The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

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2024 | February | Volume 25 | Issue 2

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Sutitorn Yanaranci, Narongsak Laosrisin, Awipha Sriprasertsuk, Patchawan Panrin, Teerachate Nantakeeratipat

The Association of Maternal Periodontal Diseases in the Postpartum Period with Preterm Low Birth Weight

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:99 - 106]

Keywords: Adverse pregnancy outcomes, Low birth weight, New 2018 AAP classification Periodontal diseases, Preterm birth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3631  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Preterm birth is the most adverse effect of pregnancy, commonly leading to low birth weight. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between maternal periodontal status and adverse pregnancy outcomes by immediate postpartum periodontal examination and diagnosis. Materials and methods: 125 mothers were divided into four groups based on gestational day (GD) and newborns’ birth weight (BW); the mothers with GD ≥ 259 days and BW ≥ 2500 gm (Control), the mothers with GD <259 days and BW ≥ 2500 gm (PT group), the mothers with GD ≥ 259 days and BW <2500 gm (LBW group), and the mothers with GD <259 days and BW <2500 gm (PT-LBW group). The maternal periodontal assessment was carried out within 3 days after delivery. Results: The bleeding on probing (BOP) of the PT-LBW group was significantly higher than the control (P = 0.027). The correlation test revealed a mild inverse relationship between BOP and BW (R = –0.23, P = 0.044). According to the new 2018 American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) periodontal classification, there was no significant difference between periodontal status within groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that BOP, an early sign of gingival inflammation, is involved in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Clinical significance: This study is the first of its kind to use immediate postpartum periodontal examination and diagnosis by the new 2018 AAP periodontal classification. The findings demonstrate that signs of gingival inflammation may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.



Ahmed O Elsayed, Fakhreldin H Abdel-Rahman, Wael MAS Ahmed, Mohamed A-M Tawfik

Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Autogenous Inlay Graft vs Autogenous Onlay Graft for Anterior Maxillary Horizontal Ridge Augmentation: A Randomized Control Clinical Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:107 - 113]

Keywords: Autogenous inlay graft, Autogenous onlay graft, Deficient anterior maxilla, Horizontal ridge augmentation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3634  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of autogenous onlay and inlay grafts for anterior maxillary horizontal ridge augmentation. Materials and methods: This randomized clinical trial was performed on 14 patients with a deficient partially edentulous anterior maxillary ridge (3–5 mm in width). Patients were randomized and grouped into two equal groups: Group A was treated with symphyseal autogenous bone block, which was placed and fixed buccally as an onlay graft, and group B: was treated with symphyseal autogenous bone block, which was interpositioned and fixed in space created between buccal and lingual cortex as inlay graft. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically to evaluate the increase of bone width at [Baseline, immediate postoperative (T0)] and six months post-graft (T6). Results: A total of 14 patients (8 males and 6 females) with age range from 20 to 43 years old with a mean of 42.1 years were involved in our study. Radiographically, there was a significant statistical difference in comparing between two groups for the creation of a horizontal alveolar bone at T0. In the inlay group, the mean preoperative bone width was 3.9 ± 0.3 mm at T0 and 5.7 ± 0.5 mm at T6. While in the onlay group, the mean preoperative bone width was 3.7 ± 0.7 mm at T0 while at T6 the mean bone width was 6.1 ± 0.8 mm. This was statistically significant. Conclusion: Inlay block graft appears to be a successful treatment option for horizontal ridge augmentation in the maxillary arch. Clinical significance: both techniques are viable techniques for augmentation of atrophic alveolar ridge with uneventful healing.



