treatment modality adopted (n = 14): fiber post (F), Nayyar core (N), endocrown (E), and Richmond crown (R). Each group was further subdivided into two groups (n = 7) according to the type of material used: zirconia (Z) and PEEK (P). Using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, restorations were constructed from both materials following tested treatment options and manufacturer direction. Finished restorations were then tried, seated, and cemented to their corresponding acrylic teeth. All specimens were tested for fracture resistance in universal testing machine with cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min speed until failure, which was confirmed by a sudden drop in the measurements of the testing machine. Results were recorded, tabulated, and statistically analyzed. Shapiro-Wilk normality tests were considered to evaluate the normality of the data distributions. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc analysis was conducted to analyze the fracture resistance significant differences. Results: Descriptive statistics of the restoration material revealed statistically a higher mean value for PEEK material (3609 ± 188.1) than zirconia (2404 ± 425.6). One-way ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences between zirconia group (p < 0.0001). Regarding zirconia group statistical significance was detected between fiber post vs endocrown (p = 0.0299), fiber post vs Richmond crown (p < 0.0001), and Nayyar core vs Richmond crown (p = 0.0004). However, there was no statistically significant difference between PEEK group (P = 0.1614). Conclusion: Polyether ether ketone could present a reliable treatment option in endodontically treated teeth. Clinical significance: Using one-piece Richmond crowns constructed of PEEK could present a viable treatment option against conventional treatment options of root canal treatment (RCT) single-rooted teeth.



Md Sofiqul Islam, Zainab Riadh, Dina Thaer Abdulsalam Al-Ajeeli, Ashfaque Hossain, Vivek Padmanabhan, Muhammed Mustahsen Rahman

Tracing of Microbes in Prepared Cavity Following Different Minimally Invasive Caries Removal Protocols

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:5] [Pages No:674 - 678]

Keywords: Caries detection dye, Chemo-mechanical caries removal, Minimally invasive caries removal, Residual microbes, Visual tactile

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3569  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: The conventional caries removal technique has been replaced with minimally invasive (MI) techniques to preserve healthy natural teeth and to provide durable dental restorations. Each of these MI caries removal protocols is reported to be favorable in dealing with different caries conditions. The current study aimed to trace the residual bacteria that may remain in a prepared cavity following a visual-tactile (VT), caries detection dye (CDD), and chemo-mechanical caries removal (CMCR) protocol. Materials and methods: A total of 29 extracted human molar teeth with visible caries lesions were randomly divided into three groups. The cavity preparation and caries removal of each group was accomplished following one of the MI caries removal protocols. Swab samples (one from each specimen) were taken and inoculated onto a blood agar plate and incubated for 48 hours. The growth of the bacterial colony was observed under a microscope and the specific genome of the bacteria was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Results: The maximum number of traceable bacteria was observed following the chemo-mechanical caries removal group followed by the caries detection dye group and the least in the visual-tactile group. The PCR test revealed the presence of Streptococcus mutans in all the observed colonies; however, Streptococcus sobrinus was absent completely. The Chi-square test reveals a statistically insignificant (p = 0.646) difference among the tested groups. Conclusion: All of the MI caries removal protocols used in this study showed a trace of microbes in certain teeth. The cavity prepared following a visual tactile protocol showed the least amount of traceable bacteria in the prepared cavity. Clinical significance: Cavity that is prepared following individual MI protocol has a risk of leaving microbes in it.



