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2024 | April | Volume 25 | Issue 4

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Alexandru Vlasa

Exploring the Link between Sleep Quality and Temporomandibular Disorders

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:2] [Pages No:293 - 294]

Keywords: Sleep quality, Temporomandibular disorders, Temporomandibular joint

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3647  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Parnian Mirzasoleiman, Tarek El-Bialy, William A Wiltshire, Patricia B Santos, Fabio Henrique de Sa Leitao Pinheiro

Evaluation of Mandibular Projection in Class II Division 2 Subjects Following Orthodontic Treatment Using Clear Aligners

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:295 - 302]

Keywords: Class II division 2, Clear aligners, Incisor proclination, Mandibular advancement, Maxillary expansion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3664  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mandibular growth and/or projection following maxillary incisor proclination, overbite correction, and maxillary dentoalveolar expansion without the use of any class II mechanics, in growing class II division 2 patients treated with clear aligners. Materials and methods: Before and after treatment cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) generated lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms of thirty-two patients with skeletal class II division 2, 16 in the treatment group and 16 in the untreated group, were reviewed to evaluate treatment-related changes. Upper incisors were proclined and protruded, as well as upper arch expansion and overbite correction were performed as part of their regular treatment. Cephalometric analysis was performed to evaluate skeletal and dental changes. Unpaired statistical t-tests were performed to determine if significant skeletal class II correction was achieved in the treatment group. Results: In the treatment group, after treatment, the upper incisors became more proclined and protruded, and the inter-molar width increased while the overbite was reduced compared to the control group. An increase in skeletal mandibular growth and forward projection was also observed, thus contributing to an improvement of the sagittal skeletal relationship as evidenced by ANB and Wits values compared to the control group. Conclusion: A combination of upper incisor proclination, correction of deep overbite, and maxillary dentoalveolar expansion using clear aligners appears to contribute to an improvement of the skeletal class II relationship in growing patients with class II division 2. Clinical significance: This study shows that unlocking the mandible by correcting a deep overbite, proclining upper incisors, and expanding the upper arch in growing class II division 2 patients can improve skeletal class II using clear aligners.



Lama Mohd Abdulaziz Alzaibak, Mohamed Abdel-Monem Tawfik, Nesma Mohammed Elgohary, Fakhreldin Hassan Abdel-Rahman

Immediate Implant Placement with Different Interradicular Osteotomies in the Mandible: A Randomized Clinical Study

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:10] [Pages No:303 - 312]

Keywords: Immediate dental implant, Mandibular molar, Pre-extracted interradicular osteotomy, Post-extractive interradicular osteotomy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3674  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To assess the implant stability and amount of marginal bone loss in immediate implant placement (IIP) in mandibular molars by using pre-extractive interradicular implant bed preparation vs conventional post-extractive interradicular implant bed preparation. Materials and methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on fourteen patients who had an immediate dental implant at the mandibular molar area by two different techniques. All patients were divided randomly into two equal groups: Group I (control) was treated with conventional post-extractive interradicular implant bed preparation, and group II (test) was treated by pre-extractive interradicular implant bed preparation All surgeries were performed by the same surgeon. All patients were followed up clinically at immediate post-surgery (T0), 7 days (T1), 3 weeks (T2), 90 days (T3), and 3 months after loading (T6) for healing and to evaluate the marginal bone loss radiographically at T0, T3 and T6. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed using the SPSS version (SPSS, IBM Inc., Chicago, IL), and p ≤ 0.05 was considered an indicator of statistical significance. Results: A total of 7 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 32.07 ± 5.87 years. Radiographically, there is no significant statistical difference in comparing between two groups for the marginal bone loss. However, there was a highly significant statistical difference (p < 0.001) in each group between different interval periods (T0, T3, T6) with mean start 5.27 ± 0.53, and 5.19 ± 0.72 at (T0) reaching 7.60 ± 0.89 and 7.09 ± 0.96 at (T3) and slightly decrease of 7.52 ± 0.79 and 7.02 ± 0.79 in (T6) with radiographic evaluation, and it represented clinically in each group with mean 3.57 ± 0.313 and 4.0 ± 0.58 at (T0) increase to 6.55 ± 0.395 and 6.52 ± 0.45 at (T6) for both group respectively. There is no statistically significant difference in soft tissue healing with an average mean of 4.57 ± 0.24 and 3.57 ± 0.509 (p = 0.001) when comparing between both groups respectively. Conclusion: Both techniques seem useful for dental implant placement in badly decayed mandibular molars. However, pre-extracted interradicular implant bed preparation for IIP might offer advantages in terms of primary implant stability and bone preservation. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Clinical significance: Both techniques are alternative methods for the treatment of badly decayed mandibular molars by immediate dental implant except for minor complications that do not interfere with dental implant placement.