Ramaprabha Govindarajulu, Nubesh K Syed, Binsu Sukumaran, Pavithra R Seshadri, Senthilkumaran Mathivanan, Narayane Ramkumar

Assessment of the Antibacterial Effect of Vitamin D3 against Red Complex Periodontal Pathogens: A Microbiological Assay

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:114 - 117]

Keywords: Chronic periodontitis, Polymerase chain reaction, Red complex, Vitamin D

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3642  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The study aims is to evaluate the antibacterial effect of vitamin D3 against the red complex bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and methods: The study comprised 98 participants with chronic periodontitis. All clinical parameters including plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and a microbiological assay of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, T. forsythia were assessed at the baseline. All study participants who underwent scaling and root planning were divided into two groups, A and B, each with 49 patients and only group B patients were advised to take vitamin D supplementation of 60,000 IU granules, once daily for 2 months. All the patients of both the groups were recalled at the end of 2nd month and all the clinical and microbiological parameters were reassessed. Results: After two months, there was a reduction in all the clinical markers in both groups, but the group B patients showed more improvement following non-surgical treatment vitamin D intake. There was also a statistical reduction in P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia following administration of vitamin D in group B patients compared to group A. Conclusion: These discoveries proposed that vitamin D has a superb antimicrobial impact against red complex periodontal microbes and might be considered a promising compound in the counteraction of periodontal disease. Clinical significance: Vitamin D is considered to possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity, which may help to delay the progression of periodontitis. So, vitamin D3 can be used as a potential supplement that could be employed to stop the advancement of periodontal disease.



Mohammad J Alazemi, Manal F Badawi, Mohamed G Elbeltagy, Amany E Badr

Examining the Effects of Asiaticoside on Dental Pulp Stem Cell Viability and Proliferation: A Promising Approach to Root Canal Treatment

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:10] [Pages No:118 - 127]

Keywords: Asiaticoside, Calcium hydroxide, Intracanal medicament, Triple antibiotic paste

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3636  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aims to evaluate the impact of asiaticoside (AC) on the viability and proliferation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), considering the known negative effects of routinely used intracanal medicaments. This evaluation will be compared with the outcomes from using traditional intracanal medicaments, specifically triple antibiotic paste (TAP) and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. Materials and methods: The DPSCs were obtained from the third molars of an adult donor. The application of flow cytometry was employed to do a phenotypic analysis on DPSCs using CD90, CD73, CD105, CD34, CD14, and CD45 antibodies. The methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay was employed to assess cellular viability. The cells were treated with different concentrations of TAP and Ca(OH)2 (5, 2.5, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/mL), along with AC (100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 µM). A cell proliferation rate was performed at 3, 5, and 7 days. Results: The characterization of DPSCs was conducted by flow cytometry analysis, which verified the presence of mesenchymal cell surface antigen molecules (CD105, CD73, and CD90) and demonstrated the absence of hematopoietic markers (CD34, CD45, and CD14). Cells treated with concentrations over 0.5 mg/mL of TAP and Ca(OH)2 showed a notable reduction in cell viability in comparison to the untreated cells (p < 0.05). Additionally, the cells treated with different concentrations of AC 12.5, 6.25, 25, and 50 µM did not differ significantly from the untreated cells (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, cells treated with concentrations of 100 µM showed a significant reduction in viability compared to the untreated cells (p < 0.05). After a period of 7 days, it was noted that cells exposed to three different concentrations of AC (50, 25, and 12.5 µM) had a notable rise in cell density in comparison to TAP and Ca(OH)2 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, cells that were exposed to a concentration of 12.5 µM exhibited the highest cell density. Conclusion: The cellular viability of the AC-treated cells was superior to that of the TAP and Ca(OH)2-treated cells. Moreover, the AC with a concentration of 12.5 µM had the highest degree of proliferation. Clinical significance: This study underscores the importance of evaluating alternative root canal medicaments and their effects on DPSCs’ growth and vitality. The findings on AC, particularly its influence on the survival and proliferation of DPSCs, offer valuable insights for its probable use as an intracanal medication. This research contributes to the ongoing efforts to identify safer and more effective intracanal treatments, which are crucial for enhancing patient outcomes in endodontic procedures.