Amira M El Sharkawy, Mohammad Mostafa Rayyan, Ibrahim Gamal, Ghada Ayash

Effect of Novel Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation on Accelerated Implant Osteointegration in Canine

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:9] [Pages No:679 - 687]

Keywords: Accelerated-osteointegration, Dental implant, Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound, Two-stage implant protocol

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3565  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPU) application on dental implant accelerated osseointegration in the two-stage implant protocol. Materials and methods: A total of 20 implants were placed in 10 mature mongrel dogs, two implants for each dog replacing the lower 3rd premolars bilaterally. After 3 months of extraction, implants were placed. After 24 hours of implantation, the right sides received LIPU for 20 mins/day, continuously for 20 days. The left sides didn't receive LIPU (control). Standardized radiographs were taken before LIPU and after 10 and 20 days for both sides. After 20 days of LIPU application, second-stage surgery was performed and provisional crowns were placed on each implant. Implants were subjected to functional occlusal loading for 4 weeks. Standardized radiographs were taken after 2 and 4 weeks of loading and analyzed to assess the peri-implant bone density changes. All data were collected, tabulated, and statistically analyzed. Results: All tissues appeared clinically normal, with the absence of inflammation and peri-implant radiolucency. The survival rate was 100%. The LIPU group showed a statistically significantly higher percentage increase in mean bone density after 10 LIPU sessions, 20 LIPU sessions, and 2 and 4 weeks of loading, than a control group. Conclusion: The LIPU stimulation radiographically increased the bone density around implant area and accelerated osseointegration in the two-stage implant protocol. Clinical significance: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation could be beneficial in accelerating osseointegration and thus shortening the waiting period for final prosthetic delivery.



Mirza Muzaamill Baig, Nisarga Kansar, Priya Patel, Achuthan Nair, Mohamed Samir Elnawawy

Effectiveness of Different Rotary Files Systems in Removal of Gutta-percha during Endodontic Retreatment with or without Solvents: A Comparative Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:4] [Pages No:688 - 691]

Keywords: Endodontic retreatment, Gutta-percha, Rotary files, Solvents

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3523  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficacy of three different file systems in removing gutta-percha during endodontic retreatment with or without solvents. Materials and methods: The current study used 120 freshly extracted, single-rooted human mandibular premolars extracted for orthodontic procedures. The canal was prepared utilizing the step-back technique and obturation was done. The samples were allocated into three experimental groups at random, group I: Hedstrom Files, group II: D-RaCe rotary system, and group III: Mtwo retreatment files system. The three groups were again split into two subgroups of 20 samples each, i.e., with solvent and without solvent. Then, a stereomicroscope with a magnification of × 20 was used to examine the samples. The amount of GP and sealer left was measured in three sections: At apical third (1 mm above the apex), middle third (8 mm from the apex), and coronal third (2 mm below the cementoenamel junction). The obtained data were analyzed using parametric Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The overall least debris on the dentinal surface was found in the middle third with/without solvent. The D-RaCe rotary system was 1.24 ± 0.11 and 1.44 ± 0.14, Mtwo retreatment files system was 1.38 ± 0.17 and 1.72 ± 0.09 and Hedstrom files was 2.08 ± 0.21 and 2.18 ± 0.16 respectively and A significant difference was found between the three different file system groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The current study concluded that, when combined with a solvent, the D-RaCe rotary retreatment system is more effective than the Mtwo rotary retreatment system and Hedstrom Files in removing gutta-percha and sealant from root canal walls. Clinical significance: When it comes to treating chronic infections, non-surgical retreatment is a more cautious method than periapical surgery. Retreatment should be performed efficiently and with appropriate instruments to ensure effective treatment.



Sunil, Siddharth Anand, Asib Ahmad, Ravi Prakash, Aparna Singh, Vasundhara Megha

Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Various Herbal Products Used with Zinc Oxide as an Obturating Material in Primary Teeth: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:8] [Pages No:692 - 699]

Keywords: Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Curcumin, Pulpectomy, Zinc oxide eugenol