Hamed A Alshawkani, Mohamed Mansy, Mahmoud Al Ankily, Mohamed Shamel

Regenerative Potential of Dental Pulp Stem Cells in Response to a Bioceramic Dental Sealer and Photobiomodulation: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:313 - 319]

Keywords: Bioceramic, Dental pulp stem cells, Odontogenic genes, Photobiomodulation, Vital pulp therapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3676  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: This study aims to assess the synergistic effect of utilizing a bioceramic sealer, NeoPutty, with photobiomodulation (PBM) on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) for odontogenesis. Materials and methods: Dental pulp stem cells were collected from 10 premolars extracted from healthy individuals. Dental pulp stem cells were characterized using an inverted-phase microscope to detect cell shape and flow cytometry to detect stem cell-specific surface antigens. Three experimental groups were examined: the NP group, the PBM group, and the combined NP and PBM group. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) experiment was conducted to assess the viability of DPSCs. The odontogenic differentiation potential was analyzed using Alizarin red staining, RT-qPCR analysis of odontogenic genes DMP-1, DSPP, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and western blot analysis for detecting BMP-2 and RUNX-2 protein expression. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a post hoc t-test was employed to examine and compare the mean values of the results. Results: The study showed a notable rise in cell viability when NP and PBM were used together. Odontogenic gene expression and the protein expression of BMP-2 and RUNX-2 were notably increased in the combined group. The combined effect of NeoPutty and PBM was significant in enhancing the odontogenic differentiation capability of DPSCs. Conclusion: The synergistic effect of NeoPutty and PBM produced the most positive effect on the cytocompatibility and odontogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs. Clinical significance: Creating innovative regenerative treatments to efficiently and durably repair injured dental tissues.



Shashidhara H Shadaksharappa, Banibrata Lahiri, Akshata G Kamath, Ashika B Kashi, Narendra V Penumatsa, Upasana Reddy, Malak S Bamigdad, Rehab M Alwakeb

Evaluation of Mesiodistal Angulation of Maxillary Anterior Teeth in Incisal View Using Manual and Digital Methods: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:320 - 325]

Keywords: Canine, Lateral incisor, Maxillary central incisor, Mesiodistal angulation, Reference planes

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3651  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the present research was to assess the mesiodistal angulation of the maxillary anterior teeth utilizing Image J computer software, a Profile projector, and a Custom-made jig. Materials and methods: A total of 34 subjects (17 males and 17 females) were chosen from a group of 18–30 years old with bilateral Angle Class I molars and canine relationships. One manual approach (Custom-made jig) and two digital methods (J computer software, a Profile projector) were used to record the mesiodistal angulation in incisal view. The individuals had alginate impressions made, and a facebow was used to capture the maxilla's spatial relationship with the cranium. The articulated cast with the help of mounting ring moved to the specially customized jig, then the angulations was measured in the incisal view after the casts were placed in a semi-adjustable articulator. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: The mesiodistal angulation in the incisal view via three methods between the 17 males and 17 females has statistically significant different. Although the mesiodistal angulation for maxillary lateral incisor and canine did not show any statistically significant difference, the maximum and minimum values obtained were always greater in males in comparison with the females. This indicates that the positions of six maxillary anterior teeth in the males resulted in the creation of upward sweep of incisal edges of central and lateral incisors which was also referred to as “smiling line” producing masculine surface anatomy more squared and vigorous while feminine surface anatomy being more rounded, soft, and pleasant. There was no statistically significant difference between the right and left sides, indicating bilateral arch symmetry and the symmetrical place of the right teeth compared with the left side's corresponding teeth. Conclusion: On conclusion, according to the current study's findings, all three approaches can measure the mesiodistal angulations of maxillary anterior teeth in incisal view with clinically acceptable accuracy. The digital methods, which included using the Image J computer software and the profile projector, achieved more accurate results than the manual method. Clinical significance: The outcomes of this study's mesiodistal angulations can be used as a reference for placing teeth in both fully and partially edentulous conditions. This study contributes to a better understanding of the importance of achieving the ideal occlusion in the Indian population by placing the maxillary anterior teeth at the proper mesiodistal angulation.