Franco Mauricio, Roman Mendoza, Herbert Silva, Iván Calderón, Fran Espinoza-Carhuancho, Josmel Pacheco-Mendoza, Frank Mayta-Tovalino

Overview, Trends, and Collaboration on Immunization, Vaccination, and Immunomodulation Therapies for Periodontitis: A Scientometric Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:128 - 133]

Keywords: Immunization, Periodontal vaccine, Periodontitis, Scientometric analysis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3641  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To identify patterns and trends in the field of immunization, vaccination, and immunomodulation therapies for periodontitis. Materials and methods: Metadata were collected from the Scopus database on publications related to these topics from January 1986 to February 2024. Several types of papers were included in this study, a total of 22 publications. Data were extracted from relevant publications and loaded into SciVal for analysis that were used to identify trends and patterns in the data, including cross-country collaboration, thematic evolution, and keyword distribution. Results: Mohsen Amin of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran and S. Aadil Ahamed and Annie Kitty George of Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences in India were found to be notable contributors in this field. India leads in terms of academic paper production, followed by Iran and China. The journals Expert Review of Vaccines and International Immunopharmacology have published significant papers in this field. Conclusions: According to Lotka's Law, most authors have written only one paper, reflecting the distribution of productivity in many academic and scientific fields. Collaborations were observed between Iran and Canada, Korea and New Zealand, and the United States and Belgium. This study provides useful insight into the predominant trends and patterns in the scientific literature in the field of immunization, vaccination, and immunomodulation therapies for periodontitis. Clinical significance: The findings of this study may help to understand the dynamics of the production on immunization, vaccination, and immunomodulation therapies could reduce the inflammation and progression of periodontitis, thus improving the patient's oral and overall health.



Ghassan Yared, Elie S Sokhn, Aynaa Al-Khatib, Cynthia Kassis, Ronald Younes

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Hepatitis B Vaccination among Dentists in Lebanon

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:134 - 140]

Keywords: Dentists, Hepatitis B, Questionnaire, Vaccination

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3635  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious occupational hazard for healthcare workers, including dentists. The purpose of this study is to assess dentists’ knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) with respect to hepatitis B vaccination. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of dentists (n = 349) from Lebanon was carried out. Participants’ knowledge of hepatitis B, attitudes toward vaccination, and immunization habits were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. To examine the data, descriptive statistics were used, and associations between variables were investigated using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The study found that most participating dentists are HBV-vaccinated. These dentists boast a basic to a significantly substantial understanding of HBV infection prevention strategies, such as immunization, routine preventive measures, and handling equipment. Notwithstanding the generally positive attitudes towards vaccination, a proportion of dentists lacked some HBV prevention practices, specifically with respect to conducting regular follow-ups of anti-HBs titer levels and getting booster vaccination doses when warranted. Conclusion: This study sheds light on the KAP of hepatitis B immunization among Lebanese dentists. The findings emphasize the significance of focused educational efforts in view of improving awareness and encouraging a more thorough understanding of the benefits of vaccination. The study provides useful data that can be used to influence public health policies as well as activities aimed at increasing hepatitis B vaccination rates among dental professionals in Lebanon.



Mohamed A Nagib, Abdullah M Ibrahim, Fakhreldin Hassan Abdel-Rahman, Salah A Hegazy, Ahmed Habib

Evaluation of Quality of Life and Satisfaction with Fixed Prostheses on Zygomatic Implants vs All-on-Four Concept: A Randomized Clinical Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:141 - 147]

Keywords: All-on-four concept, Bone augmentation, Immediate prosthetic loading, Maxillary atrophy, Oral health impact, Patient satisfaction, Prosthetic rehabilitation, Quality of life, Treatment outcomes, Zygomatic implants