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3559  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To compare the clinical and radiographically mixture of zinc oxide with Aloe vera, Curcumin and neem as an obturating material for pulpectomy. Materials and methods: The study comprised of age group 4–8 years children requiring endodontic treatment for at least a single primary molar tooth. Sixty primary molar teeth from 43 children were divided equally and randomly into four study groups. The materials used for obturation were zinc oxide powder (ZnO) and Eugenol (ZOE) (group I), ZnO and Aloe vera Gel (group II), ZnO and Curcumin Powder (group III), ZnO and neem extract (group IV). They were evaluated clinically and radiographically at immediate postoperative and then at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 9-month intervals. Results: At the end of 9 months, the Chi-square test revealed 100% success rate for recovery of pain in group I and III, 66.66% in group II and 93.3% in group IV. The success rates for absence of abscess and for periradicular radiolucency in group I, III, and group IV were 100% and 66.6% for group II. The success rate for periapical radiolucency in group I and group III was 100%, in group II 66.6% and in group IV 93.35%. The success rate for all the groups shows 100% success in terms of pathological root resorption. Conclusion: Zinc oxide eugenol has proven to be the best obturating material. ZnO with Aloe vera showed a success rate which is significantly lower than the other medicaments. ZnO with Curcumin and ZnO with neem had shown promising clinical and radiographical results. Clinical significance: ZnO with Curcumin and ZnO with neem can be used as a root canal filling material in primary teeth with further follow-up studies.



Wael Mohammed S Awadh

Gender Dimorphism of Skeletal Measurements and Dental Angle Classification in Orthodontic Patients

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:7] [Pages No:700 - 706]

Keywords: Cephalometric, Facial profiles, Gender dimorphism, Orthodontics, Sella-Nasion angle

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3524  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate gender dimorphism of the skeletal and dental angles and measurements among different types of malocclusions in the Population of Jizan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and methods: Cephalometric data were retrieved from the archived records of 272 dental patients, comprising 134 males and 138 females. Skeletal and dental malocclusions in both the sub-groups were digitally studied. Statistical analysis: The measurement reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to evaluate the difference in skeletal and dental parameters between genders. The Chi-square test was done to determine the difference in malocclusion patterns amongst the gender. Results: Statistical significance was noted in dental malocclusion (p-value = 0.003) and facial height, with females having a steeper mandible plan than males. The Sella-nasion-Nasion-Vertical line angles were reported high in females with no statistical significance. Linear cephalometric values were measured higher in males than females, whereas angular values and facial height parameters were lower in females than male. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, it could be concluded that there is a prominent difference measured in facial profiles of males and females with higher facial height in males. Clinical significance and limitations: These clinical outcomes will help orthodontists to analyze the accurate base angles and points to draft proper treatment plans considering the variation in the profile of males and females.



Wajih Hage, Dolla Karam Sarkis, Mireille Kallasy, Germain Sfeir, May Mallah, Roula El Hachem, Issam Khalil, Carla Zogheib

Antimicrobial Activity of Five Calcium Silicate Based Root Canal Sealers against a Multispecies Engineered Biofilm: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:8] [Pages No:707 - 714]

Keywords: Biofilm, Bioceramics, calcium silicate based root canal sealers, Multispecies’ biofilm