Frank Mayta-Tovalino, Fran Espinoza-Carhuancho, Jessie Reyes-Carmona, Cesar Mauricio-Vilchez, Julia Medina, Diego Galarza-Valencia, Carlos Vicuña-Quispe

Emergent Patterns, Collaborative Networks and Thematic Evolution on Black Stain and Dental Caries: A Scientometric Study

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:326 - 330]

Keywords: Black satin, Dental caries, Scientometric analysis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3682  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To conduct a scientometric analysis on black stains, and dental caries, with a focus on identifying emergent patterns, collaborative networks, and thematic evolution. Materials and methods: A retrospective, descriptive, observational study was conducted using a scientometric approach. The Scopus database was utilized for literature search, selecting articles published between 1976 and 2023. The literature search was carried out on February 8, 2024, using AND and OR Boolean operators which were adapted to the search strategy. Finally, SciVal used different scientometric indicators such as “Scholarly Output”, “Views Count”, “Field-Weighted Citation Impact” and the “Citation Count”. Results: A total of 13 documents from 10 different sources were analyzed, covering a period from 1976 to 2023. Despite an annual growth rate of 0%, each document has an average of 21.08 citations, indicating their relevance in the field. The documents have an average age of 12.9 years and contain 336 references. A total of 143 additional keywords and 26 author keywords were identified. The documents were written by 62 different authors, with an average of 5 coauthors per document and 30.77% international coauthorships. Conclusion: The results indicate a significant relevance of the documents in the field, a notable collaboration among authors, and a significant thematic evolution in the research topics. The mentioned institutions and sources produced documents with notable results, indicating a significant interest and impact in the field. Clinical significance: This study provides a detailed view of the trends and patterns in the research of dental caries and black stains. The findings can assist dental health professionals in better understanding the prevalence and impact of these conditions. Furthermore, it can guide future research and treatment strategies in this field.



Mohan D Pujari, Maneesha Das, Asutosh Das, Dinesh G Kamath, Junu Henry, Arun Shyam, Doaa M Alhaleis

Assessment of Smear Layer Removal and Penetration Depth of Root Canal Irrigant Using Different Irrigation Activation Systems: A Comparative Study

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:331 - 334]

Keywords: Irrigation systems, Root canal, Scanning electron microscopy, Smear layer

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3626  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the penetration depth and smear layer removal of root canal irrigant using various irrigation activation techniques. Materials and methods: In this investigation, sixty single-rooted premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were chosen. Diamond burs were used to create an access cavity, and #10 K-file was used to determine the patency. About sixty samples were divided into the following three groups (20 samples in each group), group I: Irrigation with conventional needle, group II: Activation of EndoVac system, group III: Passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). The efficacy of the smear layer was assessed using a scanning electron microscopy at a ×2000 magnification. One-way ANOVA was used to record and analyze the data. All statistical analyses were performed with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: At coronal third, the maximum smear layer was removed in group II (1.26 ± 0.02) followed by group III (1.84 ± 0.16) and group I (2.89 ± 0.21). At middle third, smear layer removal was maximum in group I (1.18 ± 0.10) followed by group III (1.72 ± 0.09) and group I (2.66 ± 0.18). At apical third, the more smear layer was removed in group II (1.02 ± 0.01) followed by group III (1.58 ± 0.08) and group I (2.38 ± 0.06). There was a highly significant difference found between the three different irrigation systems at all three levels (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, every irrigation device that was evaluated was successful in removing the smear layer from the root canal. However, the EndoVac system group removed a greater amount of smear layer compared with PUI and conventional needle group. Clinical significance: With the goal of promoting cleaning that is beyond the ability of mechanical devices, irrigation is a crucial part of root canal therapy. If an efficient irrigation delivery system is used, the irrigants can reach the working length (WL). This type of distribution system needs to provide a suitable amount of irrigants up to the WL, as well as have enough flow and be effective at debriding the entire canal system.