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3632  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To compare between the rehabilitation of atrophied maxilla with fixed prosthesis using two posterior zygomatic implants and two conventional anterior implants or four implants inserted according to the all-on-four concept regarding the patient quality of life and satisfaction after one year of prosthesis insertion. Materials and methods: Thirty-six patients with atrophic edentulous maxillae were randomized into two groups: Group I (rehabilitated with fixed prostheses supported by two zygomatic and two conventional implants in the anterior region) and group II (fixed prostheses on four implants in the anterior region following an all-on-four concept). One year after the placement of the definitive prostheses, patients completed oral health impact profile-14 and satisfaction questionnaires. Results: All patients were satisfied regarding retention, stability, occlusion, comfort, cleaning, speaking, chewing, bolus quality, appearance, handling, prosthesis apart, and embarrassing, with no significant significance between two groups except satisfaction with surgical procedures and healing period. Conclusions: Using two distally tilted zygomatic implants or all-on-four concept to rehabilitate atrophied maxilla by fixed detachable prosthesis could be considered a promising functional and esthetic treatment option regarding the patient satisfaction. Clinical significance: Traditionally, treatment of maxillary atrophied ridges was done by bone grafting or sinus-lifting techniques; however, using all-on-four concept or zygomatic implants was a successful treatment as it has high success rates and highly satisfied by the patients.



Omir Aldowah, Abdullah Almakrami, Yazeed Alghuwaynim, Mohammed Alhutaylah, Ali Almansour, Ali Alswedan, Falah Alshahrani, Saad Alqarni, Yahia Alkasi

Perceptions and Knowledge of Undergraduate Dental Students about Artificial Intelligence in Dental Schools: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:148 - 155]

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Enthusiastic about AI, Perceptions and knowledge, Threats and benefits, Undergraduate students

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3633  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: This study aims to assess the perceptions and knowledge of undergraduate dental students about artificial intelligence (AI) in dental schools through a cross-sectional study. Materials and methods: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Participant recruitment was achieved by sending an online questionnaire to the undergraduate students at the assigned universities. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first seven questions record general information about participants and their perceptions of AI. The remaining questions are about the knowledge of participants about the applications of AI. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 26. Results: About 165 undergraduate students from 20 universities related to the dental sciences responded to the questionnaire. And 80.6% of participants found the use of AI in dentistry exciting. I have a basic knowledge of the working principles of AI. About 80.6% of participants believe that applications of AI should be part of undergraduate dental training. And 66.6% of students are aware of the opportunities and threats that AI can create. The results show that 75% of the students indicated that they got their information about AI through social media. Regarding the association of years of studies with AI applications used in periodontics, the knowledge about AI applications in “aggressive periodontics,” “compromised teeth,” and “success in rate of dental implant” was significantly higher in senior students than junior students (p < 0.05). Concerning applications of AI used in restorative dentistry and prosthodontics, only “computer color matching,” “tooth surface losses,” and “I do not know” showed statistical significance (p < 0.05) with the year of study of participants. Senior students show significantly better knowledge in “success in retreatment” and “working length determinant.” Conclusion: Although undergraduates are enthusiastic about AI and aware of its threats and benefits, their knowledge is limited. In addition, undergraduate programs must exert more effort to prepare students for the era of AI.



Dhirendra Kumar Singh, BS Harsha Raj, Crystal Runa Soans, Akshitha Elango, Dinesh G Kamath, Fazil A Nasyam, Debasish Mishra

Assessment of the Smear Layer Removal Efficacy of Three Different Agents on Periodontally Compromised Tooth: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:156 - 159]

Keywords: Chemical agents, Periodontally compromised tooth, Scaling and root planing, Smear layer