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3556  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present study's objective was to compare the impact of CerasealR, total fill BC SealerR, Bio-C SealerR, AH Plus BioceramicR, and K-BiocerR on the elimination of a multispecies’ endodontic biofilm at 3, 7 and 14 days. Materials and methods: A total of 20 freshly extracted, caries-free premolars were prepared for the study to create dentinal disks. For the multispecies biofilm formation, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans were cultured and used to inoculate hydroxyapatite discs. After incubation, the biofilms were placed on blotting papers in petri dishes with an orthodontic bend. Different root canal sealers, including CeraSeal, total Fill BC Sealer, Bio-C Sealer, AH Plus Bioceramic, K-Biocer, and Sealite, were injected into the bend, facilitating contact with the biofilms. The samples were divided into seven groups, including a negative control. At specific intervals, 3, 7, and 14 days, 3 biofilm samples from each group were collected, diluted, and plated on Agar media for colony counting and analysis. Results: In all tested groups, the total bacterial count significantly decreased between day 3 and 14 (p < 0.05) with no statistically significant differences among the different sealers’ groups at all-time points for the total bacterial count, E. faecalis count, and P. mirabilis count. However, Sealite demonstrated the most consistent effectiveness in reducing bacterial counts across multiple categories. The sealite group was capable of decreasing the C. albicans count significantly between day 3 and day 14 (p < 0.05) in comparison with the bioceramic groups. Conclusion: All sealers had antibacterial activity against the multispecies biofilm between day 3 and day 14. The ascending order of sealers in terms of their effectiveness in killing bacteria, based on the provided results, is as follows: Sealite, Bio-C Sealer, AH Plus, CeraSeal, TotalFill, and K-Biocer. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the bacterial counts among the different sealer groups at any time point. Clinical significance: The role of sealers in combating biofilm-associated infections highlights their potential clinical utility in preserving root canal health. Understanding the antimicrobial properties of these sealers is vital for informed decision-making in selecting the most effective materials for improved treatment outcomes and long-term success in endodontic procedures.



Garima Tyagi, Prakash Kumar, Annu Kumari, Parul Shakarwal, Aditya Singh, Pallavi Kusum

Comparing the EdgeFile X3, GenEndo, HeroGold, and ProTaper Gold Rotary Instruments Regarding the Effect of Different Concentrations and Temperature of NaOCl on Cyclic Fatigue Resistance

[Year:2023] [Month:September] [Volume:24] [Number:9] [Pages:7] [Pages No:715 - 721]

Keywords: Cyclic fatigue, EdgeFile X3, GenEndo, Hero Gold, Protaper Gold, Resistance, Sodium hypochlorite

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3515  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This research was carried out with the objective of comparison between GenEndo, Protaper Gold, Hero Gold and EdgeFile X3 regarding the effect of different concentrations of NaOCl. Materials and methods: About 720 study specimens were included in the study. They were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of 180 files. Group A: GenEndo, Group B: Protaper Gold, Group C: Hero Gold, Group D: EdgeFile X3. Each group of instruments were further subdivided into nine subgroups (n = 20 for each subgroup). Testing of the cyclic fatigue was carried out in artificial canals which were prepared inside the blocks of stainless steel. The stainless steel blocks with artificial canals were established in a receiver that was packed with experimental solutions like distilled water, 5.25% NaOCl and 2.5% NaOCl. The adjustment of temperature was done at 25, 37, and 60°C. The rotation of the instrument was carried out inside the artificial canal as per the instructions of the manufacturer. The instrument was rotated until it got fractured. The time taken by the instrument to fracture was recorded in seconds. The number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was analyzed with the help of the equation (NCF = time to fracture × rpm/60). Surfaces at the site of fracture were examined with the help of a scanning electron microscope (EVOLS10, ZEISS) at magnification (300x and 2000x). Results: It was noticed that there was a statistically significant increase in cyclic fatigue when sodium chloride was used as an endodontic irrigant instead of distilled water. The increase in cyclic fatigue was also observed when 5.25% sodium chloride was used instead of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Cyclic fatigue increased on change in temperature from 25 to 37°C and from 37 to 60°C. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). It was observed that resistance against cyclic fatigue on treatment with different irrigation solutions at different temperatures was in the order of GenEndo > Protaper Gold > Hero Gold > EdgeFile X3. Conclusion: The resistance against cyclic fatigue in new NiTi rotary files can be affected significantly by different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite irrigant solution and the GenEndo rotary endodontic instrument has the maximum resistance against cyclic fatigue. Clinical significance: Irrigation of the root canal with irrigants, such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been recommended strongly. NaOCl is used in the range of 0.5 and 6.5% concentration owing to its antimicrobial activity and tissue dissolution activities, particularly at higher temperatures. It has been postulated that fatigue of rotary endodontic instruments can be influenced by adjoining medium and their concentration.


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