Chitharanjan Shetty, Shazeena Qaiser, Aditya Shetty, Rashi Shroff

Evaluation of Microleakage of Nanoparticle-incorporated Cyanoacrylate Root Canal Sealer Using the Radioisotopic Method: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:335 - 341]

Keywords: Bonding, Dentin, Microleakage, Root canal sealers

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3683  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim of the study: The study aimed to assess the microleakage of nanoparticle-based (NPB) cyanoacrylate sealer and epoxy resin-based (ERB) sealer using radioisotope method and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Materials and methods: A total of 100 single-rooted teeth were collected; specimens were accessed, instrumented, and irrigated, and randomly distributed into 4 groups of 25 samples each: Group I: Positive control, group II: Negative control, group III: Obturated with NPB sealer, and group IV: Obturated with ERB sealer. All samples were immersed in 99mTc pertechnetate solution, for 3 hours after which radioactivity was estimated under a Gamma camera. The radioactivity released by specimens before and after nail varnish removal was statistically analyzed. After 2 weeks, the same samples were used for CLSM analysis. The sealer tubular penetration depth was measured at the deepest level for each group using ZEN lite 2012. Data collected was statistically evaluated. Results: The amount of radioactivity observed at first in group III and group IV was 194.76 and 599.12 units, respectively, with p-value < 0.001, indicating significant interaction, and after nail varnish removal, it was 89.68 and 468.44 units, respectively, with a p-value < 0.001; again, indicating statistical significance. Hence, the radioactivity of NPB sealer was found to be lower than ERB sealer in both cases, indicating better sealing of the former. The photomicrographs show that mean value of dye penetration in NPB sealer in first, second, and third segment from apex was 85.06, 75.73, and 66.09, respectively; while in the case of ERB sealer, those were 597.28, 461.17, and 195.68, respectively; with p-value < 0.001; signifying that NPB sealer exhibited higher resistance to microleakage than ERB sealer. Conclusion: The NPB sealer can become a potential root canal sealer in future endodontics due to superior physiochemical properties attributed to the cyanoacrylate and incorporated nanoparticles. Clinical significance: The study clinically signifies that we can equally use the radioisotopic method along with confocal method while conducting the microleakage studies. In addition, NPB sealer can be an emerging replacement with better properties than gold standard root canal sealers for clinical use.



Adel S Alqarni, Abdulhamid Al Ghwainem

Assessment of the Efficacy and Bond Strength of Different Dentin-bonding Agents with Adhesives on Primary Teeth: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:342 - 345]

Keywords: Adhesive, Dentin-bonding agents, Primary teeth, Shear bond strength

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3658  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and strength of three various dentin-bonding agents used with adhesives on primary teeth. Materials and methods: The study used 80 recently extracted, healthy human maxillary anterior primary teeth that had undergone physiologic resorption, or over-retention. Teeth were cut to expose a flat dentin surface at a depth of 1.5 mm. All samples were divided into four groups (20 samples in each group) as follows: Group I—Control group, Group II—Primary teeth bonding with 6th-generation bonding agent, Group III—Primary teeth bonding with 7th-generation bonding agent, Group IV—Primary teeth bonding with 8th-generation bonding agent. All of the samples’ dentinal surfaces were covered with composite resin using a Teflon mold after adhesive had been applied. A universal testing machine (INSTRON) was used to assess the shear bond strength. Data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: The maximum mean shear bond strength was found in 8th-generation bonding agent (30.76 ± 0.16), followed by 7th-generation bonding agent (26.08 ± 0.21), 6th-generation bonding agent (25.32 ± 0.06), and control group (6.18 ± 0.09). Statistically significant difference was found between the three different bonding agents (p < 0.001). Conclusion: On conclusion, the 8th-generation bonding agent demonstrated a greater shear bond strength to dentin than the 7th and 6th-generation bonding agent. Clinical significance: The emergence of different bonding techniques to the market improves the durability and quality of restorations. An effective bonding to the tooth would also reduce bacterial penetration, marginal microleakage, possibility of pulpal inflammation preserve tooth structure, and postoperative sensitivity by allowing less cavity preparation.



Miranda Ann George, Shweta Abhay Chandak, Sneha Himmatrao Khekade, Niharika Bhushansingh Gahlod, Milind Bhagwan Wasnik, V Shibi Mathew

Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Fiber-reinforced Glass Ionomer Cement and Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement Restorations Immersed in Three Different Beverages: In Vitro Study

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:8] [Pages No:346 - 353]

Keywords: Beverages, Fiber-reinforced glass ionomer cement, Glass ionomer cement, Microleakage, Soft drinks