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3618  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the smear layer removal efficacy of three various agents on periodontally compromised tooth. Materials and methods: The current study included 75 molar teeth that were extracted due to periodontal disease. After that, 25 samples were randomly assigned using a simple random technique to the three different agent groups, group A: Scaling and root planing (SRP) and application of SofScale agent, group B: SRP and application of QMix agent, group C: SRP and application of MTAD agent. Using a diamond circular saw, the treated portions were divided into horizontal and vertical halves. All samples were viewed under Scanning Electron Microscope. Every tooth was focused at the coronal third, middle third, and apical third portion with a magnification of 1000×. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: The smear layer removal efficacy was more in the QMix agent (3.06 ± 0.04) group followed by MTAD agent (3.28 ± 0.09) and SofScale agent (4.14 ± 0.10) group on the root surface. On intra group comparison, there was a statistically significant difference found in all the intra group agents with all the three levels. On inter group evaluation, at coronal third, there was no significant difference found between the different agents. There was a significant difference found between the different agents at middle and coronal third. Conclusion: On conclusion, the current investigation found that, the root surfaces treated with QMix shown a greater ability to remove smear layers compared to tooth surfaces treated with MTAD and SofScale agent. Clinical significance: Conventional therapies such as SRP effectively eliminate calculus, plaque, and necrosed cementum; nevertheless, they leave behind a smear layer that could impede normal healing. In an effort to overcome this, root conditioning agents were applied on the root surface to remove the smear layer. The traditional root conditioning agents such as citric acid have certain disadvantages, though, such as an acidic pH that could harm the root surface. As a result, researchers have been looking for biocompatible root conditioning treatments that are more effective.



Siddharth Mallapragda, Radhika Gupta, Stuti Gupta, Himani Sharma, Saransh Srivastava, Anusha Raj

Evaluation of Regenerative Efficacy of Amnion and Chorion Membrane in Treatment of Mandibular Molar Furcation Defects: A Clinico-radiographic Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:160 - 167]

Keywords: Amnion membrane, Chorion membrane, Demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft, Furcation, Periodontal regeneration

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3640  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Amnion and chorion membranes possess unique inherited biological properties that enhance wound healing and may accelerate periodontal regeneration. The present study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy of amnion and chorion membranes in the treatment of furcation defects. Materials and methods: A total of 20 patients were selected and were randomly allocated to group I and group II with 10 subjects in each group. Amnion and chorion membranes are placental-derived membranes that accelerate regeneration by having natural growth factors with their antimicrobial and inflammation reduction properties. Group I was treated using bone grafting with decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) and placement of amnion as a membrane for guided tissue regeneration (GTR) whereas group II was treated using bone grafting with DFDBA and placement of chorion as a membrane for GTR. The patients were followed for clinical and radiographic parameters and were evaluated between 3 and 6 months after surgery. Result: In intragroup comparison, a significant difference was evident in both the groups for all the clinical and radiographic parameters within the groups. (p = 0.01) This means both amnion and chorion membranes showed statistically significant regenerative efficacy. In intergroup comparison, the results show that all the clinical parameters and radiographic parameters show no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: The amnion and chorion membranes had similar regenerative efficacy in combination with DFDBA in patients with buccal degree II furcation defects in mandibular molars. Clinical significance: The amnion and chorion membranes have shown significant improvement in clinical and radiographic parameters when used for the treatment of buccal degree II furcation defects in mandibular molars.



Arokia RS Merlin, Vignesh Ravindran, Ganesh Jeevanandan, Prabhadevi C Maganur, Suman Panda, Ather A Syed, Sara Kalagi, Aram AlShehri, Sanjeev Khanagar, Satish Vishwanathaiah

Comparative Evaluation of Push-out Bond Strength of Conventional Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Biodentine, and Two Novel Antibacterial-enhanced Mineral Trioxide Aggregates

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:168 - 173]

Keywords: Antibacterial-enhanced mineral trioxide aggregate, Biodentine, Dental, Disease, Doxycycline, Metronidazole