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3669  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the study was to compare and evaluate the microleakage of fiber-reinforced glass ionomer cement (GIC) and conventional glass ionomer cement restorations immersed in three different beverages. Materials and methods: A total of 96 human exfoliating deciduous molars were selected which were cleaned and disinfected. Standardized Class V cavity preparations were done and buccal surface were restored with experimental fiber-reinforced glass ionomer cement (Exp-FRGIC), lingual surface were restored with Type II conventional GIC. They were divided into four groups according to the test beverage. The samples were subjected to various immersion regimes and evaluated for microleakage under stereomicroscope. Results: Intragroup comparison for (Exp-FRGIC) showed significant microleakage when immersed in fresh fruit juice at high immersion whereas intragroup comparison in conventional GIC, showed highest microleakage with soft drink. Intergroup comparison of (Exp-FRGIC) in high immersion regime, showed more microleakage with specimen immersed in soft drink followed by fresh fruit juice. Conclusion: It can thus be concluded that the three beverages used in the study affected the microleakage of both restorative materials significantly. Clinical significance: Increasing usage of fruit juices in the pediatric diet has a definite impact on the progression of caries and it directly or indirectly affects the quality of restorations placed in the oral cavity.



AlWaleed Abushanan

Evaluation of the Smear Layer Removal Ability of Various Rotary Files with/without Chemical Agents on Primary Teeth: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:354 - 357]

Keywords: Chemical agents, Primary teeth, Rotary files, Smear layer

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3657  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the cleaning and smear layer removal efficacy of two different rotary files with or without chemical agents on primary teeth. Materials and methods: For the study, 90 extracted primary maxillary incisors without internal or external resorption and with at least two-thirds of complete roots were chosen. Then, based on the kind of instruments used to clean and shape the canals, they were randomly assigned to three experimental groups, each consisting of 30 teeth. Group-I: The canal was instrumented manually with K-files, Group-II: The canal was instrumented with Kedo-S files, Group-III: The canal was instrumented with Kedo-SG Blue files. After the canals were finally instrumented, 2 mL of QMixTM solution was used to irrigate 15 samples from each group. The samples were subsequently allowed to remain in the canals for 90 seconds in order to eliminate the smear layer. After that a stereomicroscope was used to assess the cleaning effectiveness. Results: With irrigant solution, the highest mean value was found in manual K-files (2.86 ± 0.34), followed by Kedo-S files group (1.34 ± 0.26) and Kedo-SG Blue files (1.28 ± 0.18). Without irrigant solution, the highest mean value was found in manual K-files (2.92 ± 0.22) followed by Kedo-S files group (1.44 ± 0.18) and Kedo-SG Blue files (1.36 ± 0.14). There was a statistically significant difference found at all the three levels. Conclusion: On conclusion, the current study's findings demonstrated that irrigation solution was significantly more effective in cleaning and removing smear layers from pediatric rotary files than manual K-files. Clinical significance: The effectiveness of endodontic therapy depends on a successful chemomechanical preparation. The canals are instrumented using either hand files or rotary instruments; there are several irrigation and instrumentation techniques. In order to completely sterilize the canals, chemical agents are utilized for irrigation during instrumentation. Due to their numerous biological, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant qualities, many natural compounds are also utilized as irrigants.



Daniel Alvítez-Temoche, Herbert Silva, Elca del Aguila, Franco Mauricio, Fran Espinoza-Carhuancho, Frank Mayta-Tovalino

Scientometric Analysis of the World Scientific Production on Augmented and Virtual Reality in Dental Education

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:358 - 364]

Keywords: Dental education, Dental students, Scientometrics, Virtual reality

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3675  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) applications in dental education. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional research was carried out using a bibliometric methodology. This process entailed the assessment of metadata from scientific publications that are catalogued in the Scopus database, covering the period from January 2018 to August 2023. A variety of indicators were utilized to scrutinize scientific production and dissemination within the academic community. These encompassed elements such as the author, the publication itself, the number of citations, institutional and collaborative affiliations, geographical location, journal quartile ranking, h-index, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP), Field-Weighted Citation Impact (FWCI), SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), and the CiteScore. Results: Several institutions from different countries and their academic output were found. Beihang University stands out with 16 scholarly articles, followed by Stanford University with 16 articles and 170 citations. The Q1 quartile has experienced a steady increase, reaching 87 scientific articles. The top 10 authors in scientific production on augmented and VR in dentistry include Joe Amal Cecil, Avinash Gupta, and Miguel A Pirela-Cruz. In terms of co-authorship by country, the United States, Germany, and China are the most predominant in the clusters represented. However, other clusters also have a significant presence. By analyzing the explored trends and themes of keyword co-occurrence, four main clusters were identified. The yellow cluster contained the largest amount of research with the keyword “virtual reality.” In addition, the blue cluster was found to be best related to the green “simulation,” purple “virtual reality (VR),” and light blue “human-centered computing” clusters. Conclusion: This study evidenced the availability and quality of the data used for the analysis. Future studies could consider the use of VR systems with integrated eye tracking and compare their effect in dentistry during dental procedures. Clinical significance: The clinical importance of this study lies in its potential to improve dental education. The VR and AR can provide dental students with immersive, hands-on learning experiences, which can enhance their understanding and clinical skills. Furthermore, the translational value of this study extends beyond dental education. The insights gained from this research could be applicable to other fields of medical education where hands-on training is crucial. Thus, the findings of this study have the potential to influence the broader landscape of medical education, ultimately leading to improved healthcare outcomes.



Nithya A Thomas, Justin Jobe, Charisma Thimmaiah, Kaushik Shetty, Bettina A Vergis, Darsana Krishnan, Nimmy Sabu, Gayathri Muralidaran

Comparative Evaluation of Effectiveness of Calcium Hydroxide, MTA, and TheraCal LC in Indirect Pulp Capping in Primary Molars: In Vivo Study

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:365 - 371]

Keywords: Calcium hydroxide, Indirect pulp treatment, Mineral trioxide aggregate, Primary teeth, TheraCal LC

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3680  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This investigation aimed to observe the effects of Dycal, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and TheraCal LC, as indirect pulp-capping materials in primary molars. Materials and methods: About 75 children with lower primary molars aged between 4 and 7 years suggested for IPC were selected and randomly allocated into: Group I – Dycal, group II – MTA, and group III – TheraCal LC. An immediate postoperative radiograph was taken after the procedure. Recall examination was done after 3 and 6 months for clinical and radiographic assessment. The radiographs were digitized, and the amount of thickness of dentin was assessed using Corel Draw software. The values were tabulated and subjected to paired t-tests and independent t-tests for intra and intergroup analysis, respectively. The p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in dentin thickness in the first 3 months compared to the 6-month follow-up. At the end of the research phase, TheraCal LC had more tertiary dentin deposited than MTA, followed by Dycal. Conclusion: TheraCal LC can be a reliable indirect pulp-capping agent in primary teeth. Clinical significance: Indirect pulp capping (IPC) is a very extensively employed treatment regimen to manage extensive caries. For many decades, calcium hydroxide has been regarded as the benchmark of pulp capping materials. With several advancements in materials for restoration, TheraCal LC a resin-modified, light-cured calcium silicate-filled liner serves as a pulp-capping agent and dentin protector, promoting pulp healing and preserving vitality as an obstacle cum protector of the dental pulp complex.



Selvakumar Haridoss, Mathanranjan Rajendran, Kavitha Swaminathan, Anbarasi, Aruna Sharma, Vijayaragavan Elumalai

Impact of Pericervical Dentin on Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Posterior Permanent Teeth: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:14] [Pages No:372 - 385]

Keywords: Fracture resistance, Minimal invasive endodontics, Pericervical dentin, Pericervical dentin thickness, Permanent molars

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3671  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: The main aim of this present systematic review is to evaluate if the preservation of pericervical dentin (PCD) increases the fracture resistance of endodontically treated permanent posterior teeth. Materials and methods: Two independent reviewers conducted a comprehensive review of all published studies from 2007 (1/1/2007) to 2023 (31/5/23) since the concept of PCD first appeared in the literature in 2007. Searches were conducted in multiple electronic database engines: PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO (Dentistry and oral health sciences), Web of Sciences (WOS), Cochrane, Google Scholar and Open Grey, Ovid and Shodhganga, in addition to cross-references and hand search. Articles were chosen according to a certain inclusion and exclusion criteria, which, in brief, are laboratory-based studies published in English that assess the impact of PCD on fracture resistance of endodontically treated permanent posterior teeth. Using domains, such as sample size, sample dimensions, and control group as quality assessment criteria, evaluated the selected articles and classified them according to their risk of bias into low, moderate, and high. A meta-analysis was conducted using random effects modeling at a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: A total of studies 6,043 were retrieved from 10 different electronic search databases and hand searches, but only 12 laboratory-based studies were selected after removing duplicates and applying the eligibility criteria. Of the included 12 studies, nine studies showed low risk of bias and three studies showed moderate risk of bias. Two studies showed related data for meta-analysis, the difference observed between the two studies is statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, there is evidence to support that PCD preservation offers fracture resistance to the endodontically treated posterior teeth. Clinical significance: The practice of conservative cavity preparation and avoiding the usage of instruments with high taper increases the fracture resistance of the tooth by retaining the PCD.