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3638  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the push-out bond strength of two newly modified mineral trioxide aggregates (MTAs) with conventional MTA and biodentine. Materials and methods: Material preparation: Two commercially available bioactive bioceramics: Group I: Mineral trioxide aggregate; Group II: Biodentine; and two newly formulated modified MTAs: Group III: Doxycycline incorporated MTA formulation; Group IV: Metronidazole incorporated MTA formulation was used in the present study. All the test materials were then carried using a plastic instrument to the desired experimental design. Teeth sample preparation: A total of 120 teeth samples were collected and divided into four groups of test materials with 30 teeth samples per group. Single-rooted permanent teeth, that is, incisors were collected and stored in saline until the study was performed. Sectioning of the teeth into 2.0 ± 0.05-mm thick slices was performed perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. The canal space was instrumented using Gates Glidden burs to achieve a diameter of 1.5 mm. All four prepared materials were mixed and placed in the lumen of the slices and placed in an incubator at 37°C for 72 hours. Push-out test and bond failure pattern evaluation: The push-out test was performed using a universal testing machine. The slices were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at 40× magnification to determine the nature of bond failure. All the collected data were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean push-out bond strength was found to be the highest for group II (37.38 ± 1.94 MPa) followed by group III (28.04 ± 2.22 MPa) and group IV (27.83 ± 1.34 MPa). The lowest mean push-out bond strength was noticed with group I (22.89 ± 2.49 MPa). This difference was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.000). Group I samples had the predominantly adhesive type of failure (86.4%), while group II samples showed the cohesive type of failure (94.2%). Both the modified MTAs (groups III and IV) primarily showed mixed types of failures. Conclusion: Both the antibacterial-enhanced MTAs had better pushout bond strength compared to conventional MTA but did not outperform biodentine. Hence, it could serve as a substitute for conventional MTA due to its augmented physical properties. Clinical significance: Carious pulp exposure and nonvital open apices pose a critical challenge to pediatric dental practitioners. In such circumstances, maintaining the vitality of pulp and faster healing would help in a better prognosis. Novel MTAs without any cytotoxic components, and enhanced antibacterial contents with augmented physical properties can help in treating such clinical conditions.



Risqa Rina Darwita, Yufitri Mayasari, Patricia Virani Sekar Danaswari

Potential Factors of Dental Health Behavior as a Predictor of Dental Caries Status in Visually Impaired Children: A Pilot Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:174 - 179]

Keywords: Dental caries, Predictive factor, Visually impaired children

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3639  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aimed to explain the potential factors of dental and oral hygiene behavior as a predictor of dental caries status in children with visual impairments. Materials and methods: The prevalence of dental caries in visually impaired children was investigated through a cross-senal study conducted at a visually impaired special needs elementary school in Jakarta, Indonesia. The study included 25 visually impaired children aged 6–12 years, with dental caries status examined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Data were collected through comprehensive interviews involving the completion of 13 WHO Annex questions. Results: The result showed that the overall prevalence of dental caries in visually impaired children was 64%, with an average dmft/DMFT of 2.24/0.96. Some of the factors that significantly influence the dental caries status in children with visual impairments aged 6–12 years include visiting the dentist [p = 0.029, 0.05, Pearson's Chi-square, confidence interval (CI) 95%] and the need for care (p = 0.002, 0.05, Pearson's Chi-square, CI 95%). Conclusion: In conclusion, the majority of visually impaired children have dental caries, which is influenced by factors, such as visiting the dentist and the need for treatment. Clinical significance: Visiting the dentist regularly and knowing the need for the treatment are the important factors in preventing of dental caries.



Nishtha V Kathiria, Kailash Attur, Kamal M Bagda, Karthik P Venkataraghavan, Kiran Patel, Mohammed B Mustafa, Shylaja K Attur

Postendodontic Pain Using Single File System with Different Irrigation Protocols in Single-visit Root Canal Treatment: A Randomized Control Trial

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:180 - 185]

Keywords: EndoActivator, F-One, Postendodontic pain, Side-vented needle, Single-visit endodontics, Ultrasonic

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3572  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the intensity of postendodontic pain (PEP) using final irrigation with side-vented needle (SV), EndoActivator (EA), and Ultra X (UX) in single-visit endodontics (SVE) with F-One rotary files. Materials and methods: A total 150 patients indicated for endodontic treatment were selected. Single-visit endodontics treatment was performed under local anesthesia. For the final irrigation protocol, they were divided into three groups: group I (SV), group II (EA), and group III (UX). The severity of PEP was assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS) score after 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Analgesics taken by patients, for pain, were also recorded. Finally, the data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software at a level of significance being 0.05. Results: Postendodontic pain was less in group III (UX) and group II (EA) compared with group I (SV) at 6 and 12 hours, which is statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference found after 24 hours and 48 hours. Conclusion: The intensity of PEP was minimum in patients treated with EndoActivator and ultrasonic along with single rotary file systems. The incidence of analgesic intake was similar in all three groups.