Martha Muñoz-Hidalgo, Yenny Verastegui-Cabanillas, John Barja-Ore

Status of Research on Dental Caries during Pregnancy: A Biometric Exploration

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:386 - 391]

Keywords: Bibliometric analyses, Dental caries, Pregnancy, Pregnant women

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3686  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To describe the bibliometric characteristics of the state of scientific production on dental caries during pregnancy. Materials and methods: A bibliometric study with a sample of 408 publications indexed in the Scopus database, which were selected based on a search strategy that included logical operators and the term MESH. The Scival tool was used to analyze the metadata. Results: Jamieson Lisa Marie is positioned as the author with the most publications, and Schroth Robert as the one with the best-weighted impact (FWCI: 37.7). High-impact journals such as BMC Oral Health, Journal of Dental Research, and BMC Public Health stand out for their productivity and an average number of citations. The United States has a large number of publications and evidence of networks of scientific activity with Australia, Canada, and Brazil. The University of Adelaide leads the production and the work of two Latin American institutions (Universidade de São Paulo and Universidade Federal do Maranhão) stands out. International collaboration has improved during the study period. Conclusion: Scientific production on dental caries during pregnancy is increasingly published in high-impact journals, with growing international collaboration. The United States leads in publications, while Australian institutions are the most productive in this field. Clinical significance: Caries during pregnancy is a problem that has an important impact on maternal and perinatal health; thus, its timely management and prevention are important areas of research in the field of oral health.



Jose Francisco Gomez-Sosa, Mario Granone-Ricella, Marina Rosciano-Alvarez, Victor D Barrios-Rodriguez, Juan Goncalves-Pereira, Javier Caviedes-Bucheli

Determining Factors in the Success of Direct Pulp Capping: A Systematic Review

[Year:2024] [Month:April] [Volume:25] [Number:4] [Pages:10] [Pages No:392 - 401]

Keywords: Dental pulp, Direct pulp capping, Vital pulp therapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3673  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To elucidate the factors that determine the success of direct pulp capping (DPC) in permanent teeth with pulp exposure due to dental caries. Materials and methods: A comprehensive electronic search from 1980 to 2023 across PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web databases was conducted using specific keywords and MeSH terms in Q1 or Q2 journals. Only prospective/retrospective clinical studies in English on 15 or more human permanent teeth with carious pulpal exposure treated with DPC agents—mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine, or calcium hydroxide with a rubber dam and minimum 1-year follow-up, were considered. The factors retrieved and analyzed were based on study design, patient age, sample size, type of cavity, exposure size and location, pulp diagnosis, solutions to achieve hemostasis, hemostasis time, capping material, restoration type, follow-up period, methods of evaluation, and overall success. Review results: Out of 680 articles, only 16 articles were selected for the present systematic review on application of the selection criteria. A wide age range of patients from 6 to 88 years were considered among these studies with sample sizes ranging from 15 to 245 teeth with reversible pulpitis being the predominant diagnosis of the cases. Mineral trioxide aggregate as a capping material was evaluated in 4 studies as a lone agent, while compared with other capping agents such as biodentine or calcium hydroxide in 7 studies. The follow-up period ranged from 9 days to nearly 80 months. While both clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out in all studies, cold testing dominated the clinical tests while IOPR was the common radiograph considered. Mineral trioxide aggregate success rate was higher and similar to biodentine than calcium hydroxide. Conclusion: Direct pulp capping has a high and predictable success rate in permanent teeth with carious exposure to reversible and irreversible pulpitis. Currently, mineral trioxide aggregate and biodentine have better long-term results in DPC than calcium hydroxide, hence, they should be used as an alternative to calcium hydroxide. Definitive restoration within a short period improves long-term prognosis. Clinical significance: The significance of this review lies in its provision of evidence-based information on the effectiveness of DPC and the factors that influence its success. By considering these factors, clinicians can optimize treatment outcomes and improve the long-term prognosis of the treated teeth. This systematic review serves as a valuable resource for clinicians and researchers in the field of endodontics.


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