Abdulaziz Abdulrahman Aleid, Alhanouf Alnowaiser, Atheer AlSakakir, Weddad Alburaidi, Abdullah Saleh Almutairi, Nabeel Almotairy

Efficacy of Visual Oral Health Reinforcement in Reducing Plaque Accumulation and Gingival Bleeding: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:186 - 190]

Keywords: Inflammation, Periodontal diseases, Periodontitis, Plaque index, Tooth plaque

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3637  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To compare oral hygiene (OH) differences during verbal or video OH instructions with or without images displaying poor oral health consequences. Materials and methods: Twenty-one healthy females (18–30 years) were randomly and equally divided into three intervention OH instruction groups: (1) verbal, (2) video-based, (3) video-based with image displaying the consequences of poor OH. Gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival bleeding index (BI), and plaque score (PS) were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks. Within- and between-group differences were assessed by non-parametric tests. Results: Plaque score only showed a statistical group difference after follow-up [H(2) = 9.214, p = 0.01]. The post hoc test revealed that group III showed a significantly lower PS than groups I and II (p = 0.04 and p = 0.017, respectively). No differences were observed in PS between groups I and II. Group I showed no follow-up reduction in PS, BI, and BOP, while group II showed a statistically significant reduction in BI only after follow-up (p = 0.028). However, group III showed a statistically significant reduction in BOP and PS (p = 0.023 and p = 0.045, respectively) but not BI. Conclusions: Verbal and video-alone OH instructions similarly affect gingival health, while participants who were exposed to images displaying the severe OH consequences had lower PS than verbal or video-alone groups. Clinical significance: The mode of OH instructions is not influential for optimum oral health. However, employing visuals highlighting the severe consequences of poor OH leads to short-term reduction of plaque accumulation.



Prashant Nakade, Sonam Thaore, Bhushan Bangar, Ishita Grover, Naji Alharethi, Girija Adsure, Dinraj Kulkarni

Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Toughness and Flexural Strength of Four Different Core Build-up Materials: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:25] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:191 - 195]

Keywords: Core build-up, Flexural strength, Fracture toughness

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3624  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate and compare the fracture toughness and flexural strength of four different core build-up materials. Materials and methods: A total of 60 samples were divided into four groups (n = 15) group I: dual cure composite resin reinforced with zirconia particles (Luxacore Z), group II: light cure composite resin (Lumiglass DeepCure), group III: zirconia reinforced glass ionomer cement (GIC) (Zirconomer Improved), and group IV: chemically cure composite resin (Self Comp) respectively. All the core build-up materials were manipulated according to the manufacturer's instructions and poured into the mold. A universal testing machine applied a central load to the specimen in a 3-point bending mode. Fracture of the specimen was identified and the reading was recorded by the universal testing machine. The data were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and then compared. Results: Group I showed the highest flexural strength (48.65 MPa) among all the groups while group IV showed the lowest flexural strength (17.90 MPa). Group I showed the highest fracture toughness (99.12 MPa) among all the groups while group IV showed the lowest fracture toughness (36.41−0.5). When mean flexural strength and fracture toughness values of all four groups were compared by using one-way ANOVA, the compared data was highly significant. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, dual cure composite resin was the material of choice in terms of flexural strength and fracture toughness for core build-up material followed by light cure composite resin. Clinical significance: The core buildup material serves to strengthen the tooth structure, allowing it to withstand the forces of chewing and preventing the risk of tooth fractures. This material is essential in restoring damaged or decayed teeth, as it provides a stable foundation for further dental work. By reinforcing the tooth structure, the core buildup material ensures that the tooth can function properly and remain healthy for years to come.


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